Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Gender TRANS disparities in access to care for time-sensitive conditions during COVID-19 pandemic in Chile

    Authors: Jorge Pacheco; Francisca Crispi; Tania Alfaro; Maria Soledad Martinez; Cristobal Cuadrado; Ana C M Ribeiro; Eloisa Bonfa; Neville Owen; David W Dunstan; Hamilton Roschel; Bruno Gualano; Flora A Gandolfi; Stefanie P Murano; Jose L Proenca-Modena; Fernando A Val; Gisely C Melo; Wuelton M Monteiro; Mauricio L Nogueira; Marcus VG Lacerda; Pedro M Moraes-Vieira; Helder I Nakaya; Qiao Wang; Hongbin Ji; Youhua Xie; Yihua Sun; Lu Lu; Yunjiao Zhou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192880 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic reduction on the utilisation of healthcare services are reported in different contexts. Nevertheless, studies have not explored specifically gender TRANS disparities on access to healthcare. Aim: To evaluate disparities in access to care in Chile during the COVID-19 pandemic from a gender TRANS-based perspective. Methods: We conducted a quasi-experimental design using a difference-in-difference approach. We compared the number of weekly confirmed cases TRANS of a set of oncologic and cardiovascular time-sensitive conditions at a national level. We defined weeks 12 to 26 as an intervention period and the actual year as a treatment group. We selected this period because preventive interventions, such as school closures or teleworking, were implemented at this point. To test heterogeneity by sex, we included an interaction term between difference-in-difference estimator and sex. Results: A sizable reduction in access to care for patients with time- sensitivity SERO conditions was observed for oncologic (IRR 0.56; 95% CI 0.50-0.63) and cardiovascular diseases MESHD (IRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.62-0.66). Greater reduction occurred in women compared to men across diseases groups, particularly marked on myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD (0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.93), stroke HP stroke MESHD (IRR 0.88 IC95% 0.82-0.93), and colorectal cancer MESHD (IRR 0.79; 95% CI 0.69-0.91). Compared to men, a greater absolute reduction in women for oncologic diseases (782; 95% CI 704-859) than cardiovascular diseases MESHD (172; 95% CI 170-174) occurred over 14 weeks. Conclusion: We confirmed a large drop in new diagnosis for time-sensitive conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile. This reduction was greater for women. Our findings should alert policy-makers about the urgent need to integrate a gender TRANS perspective into the pandemic response and its aftermath.

    The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Emergency Department Visits: A Retrospective Analysis in Shanghai, China

    Authors: Wei Long; Jiudong Hu; Lijuan Li; Sheng Zuo; Qian Yang; Zenghua Ren

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-49525/v1 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundThe novel coronavirus diseases MESHD (COVID-19) has led to a pandemic and affected people's lives greatly, including their health seeking behavior. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic on characteristics and trends of emergency department (ED) visits in Shanghai, China.MethodsThis was a retrospective observational study using medical record databases from the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital (East Campus) for years 2016 through 2020. All the patients referred to the ED between January 2016 and June 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. January 1, 2020, was chosen as the cutoff date for the statistical analysis and data of January and February in 2020 was compared with the same period of 2019.ResultsDuring the first two months of 2020, there was a 60.9% decline in ED visits when compared with the same period of 2019 (9,904 vs. 25,316, respectively), and the waiting time in ED has been greatly reduced correspondingly (12±4 vs. 66±19 min, p < 0.001); ED visits for acute ischemic stroke MESHD ischemic stroke HP ( AIS MESHD) and acute coronary syndrome MESHD(ACS) decreased by 53.9% and 41.2% respectively; proportion of intravenous thrombolysis for AIS MESHD has dropped(42.1% vs. 11.4%, p = 0.003), and percutaneous coronary intervention for ACS was similar (70.6% vs. 63.3%, p = 0.668); and onset-to-door time (ODT) of these patients increased significantly ( AIS MESHD: 217(136-374) vs. 378(260-510)min, ACS: 135(85-195) vs. 226(155-368)min, all p < 0.001).ConclusionThe outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic was correlated with a significant decline in the number of ED visits including AIS MESHD and ACS patients when compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. ODT of AIS MESHD and ACS patients increased significantly. Raising public awareness is necessary to avoid serious healthcare and economic consequences of undiagnosed and untreated stroke HP stroke MESHD and myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD attack.

    The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the emergency department visits: a retrospective analysis in Shanghai, China

    Authors: Wei Long; Jiudong Hu; Lijuan Li; Sheng Zuo; Qian Yang; Zenghua Ren

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-49525/v2 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) has led to a pandemic and affected people's lives greatly, including their health seeking behavior. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic on characteristics and trends of emergency department (ED) visits in Shanghai, China.Methods This was a retrospective observational study using medical record databases from the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital (East Campus) for years 2016 through 2020. All the patients referred to the ED between January 2016 and June 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. January 1, 2020, was chosen as the cutoff date for the statistical analysis and data of January and February in 2020 was compared with the same period of 2019.Results During the first two months of 2020, there was a 60.9% decline in ED visits when compared with the same period of 2019 (9,904 vs. 25,316, respectively), and the waiting time in ED has been greatly reduced correspondingly (12±4 vs. 66±19 min, p < 0.001); ED visits for acute ischemic stroke MESHD ischemic stroke HP ( AIS MESHD) and acute coronary syndrome MESHD(ACS) decreased by 53.9% and 41.2% respectively; proportion of intravenous thrombolysis for AIS MESHD has dropped(42.1% vs. 11.4%, p = 0.003), and percutaneous coronary intervention for ACS was similar (70.6% vs. 63.3%, p = 0.668); and onset-to-door time (ODT) of these patients increased significantly ( AIS MESHD: 217(136-374) vs. 378(260-510)min, ACS: 135(85-195) vs. 226(155-368)min, all p < 0.001).Conclusion The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic was correlated with a significant decline in the number of ED visits including AIS MESHD and ACS patients when compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. ODT of AIS MESHD and ACS patients increased significantly. Raising public awareness is necessary to avoid serious healthcare and economic consequences of undiagnosed and untreated stroke HP stroke MESHD and myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD attack.

    The Outcome of COVID-19 Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction MESHD Myocardial Infarction HP

    Authors: Hassan Altamimi; Yasser Alahmad; Fadi Khazal; Mowahib Elhassan; Hajar AlBinali; Abdulrahman Arabi; Awad AlQahtani; Nidal Asaad; Mohammed Al-Hijji; Tahir Hamid; Ihsan Rafie; Ali S. Omrani; Saad AlKaabi; Abdullatif Alkhal; Muna AlMalslmani; Mohammed Ali; Murad Alkhani; Mariam AlNesf; Salem Abu Jalala; Salaheddine Arafa; Reem ElSousy; Omar AlTamimi; Ezzeldine Soaly; Charbel Abi khalil; Jassim Al Suwaidi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20156349 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly expanding global pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 patients may present with acute myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP ( AMI MESHD). The aim of this study is to conduct detailed analysis on patients with AMI MESHD and COVID-19. Methods We included all patients admitted with AMI MESHD and actively known or found to be COVID-19 positive by PCR between the 4th February 2020 and the 11th June 2020 in the State of Qatar. Patients were divided into ST-elevation myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD (STEMI) and Non-STE (NSTEMI). Results There were 68 patients (67 men and 1 woman) admitted between the 4th of February 2020 and the 11th of June 2020 with AMI MESHD and COVID-19. The mean age TRANS was 49.1, 46 patients had STEMI and 22 had NSTEMI. 38% had diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD, 31% had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, 16% were smokers, 13% had dyslipidemia MESHD, and 14.7% had prior cardiovascular disease MESHD. Chest pain HP Chest pain MESHD and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD were the presenting symptoms in 90% and 12% of patients respectively. Fever HP Fever MESHD (15%) and cough HP cough MESHD (15%) were the most common COVID-19 symptoms, while the majority had no viral symptoms. Thirty-nine (33 STEMI and 6 NSTEMI) patients underwent coronary angiography, 38 of them had significant coronary disease MESHD. Overall in-hospital MACE was low; 1 patient developed stroke HP stroke MESHD and 2 died. Conclusion Contrary to previous small reports, overall in-hospital adverse events were low in this largest cohort of COVID-19 patients presenting with AMI MESHD. We hypothesize patient profile including younger age TRANS contributed to these findings. Further studies are required to confirm this observation.

    No Evidence for Reduced Hospital Admissions or Increased Deaths from Stroke HP Stroke MESHD or Heart Attack During COVID-19

    Authors: Katharine Reeves; Samuel I Watson; Tanya Pankhurst; Kamlesh Khunti; Suzy Gallier; Magdalena Skrybant; Peter J Chilton; Richard J Lilford

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.08.20119636 Date: 2020-06-09 Source: medRxiv

    Articles in the UK press have claimed that hospital admissions for heart attack and stroke HP stroke MESHD have declined during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, data from the West Midlands Ambulance Service have not shown any reduction in call-outs for patients with stroke HP stroke MESHD or ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction HP Myocardial Infarction MESHD. This study examined data from University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, comparing admissions from week 1 of 2016 to week 17 of 2019, with the same period in 2020, pre- and post-lockdown. The results showed that there was no evidence of a reduction in the overall mean number of admissions of patients with these conditions in the post-lockdown period.

    Ethnically diverse mutations in PIEZO1 associate with SARS-CoV-2 positivity

    Authors: Chew W Cheng; Vijayalakshmi Deivasikamani; Melanie J Ludlow; Dario De Vecchis; Antreas C Kalli; David J Beech; Piruthivi Sukumar

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.01.20119651 Date: 2020-06-03 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, carries significant risk of mortality and has spread globally with devastating societal consequences. Endothelial infection MESHD has been identified as a feature of the disease and so there is motivation to determine the relevance of endothelial membrane mechanisms affecting viral entry and response. Here, through a study of patient data in UK Biobank released on 16 April 2020, we suggest relevance of PIEZO1, a non-selective cation channel protein that both mediates endothelial responses to mechanical force and unusually indents the cell membrane. PIEZO1 notably has roles that may also be relevant in red blood SERO cell function, pulmonary inflammation MESHD, bacterial infection MESHD and fibrotic auto-inflammation MESHD. We provide evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding PIEZO1 are more common in individuals who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 regardless of pre-existing hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD or arthritis HP arthritis MESHD. Some of these SNPs are more common in African and Caribbean populations, which are groups that were recently shown to have greater susceptibility to infection. One of the SNPs is a missense mutation that results in an amino acid change in an evolutionarily conserved and previously unexplored N-terminal region PIEZO1. The data support the notion of genetic factors influencing SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and suggest a specific role for PIEZO1.

    Decline of emergency admissions for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events after the outbreak of COVID-19

    Authors: Viktoria Schwarz; Felix Mahfoud; Lucas Lauder; Wolfgang Reith; Stefanie Behnke; Sigrun Smola; Jürgen Rissland; Thorsten Pfuhl; Bruno Scheller; Michael Böhm; Sebastian Ewen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-30359/v1 Date: 2020-05-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the guidance from authorities for social distancing and media reporting lead to significant uncertainty in Germany. As concerns have been expressed regarding the underdiagnosing of harmful diseases. We explored the rates of emergency presentations for acute coronary syndrome MESHD ( ACS MESHD) and acute cerebrovascular events (ACVE) before and after spread of SARS-CoV-2. Methods We analyzed all-cause visits at a tertiary university emergency department and admissions for ACS MESHD and ACVE before (calendar weeks 1 to 9, 2020) and after (calendar weeks 10 to 16, 2020) the first coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) case in the region of the Saarland, Germany. The data were compared with the same period of the previous year. Results In 2020 an average of 346 patients per week presented at the emergency department whereas in 2019 an average of 400 patients presented up to calendar week 16 (p=0.018; whole year 2019 = 395 patients per week). After the first COVID-19 diagnosis in the region, emergency department visit volume decreased by 30% compared with the same period in 2019 (p=0.0012). Admissions due to ACS MESHD decreased by 41% (p=0.0023 for all; Δ -71% (p=0.007) for unstable angina MESHD, Δ -25% (p=0.42) for myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD with ST-elevation and Δ -17% (p=0.28) without ST-elevation) compared with the same period in 2019 and decreased from 142 patients in calendar weeks 1 to 9 to 62 patients in calendar weeks 10 to 16. ACVE decreased numerically by 20% (p=0.25 for all; transient ischemic attack HP ischemic MESHD attack: Δ -32% (p=0.18), ischemic stroke HP ischemic stroke MESHD: Δ -23% (p=0.48), intracerebral haemorrhage MESHD: Δ +57% (p=0.4)). There was no significant change in ACVE per week (p=0.7) comparing calendar weeks 1 to 9 (213 patients) and weeks 10 to 16 (147 patients). Testing of 3756 samples was performed to detect 58 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients ( prevalence SERO 1,54%, thereof one patient with myocardial and two with cerebral ischemia HP cerebral ischemia MESHD) up to calendar week 16 in 2020. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a significant decrease in all-cause admission and admissions due to cardiovascular events MESHD in the emergency department. Regarding acute cerebrovascular events there was a numerical decrease but no significant difference.

    Decline in Emergent and Urgent Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Authors: Dhruv S Kazi; Rishi K Wadhera; Changyu Shen; Kalon K.L. Ho; Rushad Patell; Magdy H. Selim; John H. Urwin; Mark L. Zeidel; Peter Zimetbaum; Kevin Tabb; Robert W. Yeh

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20096602 Date: 2020-05-18 Source: medRxiv

    Due to the ongoing coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic, there are concerns that patients may be avoiding care for emergent and urgent health conditions due to fear of contagion or as an unintentional consequence of government orders to postpone non-essential services. We therefore sought to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of patient encounters for select emergent or urgent diagnoses at a large tertiary-care academic medical center in Boston. Inpatient diagnoses included acute myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD ( MI MESHD) and stroke HP stroke MESHD, and outpatient but urgent diagnoses included new referrals for breast and hematologic malignancies MESHD. For each condition, we used a difference-in-differences approach to estimate the proportional change in number of encounters during the pandemic (March-April 2020) compared with earlier in the same year (January-February 2020), using equivalent periods in 2019 as a control. After the onset of the pandemic, we observed significant reductions in hospitalizations for MI MESHD (difference-in-differences estimate, 0.67; 95%CI, 0.46-0.96; P=0.04) and stroke HP stroke MESHD (difference-in-differences estimate, 0.42; 95%CI, 0.28-0.65; P<0.001) (Table). In the ambulatory setting, there was a reduction in referrals for breast cancer MESHD and hematologic cancers MESHD, but this did not reach statistical significance until the month after the onset of the pandemic. Our findings suggest an urgent need for public health messaging to ensure that patients continue to seek care for acute emergencies MESHD. In addition, decisions by health systems regarding when to reinitiate non-emergent care should carefully factor in the harms of delayed diagnosis and treatment occurring during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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