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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 57
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    Non-permissive SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of neural cells in the developing human brain and neurospheres

    Authors: Ismael C. Gomes; Carla Ver&iacutessimo; Jairo R Temerozo; Helena L. Borges; Thiago M. L. Souza; Jeff Green; Julia Schaletzky; Ahmet Yildiz; Louise Rowntree; Thi Nguyen; Katherine Kedzierska; Denise Doolan; Carola Vinuesa; Matthew Cook; Nicholas Coatsworth; Paul Myles; Florian Kurth; Leif Sander; Russell Gruen; Graham Mann; Amee George; Elizabeth Gardiner; Ian Cockburn; Bala Pesala; Debojyoti Chakraborty; Souvik Maiti

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.293951 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) was initially described as a viral infection of the respiratory tract HP. It is now known, however, that many other biological systems are affected, including the central nervous system (CNS). Neurological manifestations such as stroke HP stroke MESHD, encephalitis HP encephalitis MESHD, and psychiatric MESHD conditions have been reported in COVID-19 patients, but its neurotropic potential is still debated. Here, we investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the brain from an infant patient deceased from COVID-19. The susceptibility to virus infection MESHD was compatible with the expression levels of viral receptor ACE2, which is increased in the ChP in comparison to other brain areas. To better comprehend the dynamics of the viral infection in neural cells, we exposed human neurospheres to SARS-CoV-2. Similarly to the human tissue, we found viral RNA in neurospheres, although viral particles in the culture supernatant were not infective. Based on our observations in vivo and in vitro, we hypothesize that SARS-CoV-2 does not generate productive infection in developing neural cells and that infection of ChP weakens the blood SERO-cerebrospinal fluid barrier allowing viruses, immune cells, and cytokines to access the CNS, causing neural damage in the young brain.

    Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis MESHD Associated with SARS-CoV-2; a Multinational Case Series

    Authors: Ashkan Mowla; Banafsheh Shakibajahromi; Shima Shahjouei; Afshin Borhani-Haghighi; Nasrin Rahimian; Humain Baharvahdat; Soheil Naderi; Fariborz Khorvash; Davar Altafi; Seyed Amir Ebrahimzadeh; Ghasem Farahmand; Alaleh Vaghefi Far; Vijay K. Sharma; Saeideh Aghayari Sheikh Neshin; Georgios Tsivgoulis; Ramin Zand; Fuad Awwad; Khaled AlabdulKareem; Fahad AlGhofaili; Ahmed AlJedai; Hani Jokhdar; Fahad Alrabiah

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.12.20186106 Date: 2020-09-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 induced coagulopathy MESHD can lead to thrombotic complications MESHD such as stroke HP stroke MESHD. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis MESHD ( CVST MESHD) is a less common type of stroke HP stroke MESHD which might be triggered by COVID-19. We present a series of CVST MESHD cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods: In a multinational retrospective study, we collected all cases of CVST MESHD in SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients admitted to nine tertiary stroke HP stroke MESHD centers from the beginning of the pandemic to June 30th, 2020. We compared the demographics, clinical and radiological characteristics, risk factors, and outcome of these patients with a control group of non-SARS-CoV-2 infected CVST MESHD patients in the same seasonal period of the years 2012-2016 from the country where the majority of cases were recruited. Results: A total of 13 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria (62% women, mean age TRANS 50.9 years). Six patients were discharged with good outcomes (mRS[≤]2) and three patients died in hospital. Compared to the control group, the SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients were significantly older (50.9 versus 36.7 years, p<0.001), had a lower rate of identified CVST MESHD risk factors (23.1% versus 84.2%, p<0.001), had more frequent cortical vein involvement (38.5% versus 10.5%, p: 0.025), and a non-significant higher rate of in-hospital mortality (23.1% versus 5.3%, p: 0.073). Conclusion: CVST MESHD should be considered as potential comorbidity in SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients presenting with neurological symptoms MESHD. Our data suggest that compared to non- SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients, CVST MESHD occurs in older patients, with lower rates of known CVST MESHD risk factors and might lead to a poorer outcome in the SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD group.

    Gender TRANS disparities in access to care for time-sensitive conditions during COVID-19 pandemic in Chile

    Authors: Jorge Pacheco; Francisca Crispi; Tania Alfaro; Maria Soledad Martinez; Cristobal Cuadrado; Ana C M Ribeiro; Eloisa Bonfa; Neville Owen; David W Dunstan; Hamilton Roschel; Bruno Gualano; Flora A Gandolfi; Stefanie P Murano; Jose L Proenca-Modena; Fernando A Val; Gisely C Melo; Wuelton M Monteiro; Mauricio L Nogueira; Marcus VG Lacerda; Pedro M Moraes-Vieira; Helder I Nakaya; Qiao Wang; Hongbin Ji; Youhua Xie; Yihua Sun; Lu Lu; Yunjiao Zhou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192880 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic reduction on the utilisation of healthcare services are reported in different contexts. Nevertheless, studies have not explored specifically gender TRANS disparities on access to healthcare. Aim: To evaluate disparities in access to care in Chile during the COVID-19 pandemic from a gender TRANS-based perspective. Methods: We conducted a quasi-experimental design using a difference-in-difference approach. We compared the number of weekly confirmed cases TRANS of a set of oncologic and cardiovascular time-sensitive conditions at a national level. We defined weeks 12 to 26 as an intervention period and the actual year as a treatment group. We selected this period because preventive interventions, such as school closures or teleworking, were implemented at this point. To test heterogeneity by sex, we included an interaction term between difference-in-difference estimator and sex. Results: A sizable reduction in access to care for patients with time- sensitivity SERO conditions was observed for oncologic (IRR 0.56; 95% CI 0.50-0.63) and cardiovascular diseases MESHD (IRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.62-0.66). Greater reduction occurred in women compared to men across diseases groups, particularly marked on myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD (0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.93), stroke HP stroke MESHD (IRR 0.88 IC95% 0.82-0.93), and colorectal cancer MESHD (IRR 0.79; 95% CI 0.69-0.91). Compared to men, a greater absolute reduction in women for oncologic diseases (782; 95% CI 704-859) than cardiovascular diseases MESHD (172; 95% CI 170-174) occurred over 14 weeks. Conclusion: We confirmed a large drop in new diagnosis for time-sensitive conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile. This reduction was greater for women. Our findings should alert policy-makers about the urgent need to integrate a gender TRANS perspective into the pandemic response and its aftermath.

    High prevalence SERO of deep venous thrombosis HP deep venous thrombosis MESHD in non-severe COVID-19 patients hospitalized for a neurovascular disease MESHD

    Authors: Olivier Rouyer; Irene-Nora Pierre-Paul; Amadou Balde; Damaris Jupitet; Daniela Bindila; Bernard Geny; Valerie Wolff

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.03.20187344 Date: 2020-09-05 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Introduction: Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, responsible for COVID-19, is accompanied by venous thromboembolic MESHD events particularly in intensive care unit. In non-severe COVID-19 patients affected by neurovascular diseases MESHD, the prevalence SERO of deep venous thrombosis HP deep venous thrombosis MESHD ( DVT MESHD) is unknown. The aim of or study was to report data obtained after systematic Doppler ultrasound scanning ( DUS MESHD) of lower limbs in such patients. Methods: Between March 20 and May 2, 2020, consecutive patients with neurovascular diseases MESHD with non-severe COVID-19 were investigated with a systematic bedside DUS. Results Thirteen patients were enrolled including 10 acute ischemic strokes MESHD ischemic strokes HP, one transient ischemic attack HP ischemic MESHD attack, one cerebral venous thrombosis HP cerebral venous thrombosis MESHD and one haemorrhagic stroke MESHD stroke HP. At admission, the median National Institute of Health Stroke HP Stroke MESHD Scale (NIHSS) was of 6 (IQR, 0-20). We found a prevalence SERO of 38.5% of asymptomatic TRANS calves DVT MESHD (n=5) during the first week after admission despite thromboprophylaxis. Among them, one patient had a symptomatic pulmonary embolism HP pulmonary embolism MESHD. Two patients died during hospitalization but the outcome was favourable in the others with a discharge median NIHSS of 1 (IQR, 0-11). Discussion/Conclusion: Despite thromboprophylaxis, systematic bedside DUS showed a high prevalence SERO of 38.5% of DVT MESHD in non-severe COVID-19 patients with neurovascular diseases MESHD. Therefore, we suggest that this non-invasive investigation should be performed in all patients of this category.

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 is Threatening Stroke HP Stroke MESHD Care Systems: Challenge and Management

    Authors: Jiawei Xin; Xuanyu Huang; Changyun Liu; Yun Huang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-70303/v1 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the stroke HP care systems have been seriously affected because of social restrictions and other reasons. As the pandemic spreads further to global, it is of great significant to understand how COVID-19 affect the stroke HP care systems. Methods We retrospectively studied the real-world data of one comprehensive stroke HP center in China from January to February, 2020, and compared it with the same period in 2019. We analyzed time from stroke HP onset to admission, severity, effect after treatment, hospital stays, cost of hospitalization, etc., and correlation among them. Results We observed a great extension of the onset-to-door time of stroke HP patients during the pandemic. The degree of neurological deficit of the patients was significantly higher, both admission and discharge. Longer onset-to-door time and higher degree of neurological deficit were significantly correlated with longer hospital stays and higher medical burden. Conclusions COVID-19 pandemic is threatening the stroke HP care systems. Measures must be taken to minimize the collateral damage caused by COVID-19.

    Cardiometabolic Risk Factors for COVID-19 Susceptibility and Severity: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    Authors: Aaron Leong; Joanne Cole; Laura N. Brenner; James B. Meigs; Jose C. Florez; Josep M. Mercader; Fernando Bozza; Carlo Palmieri; Daniel Munblit; Jan Cato Holter; Anders Benjamin Kildal; Clark D Russell; Antonia Ho; Lance Turtle; Thomas M Drake; Anna Beltrame; Katrina Hann; Ibrahim Richard Bangura; Rob Fowler; Sulaiman Lakoh; Colin Berry; David J Lowe; Joanne McPeake; Madiha Hashmi; Anne Margarita Dyrhol-Riise; Chloe Donohue; Daniel R Plotkin; Hayley Hardwick; Natalie Elkheir; Nazir Lone; Annemarie B Docherty; Ewen M Harrison; Kenneth J Baille; Gail Carson; Malcolm G Semple; Janet T Scott

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.20182709 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Early epidemiological studies report associations of diverse cardiometabolic conditions especially body mass index (BMI), with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity, but causality has not been established. Identifying causal risk factors is critical to inform preventive strategies aimed at modifying disease risk. Objective: We sought to evaluate the causal associations of cardiometabolic conditions with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Design: Two-sample Mendelian Randomization (MR) Study. Setting: Population-based cohorts that contributed to the genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis by the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative. Participants: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 diagnosed by RNA PCR, serologic testing SERO, or clinician diagnosis. Population controls defined as anyone who was not a case in the cohorts. Exposures: Selected genetic variants associated with 17 cardiometabolic diseases MESHD, including diabetes MESHD, coronary artery disease MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, and BMI, at p<5 x 10-8 from published largescale GWAS. Main outcomes: We performed an inverse-variance weighted averages of variant-specific causal estimates for susceptibility, defined as people who tested positive for COVID-19 vs. population controls, and severity, defined as patients hospitalized with COVID-19 vs. population controls, and repeated the analysis for BMI using effect estimates from UKBB. To estimate direct and indirect causal effects of BMI through obesity HP obesity MESHD-related cardiometabolic diseases, we performed pairwise multivariable MR. We used p<0.05/17 exposure/2 outcomes=0.0015 to declare statistical significance. Results: Genetically increased BMI was causally associated with testing positive for COVID-19 [6,696 cases / 1,073,072 controls; p=6.7 x 10-4, odds ratio and 95% confidence interval 1.08 (1.03, 1.13) per kg/m2] and a higher risk of COVID-19 hospitalization [3,199 cases/897,488 controls; p=8.7 x 10-4, 1.12 (1.04, 1.21) per kg/m2]. In the multivariable MR, the direct effect of BMI was abolished upon conditioning on the effect on type 2 diabetes MESHD but persisted when conditioning on the effects on coronary artery disease MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, and c-reactive protein. No other cardiometabolic exposures tested were associated with a higher risk of poorer COVID-19 outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Genetic evidence supports BMI as a causal risk factor for COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. This relationship may be mediated via type 2 diabetes MESHD. Obesity HP may have amplified the disease burden of the COVID-19 pandemic either single-handedly or through its metabolic consequences.

    Clinical, cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging findings in COVID-19 encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD: a case series

    Authors: Raphael Tuma; Bruno Guedes; Rafael Carra; Bruno Iepsen; Julia Rodrigues; Antonio Edvan Camelo Filho; Gabriel Kubota; Maira Ferrari; Adalberto Studart-Neto; Mariana Oku; Sara Terrim; Cesar Lopes; Carlos Eduardo Passos Neto; Matheus Dalben; Julia De Souza; Jose Pedro Baima; Tomas Da Silva; Iago Perissinotti; Maria da Graca Martin; Marcia Goncalves; Ida Fortini; Jerusa Smid; Tarso Adoni; Leandro Lucatto; Ricardo Nitrini; Helio Gomes; Luiz Henrique Castro

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.28.20181883 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Objective - To describe the clinical, neurological, neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD in patients admitted to a COVID-19 tertiary reference center. Methods - We retrospectively reviewed records of consecutive patients with COVID-19 evaluated by a consulting neurology team from March 30, 2020 through May 15, 2020. Results - Fifty-five patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were included, 43 of whom showed encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD, and were further divided into mild, moderate and severe encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD groups. Nineteen patients (44%) had undergone mechanical ventilation and received intravenous sedatives. Eleven (26%) patients were on dialysis. Laboratory markers of COVID-19 severity were very common in encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD patients, but did not correlate with the severity of encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD. Thirty-nine patients underwent neuroimaging studies, which showed mostly non-specific changes. One patient showed lesions possibly related to CNS demyelination HP CNS demyelination MESHD. Four had suffered an acute stroke HP stroke MESHD. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by RT-PCR in only one of 21 CSF samples. Two CSF samples showed elevated white blood SERO cell count and all were negative for oligoclonal bands. In our case series the severity of encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD correlated with higher probability of death MESHD during hospitalization (OR = 5.5 for each increment in the degree of encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD, from absent (0) to mild (1), moderate (2) or severe (3), p<0.001). Conclusion - In our consecutive series with 43 encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD cases, neuroimaging and CSF analysis did not support the role of direct viral CNS invasion or CNS inflammation MESHD as the cause of encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD.

    SARS-CoV-2 infects brain choroid plexus MESHD and disrupts the blood SERO-CSF-barrier

    Authors: Laura Pellegrini; Anna Albecka; Donna L Mallery; Max J Kellner; David Paul; Andrew P Carter; Leo C James; Madeline A Lancaster; Zhu Shu; Zhiming Yuan; Lei Tong; Han Xia; Jingzhe Pan; Natalie Garton; Manish Pareek; Michael Barer; Craig J Smith; Stuart M Allan; Michelle M. Lister; Hannah C. Howson-Wells; Edward C Holmes; Matthew W. Loose; Jonathan K. Ball; C. Patrick McClure; - The COVID-19 Genomics UK consortium study group; Shi Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.20.259937 Date: 2020-08-21 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, leads primarily to respiratory symptoms that can be fatal, particularly in at risk individuals. However, neurological symptoms MESHD have also been observed in patients, including headache HP headache MESHD, seizures HP seizures MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD. The cause of these complications is not yet known, and whether they are due to a direct infection of neural cells, such as neurons and astrocytes, or through indirect effects on supportive brain cells, is unknown. Here, we use brain organoids to examine SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism MESHD. We examine expression of the key viral receptor ACE2 in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) revealing that only a subset of choroid plexus cells but not neurons or neural progenitors express this entry factor. We then challenge organoids with both SARS-CoV-2 spike protein pseudovirus and live virus to demonstrate high viral tropism for choroid plexus epithelial cells but not stromal cells, and little to no infection of neurons or glia. We find that infected cells of the choroid plexus are an apolipoprotein and ACE2 expressing subset of epithelial barrier cells. Finally, we show that infection MESHD with live SARS-CoV-2 leads to barrier breakdown of the choroid plexus. These findings suggest that neurological complications may result from effects on the choroid plexus, an important barrier that normally prevents entry of immune cells and cytokines into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain.

    Population perspective comparing COVID-19 to all and common causes of death in seven European countries

    Authors: Bayanne Olabi; Jayshree Bagaria; Sunil Bhopal; Gwenetta Curry; Nazmy Villarroel; Raj Bhopal

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20170225 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Mortality statistics on the COVID-19 pandemic have led to widespread concern and fear. To contextualise these data, we compared mortality related to COVID-19 with all and common causes of death MESHD, stratifying by age TRANS and sex. We also calculated deaths as a proportion of the population by age TRANS and sex. Methods: COVID-19 related mortality and population statistics from seven European countries were extracted: England and Wales, Italy, Germany, Spain, France, Portugal and Netherlands. Available data spanned 14-16 weeks since the first recorded deaths in each country, except Spain, where only comparable stratified data over an 8-week time period was available. The Global Burden of Disease database provided data on all deaths and those from pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD combining ischaemic heart disease MESHD and stroke HP stroke MESHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD, cancer MESHD, road traffic accidents and dementia HP dementia MESHD. Findings: Deaths related to COVID-19, while modest overall, varied considerably by age TRANS. Deaths as a percentage of all cause deaths during the time period under study ranged from <0.01% in children TRANS in Germany, Portugal and Netherlands, to as high as 41.65% for men aged TRANS over 80 years in England and Wales. The percentage of the population who died from COVID-19 was less than 0.2% in every age group TRANS under the age TRANS of 80. In each country, over the age TRANS of 80, these proportions were: England and Wales 1.27% males TRANS, 0.87% females TRANS; Italy 0.6% males TRANS, 0.38% females TRANS; Germany 0.13% males TRANS, 0.09% females TRANS; France 0.39% males TRANS, 0.2% females TRANS; Portugal 0.2% males TRANS, 0.15% females TRANS; and Netherlands 0.6% males TRANS, 0.4% females TRANS. Interpretation: Mortality rates from COVID-19 remains low including when compared to other common causes of death MESHD and will likely decline further while control measures are maintained. These data may help people contextualise their risk and policy makers in decision-making.

    Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on acute stroke HP stroke MESHD reperfusion therapy: data from the Lyon Stroke HP Stroke MESHD Center Network

    Authors: Cécile PLUMEREAU; Tae-Hee CHO; Marielle BUISSON; Camille AMAZ; Matteo CAPPUCCI; Laurent DEREX; Elodie ONG; Julia FONTAINE; Lucie RASCLE; Roberto RIVA; David SCHIAVO; Axel BENHAMED; Marion DOUPLAT; Thomas BONY; Karim TAZAROURTE; Célia TUTTLE; Omer Frank EKER; Yves BERTHEZENE; Michel OVIZE; Norbert NIGHOGHOSSIAN; Laura MECHTOUFF

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-56553/v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic would have particularly affected acute stroke HP stroke MESHD care. However, its impact is clearly inherent to the local stroke HP stroke MESHD network conditions. We aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on acute stroke HP stroke MESHD care in the Lyon comprehensive stroke HP stroke MESHD center during this period.MethodsWe conducted a prospective data collection of patients with acute ischemic stroke MESHD ischemic stroke HP ( AIS MESHD) treated with intravenous thrombolysis MESHD ( IVT MESHD) and/or mechanical thrombectomy (MT) during the COVID-19 period (from 29/02/2020 to 10/05/2020) and a control period (from 29/02/2019 to 10/05/2019). The volume of reperfusion therapies and pre and intra-hospital delays were compared during both periods.ResultsA total of 208 patients were included. The volume of IVT MESHD significantly decreased during the COVID-period (55 (54.5%) vs 74 (69.2%); p=0.03) and was mainly due to time delay among patients treated with MT. The volume of MT remains stable over the two periods (72 (71.3%) vs 65 (60.8%); p=0.14) but the door-to-groin puncture time increased in patients transferred for MT (237 [187-339] vs 210 [163-260]; p<0.01). The daily number of Emergency Medical Dispatch calls considerably increased (1502 [1133-2238] vs 1023 [960-1410]; p<0.01).ConclusionsOur study showed a decrease of the volume of IVT MESHD, whereas the volume of MT remained stable although intra-hospital delays increased for transferred patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results contrast in part with the national surveys and suggest that the impact of the pandemic may depend on local stroke HP stroke MESHD care networks.

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MeSH Disease
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Transmission
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