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Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Association of Diabetes MESHD and Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19: A Propensity Score Matched Analyses from a French Retrospective Cohort

    Authors: Willy Sutter; Baptiste Duceau; Aurélie Carlier; Antonin Trimaille; Thibaut Pommier; Oriane Weizman; Joffrey Cellier; Laura Geneste; Vassili Panagides; Wassima Marsou; Antoine Deney; Sabir Attou; Thomas Delmotte; Sophie Ribeyrolles; Pascale Chemaly; Clément Karsenty; Gauthier Giordano; Alexandre Gautier; Corentin Chaumont; Pierre Guilleminot; Audrey Sagnard; Julie Pastier; maxime Vignac; delphine Mika; Charles Fauvel; Théo Pezel; Ariel Cohen; Guillaume Bonnet; Ronan Roussel; Louis POTIER

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51775/v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: To compare the clinical outcomes between patients with and without diabetes MESHD admitted to hospital with COVID-19.Methods: Retrospective multicentre cohort study from 24 academic tertiary medical centres in France including 2851 patients (675 with diabetes MESHD) hospitalised for COVID-19 between February 26 and April 20, 2020. A propensity score matching method (1:1 matching including patient characteristics, medical history, vital signs, and laboratory results) was used to compare patients with and without diabetes MESHD (n=603 in each group). The primary outcome was admission to intensive care unit (ICU) or in-hospital death. Results: Patients with diabetes MESHD were older (71 ± 13 vs. 65 ± 18 years; p<0.001), were less often female TRANS (38% vs. 44%; p<0.001) and more likely to have comorbidities: hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (79% vs 42%; p<0.001), coronary heart disease MESHD (23% vs 9%; p<0.001), stroke HP stroke MESHD (13% vs 8%; p<0.001), heart failure MESHD (17% vs 9%; p<0.001), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (26% vs 10%; p<0.001), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD (7% vs 5%; p<0.05). The primary outcome occurred in 584 (36.4%) patients with diabetes MESHD compared to 246 (26.8%) in those without diabetes MESHD (p<0.001). After propensity score matching, the risk of primary outcome was similar in patients with and without diabetes MESHD (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95%CI 0.95-1.41, p=0.14) and was 1.29 (95%CI 0.97 – 1.69) for in-hospital mortality, 1.26 (95%CI 0.93 – 1.72) for mortality without transfer in ICU, and 1.14 (95%CI 0.88 – 1.47) for transfer to ICU.Conclusions: In this retrospective cohort of patients hospitalised for COVID-19, diabetes MESHD was not significantly associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 severe outcomes after propensity score matching.Trial registration NCT04344327

    Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization: COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Authors: Jean Y. Ko; Melissa L. Danielson; Machell Town; Gordana Derado; Kurt J. Greenland; Pam Daily Kirley; Nisha B. Alden; Kimberly Yousey-Hindes; Evan J. Anderson; Patricia A. Ryan; Sue Kim; Ruth Lynfield; Salina M. Torres; Grant R. Barney; Nancy M. Bennett; Melissa Sutton; H. Keipp Talbot; Mary Hill; Aron J. Hall; Alicia M. Fry; Shikha Garg; Lindsay Kim; - COVID-NET Investigation Group

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20161810 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Identification of risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization is needed to guide prevention and clinical care. Objective: To examine if age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions is independently associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: 70 counties within 12 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) and a population-based sample of non-hospitalized adults TRANS residing in the COVID-NET catchment area from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Participants: U.S. community-dwelling adults TRANS ([≥]18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, March 1- June 23, 2020. Measurements: Adjusted rate ratios (aRR) of hospitalization by age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity and underlying medical conditions ( hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, coronary artery disease MESHD, history of stroke HP stroke MESHD, diabetes MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD [BMI [≥]30 kg/m2], severe obesity HP obesity MESHD [BMI[≥]40 kg/m2], chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, asthma HP asthma MESHD, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD). Results: Our sample included 5,416 adults TRANS with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Adults TRANS with (versus without) severe obesity HP obesity MESHD (aRR:4.4; 95%CI: 3.4, 5.7), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (aRR:4.0; 95%CI: 3.0, 5.2), diabetes MESHD (aRR:3.2; 95%CI: 2.5, 4.1), obesity HP obesity MESHD (aRR:2.9; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.5), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (aRR:2.8; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.4), and asthma HP asthma MESHD (aRR:1.4; 95%CI: 1.1, 1.7) had higher rates of hospitalization, after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, and race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for the presence of an individual underlying medical condition, higher hospitalization rates were observed for adults TRANS [≥]65 years, 45-64 years (versus 18-44 years), males TRANS (versus females TRANS), and non-Hispanic black and other race/ethnicities (versus non-Hispanic whites). Limitations: Interim analysis limited to hospitalizations with underlying medical condition data. Conclusion: Our findings elucidate groups with higher hospitalization risk that may benefit from targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.

    Comorbidities associated with regional variations in COVID-19 mortality revealed by population-level analysis

    Authors: Hongxing Yang; Fei Zhong

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20158105 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-Cov-2), has developed into a global health crisis. Understanding the risk factors for poor outcomes of COVID-19 is thus important for successful management and control of the pandemic. However, the progress and severity of the epidemic across different regions show great differentiations. We hypothesized the origination of these differences are based on location-dependent variations in underlying population-wide health factors. Disease prevalence SERO or incidence data of states and counties of the United States were collected for a group of chronic diseases MESHD, including hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, coronary heart disease MESHD, heart failure MESHD, physical inactivation, and common cancers MESHD (e.g., lung, colorectal MESHD, stomach, kidney and renal MESHD). Correlation and regression analysis identified the prevalence SERO of heart failure MESHD as a significant positive factor for region-level COVID-19 mortality. Similarly, the incidence of gastric cancer MESHD and thyroid cancer MESHD were also identified as significant factors contributing to regional variation in COVID-19 mortality. To explore the implications of these results, we re-analyzed the RNA-seq data for stomach adenocarcinoma MESHD ( STAD MESHD) and colon carcinoma MESHD carcinoma HP ( COAD MESHD) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We found that expression of genes in the immune response pathways were more severely disturbed in STAD MESHD than in COAD, implicating higher probability for STAD MESHD patients or individuals with precancerous chronic stomach diseases MESHD to develop cytokine storm once infected with COVID-19. Taken together, we conclude that location variations in particular chronic diseases MESHD and cancers MESHD contribute significantly to the regional variations in COVID-19 mortality.

    The Outcome of COVID-19 Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction MESHD Myocardial Infarction HP

    Authors: Hassan Altamimi; Yasser Alahmad; Fadi Khazal; Mowahib Elhassan; Hajar AlBinali; Abdulrahman Arabi; Awad AlQahtani; Nidal Asaad; Mohammed Al-Hijji; Tahir Hamid; Ihsan Rafie; Ali S. Omrani; Saad AlKaabi; Abdullatif Alkhal; Muna AlMalslmani; Mohammed Ali; Murad Alkhani; Mariam AlNesf; Salem Abu Jalala; Salaheddine Arafa; Reem ElSousy; Omar AlTamimi; Ezzeldine Soaly; Charbel Abi khalil; Jassim Al Suwaidi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20156349 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly expanding global pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 patients may present with acute myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP ( AMI MESHD). The aim of this study is to conduct detailed analysis on patients with AMI MESHD and COVID-19. Methods We included all patients admitted with AMI MESHD and actively known or found to be COVID-19 positive by PCR between the 4th February 2020 and the 11th June 2020 in the State of Qatar. Patients were divided into ST-elevation myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD (STEMI) and Non-STE (NSTEMI). Results There were 68 patients (67 men and 1 woman) admitted between the 4th of February 2020 and the 11th of June 2020 with AMI MESHD and COVID-19. The mean age TRANS was 49.1, 46 patients had STEMI and 22 had NSTEMI. 38% had diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD, 31% had hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, 16% were smokers, 13% had dyslipidemia MESHD, and 14.7% had prior cardiovascular disease MESHD. Chest pain HP Chest pain MESHD and dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD were the presenting symptoms in 90% and 12% of patients respectively. Fever HP Fever MESHD (15%) and cough HP cough MESHD (15%) were the most common COVID-19 symptoms, while the majority had no viral symptoms. Thirty-nine (33 STEMI and 6 NSTEMI) patients underwent coronary angiography, 38 of them had significant coronary disease MESHD. Overall in-hospital MACE was low; 1 patient developed stroke HP stroke MESHD and 2 died. Conclusion Contrary to previous small reports, overall in-hospital adverse events were low in this largest cohort of COVID-19 patients presenting with AMI MESHD. We hypothesize patient profile including younger age TRANS contributed to these findings. Further studies are required to confirm this observation.

    The clinical characteristics and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with cerebral stroke MESHD:a retrospective cohort study

    Authors: Xiaolong Yao; Shengwen Liu; Junwen Wang; Kai Zhao; Xiaobing Long; Xuejun He; Huicong Kang; Yiping Yang; Xiaopeng Ma; Pengjie Yue; Kai Shu; Zhouping Tang; Ting Lei; Jihong Liu; Wei Wang; Huaqiu Zhang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-37573/v1 Date: 2020-06-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with cerebral stroke MESHD stroke HP.Methods: In this retrospective study, 2474 patients with COVID-19 were admitted and treated in Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan from February 10, 2020, to March 24, 2020. Data on the clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with or without cerebral stroke MESHD stroke HP were collected and comparatively analyzed.Results: Of 2474 COVID-19 patients (61.0±15.7 years; 1235 males TRANS [49.9%]), 113 (4.7%) patients had cerebral stroke MESHD stroke HP, and 25 (1.0%) patients had a new onset of stroke HP stroke MESHD. Eighty-eight (77.9%) patients in the previous stroke HP stroke MESHD group had cerebral ischemia HP cerebral ischemia MESHD, while 25 (22.1%) patients in the new-onset stroke HP stroke MESHD group had cerebral ischemia HP cerebral ischemia MESHD. Most COVID-19 patients with stroke HP stroke MESHD were elderly TRANS with more complicated disorders, such as hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD and heart diseases MESHD. Laboratory examinations showed a hypercoagulation status MESHD and elevated serum SERO parameters such as IL-6, cTnI, NT pro-BNP and BUN. Of note, stroke HP stroke MESHD patients revealed a nearly double mortality (12.4% vs 6.9%) to that of patients without stroke HP stroke MESHD. Additionally, age TRANS (≥60 years), fingertip oxygen saturation (<93%) and consciousness disorder MESHD were independent predictors for new cerebral stroke MESHD stroke HP in COVID-19 patients. Interpretation: The high risk of new-onset stroke HP stroke MESHD in COVID-19 patients was older age TRANS combined with fingertip oxygen saturation (<93%) and consciousness disorder MESHD. These patients are more vulnerable to multiple organ dysfunction MESHD and an overactivated inflammatory response, in turn leading to a deteriorated outcome and mortality.

    Association of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, cancer MESHD, kidney disease MESHD, and high-cholesterol with COVID-19 disease severity and fatality: a systematic review

    Authors: Nazar Zaki; Hany Alashwal; Sahar Ibrahim

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.16.20132639 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To undertake a review and critical appraisal of published/preprint reports that offer methods of determining the effects of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, cancer MESHD, kidney issues, and high-cholesterol on COVID-19 disease severity. Data sources: Google Scholar, PubMed, COVID-19 Open Research Dataset: a resource of over 128,000 scholarly articles, including over 59,000 articles with full text related to COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and coronaviruses. Methods: A search was conducted by two authors independently on the freely available COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19). We developed an automated search engine to screen a total of 59,000 articles in a few seconds. The search engine was built using a retrieval function that ranks a set of documents based on the query terms appearing in each document regardless of their proximity within the document. Filtering of the articles was then undertaken using keywords and questions, e.g. "Effects of diabetes MESHD on COVID/normal coronavirus/SARS-CoV-2/nCoV/COVID-19 disease severity, mortality?". The search terms were repeated for all the comorbidities considered in this paper. Additional articles were retrieved by searching via Google Scholar and PubMed. Findings: A total of 54 articles were considered for a full review. It was observed that diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, and cholesterol levels possess an apparent relation to COVID-19 severity. Other comorbidities, such as cancer MESHD, kidney disease MESHD, and stroke HP stroke MESHD, must be further evaluated to determine a strong relationship to the virus. Reports associating cancer MESHD, kidney disease MESHD, and stroke HP stroke MESHD with COVID-19 should be carefully interpreted, not only because of the size of the samples, but also because patients could be old, have a history of smoking, or have any other clinical condition suggesting that these factors might be associated with the poor COVID-19 outcomes rather than the comorbidity itself. Such reports could lead many oncologists and physicians to change their treatment strategies without solid evidence and recommendations. Further research regarding this relationship and its clinical management is warranted. Additionally, treatment options must be examined further to provide optimal treatment and ensure better outcomes for patients suffering from these comorbidities. It should be noted that, whether definitive measurements exist or not, the care of patients as well as the research involved should be largely prioritized to tackle this deadly pandemic.

    Impact of COVID-19 on Neurological Manifestations: An Overview of Stroke HP Stroke MESHD Presentation in Pandemic.

    Authors: Nida Fatima; Maher Saqqur; Ashfaq Shauib

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-36387/v1 Date: 2020-06-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Introduction: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a globally challenging issue after its emergence in December 2019 from Wuhan, China. Despite its common presentation as respiratory distress HP, patients with COVID-19 have also shown neurological manifestation especially stroke HP stroke MESHD. Therefore, the authors sought to determine the etiology, underlying risk factors, and outcomes among patients with COVID-19 presenting with stroke HP stroke MESHD. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the electronic database (PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane library) using different MeSH terms from January 2000 to June 2020. Results: A total of 39 patients with stroke HP stroke MESHD from 6 studies were included. The mean age TRANS of our included patients was 61.4±14.2 years. Majority of the patients (92.3%) with COVID-19 had ischemic stroke HP ischemic stroke MESHD, 5.1% had hemorrhagic stroke MESHD stroke HP, and 2.6% had cerebral venous thrombosis HP cerebral venous thrombosis MESHD at the time of initial clinical presentation. Almost all of the patients presented had underlying risk factors predisposing to stroke HP stroke MESHD which included, diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD, hyperlipidemia HP hyperlipidemia MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, and previous history of cerebrovascular disease MESHD. 51.2% of the included patients infected with COVID-19 with stroke HP stroke MESHD died, while remaining patients were either discharged home or transferred to a rehabilitation unit.  Conclusion: Exploring the neurological manifestation in terms of stroke HP stroke MESHD among patients with COVID-19 is a step towards better understanding of the virus, preventing further spread, and treating the patients affected by this pandemic.

    Ethnically diverse mutations in PIEZO1 associate with SARS-CoV-2 positivity

    Authors: Chew W Cheng; Vijayalakshmi Deivasikamani; Melanie J Ludlow; Dario De Vecchis; Antreas C Kalli; David J Beech; Piruthivi Sukumar

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.01.20119651 Date: 2020-06-03 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, carries significant risk of mortality and has spread globally with devastating societal consequences. Endothelial infection MESHD has been identified as a feature of the disease and so there is motivation to determine the relevance of endothelial membrane mechanisms affecting viral entry and response. Here, through a study of patient data in UK Biobank released on 16 April 2020, we suggest relevance of PIEZO1, a non-selective cation channel protein that both mediates endothelial responses to mechanical force and unusually indents the cell membrane. PIEZO1 notably has roles that may also be relevant in red blood SERO cell function, pulmonary inflammation MESHD, bacterial infection MESHD and fibrotic auto-inflammation MESHD. We provide evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding PIEZO1 are more common in individuals who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 regardless of pre-existing hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD or arthritis HP arthritis MESHD. Some of these SNPs are more common in African and Caribbean populations, which are groups that were recently shown to have greater susceptibility to infection. One of the SNPs is a missense mutation that results in an amino acid change in an evolutionarily conserved and previously unexplored N-terminal region PIEZO1. The data support the notion of genetic factors influencing SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and suggest a specific role for PIEZO1.

    Central Nervous System Disorders MESHD in Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD: detailed clinical work-up of eight cases

    Authors: Emanuela Keller; Giovanna Brandi; Sebastian Winklhofer; Lukas Imbach; Daniel Kirschenbaum; Karl Joachim Frontzek; Peter Steiger; Sabeth Aurelia Dietler; Marcellina Isabelle Haeberlin; Jan Folkard Willms; Francesca Porta; Adrian Waeckerlin; Irene Alma Abela; Andreas Lutterotti; Christoph Stippich; Ilijas Jelcic

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-32488/v1 Date: 2020-05-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective Case series with different clinical presentations indicating central nervous system (CNS) involvement in coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) have been published. Comprehensive work-ups including clinical characteristics, laboratory, electroencephalography (EEG), neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings are needed to understand the mechanisms.DesignWe evaluated 32 consecutive patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD treated at a tertiary care centre from March 09 to April 03, 2020 for concomitant severe central nervous system (CNS) symptoms occurring during their critical disease state. Those with CNS disorders MESHD were examined in detail regarding clinical characteristics and undergoing additional examinations, e.g. computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (EEG), (CSF) analysis and autopsy if they had died.ResultsOf 32 critically ill patients with COVID-19 eight (18%) had severe CNS involvement (mean [SD] age TRANS, 67.6 [6.8] years; seven men; two patients died). All eight patients had cardiovascular risk factors, most frequently arterial hypertension HP hypertension MESHD. Two patients presented with lacunar ischemic stroke HP ischemic stroke MESHD and one with status epilepticus HP status epilepticus MESHD in the early phase. As most common presentation, six patients presented with prolonged impaired consciousness MESHD after termination of analgosedation. In all but one with delayed wake-up, neuroimaging or autopsy showed multiple cerebral microbleeds, in three of them with additional subarachnoid haemorrhage MESHD and in another two with additional small ischemic lesions MESHD. In three patients intracranial vessel wall sequence MRI was performed, for the first time to our knowledge. All cases showed contrast-enhancement of vessel walls in large and middle-sized cerebral arteries, suggesting vascular wall pathologies with an inflammatory component. CSF analysis showed normal cells counts and chemistry. RT-PCRs for SARS-CoV-2 in CSF were all negative, and no intrathecal SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG synthesis was detectable. ConclusionsCNS disorders MESHD are common in patients with severe COVID-19. Different mechanisms might be involved. Besides unspecific encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD and encephalitic syndromes MESHD, large vessel strokes HP strokes MESHD might occur early after disease onset. In a later phase, microbleeds and microinfarctions indicate potential CNS small vessel disease. MRI vessel wall contrast enhancement suggests cerebral vascular wall pathologies with an inflammatory component. CNS disorders MESHD associated with COVID-19 may lead to long-term disabilities aggravating socio-economic damage. The mechanisms have to be investigated urgently in order to develop preventive and therapeutic neuroprotective strategies.

    Characteristics and predictors of hospitalization and death MESHD in the first 9,519 cases with a positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 in Denmark: A nationwide cohort

    Authors: Mette Reilev; Kasper Bruun Kristensen; Anton Pottegaard; Lars Christian Lund; Jesper Hallas; Martin Thomsen Ernst; Christian Fynbo Christiansen; Henrik Toft Soerensen; Nanna Borup Johansen; Nikolai Constantin Brun; Marianne Voldstedlund; Henrik Stoevring; Marianne Kragh Thomsen; Steffen Christensen; Sophie Gubbels; Tyra Grove Krause; Kaare Moelbak; Reimar Wernich Thomsen

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.24.20111823 Date: 2020-05-26 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To provide population-level knowledge on individuals at high risk of severe and fatal coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in order to inform targeted protection strategies in the general population and appropriate triage of hospital contacts. Design, Setting, and Participants Nationwide population-based cohort of all 228.677 consecutive Danish individuals tested (positive or negative) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) RNA from the identification of the first COVID-19 case on February 27th, 2020 until April 30th, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures We examined characteristics and predictors of inpatient hospitalization versus community-management, and death MESHD versus survival, adjusted for age TRANS-, sex- and number of comorbidities. Results We identified 9,519 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive cases of whom 78% were community-managed, 22% were hospitalized (3.2% at an intensive care unit) and 5.5% had died within 30 days. Median age TRANS varied from 45 years (interquartile range (IQR) 31-57) among community-managed cases to 82 years (IQR 75-89) among those who died. Age TRANS was a strong predictor of fatal disease (odds ratio (OR) 14 for 70-79-year old, OR 26 for 80-89-year old, and OR 82 for cases older than 90 years, when compared to 50-59-year old and adjusted for sex and number of comorbidities). Similarly, the number of comorbidities was strongly associated with fatal disease MESHD (OR 5.2, for cases with [≥]4 comorbidities versus no comorbidities), and 82% of fatal cases had at least 2 comorbidities. A wide range of major chronic diseases MESHD were associated with hospitalization with ORs ranging from 1.3-1.4 (e.g. stroke, ischemic HP stroke, ischemic MESHD ischemic MESHD heart disease MESHD) to 2.2-2.7 (e.g. heart failure MESHD, hospital-diagnosed kidney disease, chronic HP kidney disease, chronic MESHD chronic liver disease MESHD). Similarly, chronic diseases MESHD were associated with mortality with ORs ranging from 1.2-1.3 (e.g. ischemic MESHD heart disease MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD) to 2.4-2.7 (e.g. major psychiatric disorder MESHD, organ transplantation). In the absence of comorbidities, mortality was relatively low (5% or less) in persons aged TRANS up to 80 years. Conclusions and Relevance In this first nationwide population-based study, increasing age TRANS and number of comorbidities were strongly associated with hospitalization requirement and death MESHD in COVID-19. In the absence of comorbidities, the mortality was, however, lowest until the age TRANS of 80 years. These results may help in accurate identification, triage and protection of high-risk groups in general populations, i.e. when reopening societies.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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