Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    SARS-CoV-2 infects brain choroid plexus MESHD and disrupts the blood SERO-CSF-barrier

    Authors: Laura Pellegrini; Anna Albecka; Donna L Mallery; Max J Kellner; David Paul; Andrew P Carter; Leo C James; Madeline A Lancaster; Zhu Shu; Zhiming Yuan; Lei Tong; Han Xia; Jingzhe Pan; Natalie Garton; Manish Pareek; Michael Barer; Craig J Smith; Stuart M Allan; Michelle M. Lister; Hannah C. Howson-Wells; Edward C Holmes; Matthew W. Loose; Jonathan K. Ball; C. Patrick McClure; - The COVID-19 Genomics UK consortium study group; Shi Chen

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.20.259937 Date: 2020-08-21 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, leads primarily to respiratory symptoms that can be fatal, particularly in at risk individuals. However, neurological symptoms MESHD have also been observed in patients, including headache HP headache MESHD, seizures HP seizures MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD. The cause of these complications is not yet known, and whether they are due to a direct infection of neural cells, such as neurons and astrocytes, or through indirect effects on supportive brain cells, is unknown. Here, we use brain organoids to examine SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism MESHD. We examine expression of the key viral receptor ACE2 in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) revealing that only a subset of choroid plexus cells but not neurons or neural progenitors express this entry factor. We then challenge organoids with both SARS-CoV-2 spike protein pseudovirus and live virus to demonstrate high viral tropism for choroid plexus epithelial cells but not stromal cells, and little to no infection of neurons or glia. We find that infected cells of the choroid plexus are an apolipoprotein and ACE2 expressing subset of epithelial barrier cells. Finally, we show that infection MESHD with live SARS-CoV-2 leads to barrier breakdown of the choroid plexus. These findings suggest that neurological complications may result from effects on the choroid plexus, an important barrier that normally prevents entry of immune cells and cytokines into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain.

    The 4C Initiative (Clinical Care for Cardiovascular disease MESHD in the COVID-19 pandemic): monitoring the indirect impact of the coronavirus pandemic on services for cardiovascular diseases MESHD in the UK

    Authors: - TC CVD-COVID-UK Consortium; Simon Ball; Amitava Banerjee; Colin Berry; Jonathan Boyle; Benjamin Bray; William Bradlow; Afzal Chaudhry; Rikki Crawley; John Danesh; Alastair Denniston; Florian Falter; Jonine Figueroa; Christopher Hall; Harry Hemingway; Emily Jefferson; Tom Johnson; Graham King; Ken Lee; Paul McKean; Suzanne Mason; Nicholas Mills; Ewen Pearson; Munir Pirmohamed; Michael TC Poon; Rouven Priedon; Anoop Shah; Reecha Sofat; Jonathan Sterne; Fiona Strachan; Cathie LM Sudlow; Zsolt Szarka; William Whiteley; Mike Wyatt

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20151118 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic affects cardiovascular diseases MESHD ( CVDs MESHD) directly through infection MESHD and indirectly through health service reorganisation and public health policy. Real-time data are needed to quantify direct and indirect effects. We aimed to monitor hospital activity for presentation, diagnosis and treatment of CVDs MESHD during the pandemic to inform on indirect effects. Methods: We analysed aggregate data on presentations, diagnoses and treatments or procedures for selected CVDs MESHD (acute coronary syndromes, heart failure MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD and transient ischaemic attack MESHD, venous thromboembolism MESHD thromboembolism HP, peripheral arterial disease MESHD and aortic aneurysm HP aortic aneurysm MESHD) in UK hospitals before and during the COVID-19 epidemic. We produced an online visualisation tool to enable near real-time monitoring of trends. Findings: Nine hospitals across England and Scotland contributed hospital activity data from 28 Oct 2019 (pre-COVID-19) to 10 May 2020 (pre-easing of lockdown), and for the same weeks during 2018-2019. Across all hospitals, total admissions and emergency department (ED) attendances decreased after lockdown (23 March 2020) by 57.9% (57.1-58.6%) and 52.9% (52.2-53.5%) respectively compared with the previous year. Activity for cardiac, cerebrovascular and other vascular conditions started to decline 1-2 weeks before lockdown, and fell HP by 31-88% after lockdown, with the greatest reductions observed for coronary artery bypass grafts, carotid endarterectomy, aortic aneurysm HP aortic aneurysm MESHD repair and peripheral arterial disease MESHD procedures. Compared with before the first UK COVID-19 (31 January 2020), activity declined across diseases and specialties between the first case and lockdown (total ED attendances RR 0.94, 0.93-0.95; total hospital admissions RR 0.96, 0.95-0.97) and after lockdown (attendances RR 0.63, 0.62-0.64; admissions RR 0.59, 0.57-0.60). There was limited recovery towards usual levels of some activities from mid-April 2020. Interpretation: Substantial reductions in total and cardiovascular activities are likely to contribute to a major burden of indirect effects of the pandemic, suggesting they should be monitored and mitigated urgently.

    D-dimer level elevation can aid in detection of asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 presenting with acute cerebral infarction MESHD

    Authors: Takeru Umemura; Hirohisa Kondo; Hirotsugu Ohta; Koichiro Futatsuya; Takamitsu Mizobe

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-36445/v1 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mainly manifests as a respiratory syndrome MESHD, besides causing other complications. Severe COVID-19 may also present with coagulopathy MESHD, leading to venous thrombosis and cerebral HP venous thrombosis and cerebral MESHD cerebral infarction MESHD. Stroke HP Stroke MESHD is one of the complications associated with severe COVID-19. Generally, acute stroke MESHD stroke HP is the second complication in patients with respiratory syndrome MESHD. Here, we present a case of COVID-19 in an 84-year-old female TRANS patient who did not manifest any respiratory symptoms; however, she presented with acute stroke MESHD stroke HP. The patient had no cough HP cough MESHD or fever HP fever MESHD before the stroke HP stroke MESHD onset, but the COVID-19 PCR was positive. The patient also had markedly elevated D-dimer levels. Our findings suggest that coagulopathy MESHD can occur, even in a patient with asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 infection MESHD. To our knowledge, this is the first case of asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 in a patient presenting with cerebral infarction MESHD. We concluded that elevation of D-dimer levels is one of the tools to ascertain COVID-19 infection MESHD in such patients.

    Ethnically diverse mutations in PIEZO1 associate with SARS-CoV-2 positivity

    Authors: Chew W Cheng; Vijayalakshmi Deivasikamani; Melanie J Ludlow; Dario De Vecchis; Antreas C Kalli; David J Beech; Piruthivi Sukumar

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.01.20119651 Date: 2020-06-03 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, carries significant risk of mortality and has spread globally with devastating societal consequences. Endothelial infection MESHD has been identified as a feature of the disease and so there is motivation to determine the relevance of endothelial membrane mechanisms affecting viral entry and response. Here, through a study of patient data in UK Biobank released on 16 April 2020, we suggest relevance of PIEZO1, a non-selective cation channel protein that both mediates endothelial responses to mechanical force and unusually indents the cell membrane. PIEZO1 notably has roles that may also be relevant in red blood SERO cell function, pulmonary inflammation MESHD, bacterial infection MESHD and fibrotic auto-inflammation MESHD. We provide evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene encoding PIEZO1 are more common in individuals who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 regardless of pre-existing hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD or arthritis HP arthritis MESHD. Some of these SNPs are more common in African and Caribbean populations, which are groups that were recently shown to have greater susceptibility to infection. One of the SNPs is a missense mutation that results in an amino acid change in an evolutionarily conserved and previously unexplored N-terminal region PIEZO1. The data support the notion of genetic factors influencing SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and suggest a specific role for PIEZO1.

    Neurological Involvement of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019: A Systematic Review

    Authors: Malik Ghannam; Qasem Alshaer; Mustafa Al-Chalabi; Lara Zakarna; Jetter Robertson; Georgios Manousakis

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-31183/v1 Date: 2020-05-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In December 2019, unexplained cases of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD emerged in Wuhan, China, which were found to be secondary to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-2019) outbreak, a pandemic. Although the most common presentations of COVID-19 are fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD and shortness of breath MESHD, several clinical observations indicate that COVID-19 does affect the central and peripheral nervous system.  Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search from December 01, 2019 to May 14, 2020 using multiple combinations of keywords from PubMed and Ovid Medline databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We included articles with cases of COVID-19 that were evident for neurological involvement.  Results: We were able to identify 82 cases of COVID-19 with neurological complications. The mean age TRANS was 62.28 years. 37.8% of the patients were women (n = 31). 48.8% of the patients (n=40) had cerebrovascular insults, 28% (n=23) had neuromuscular disorders MESHD, 18.3% of the patients (n=15) had encephalitis HP encephalitis MESHD or encephalopathy HP encephalopathy MESHD, and 2.4% (n=2) presented with status epilepticus HP status epilepticus MESHD. Conclusions: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 infection MESHD are not rare, especially large vessel stroke HP stroke MESHD, Guillain barre syndrome MESHD and meningoencephalitis MESHD. Moving forward, further studies are needed to clarify the prevalence SERO of the neurological complications of COVID-19, investigate their biological backgrounds, and test treatment options. Physicians should be cautious not to overlook other neurological diagnoses that can mimic COVID-19 during the pandemic.

    Pre-existing Cardiovascular Disease MESHD in United States Population at High Risk for Severe COVID-19 Infection

    Authors: Adnan I Qureshi

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.11.20089714 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: medRxiv

    Background and Purpose There is increasing recognition of a relatively high burden of pre-existing cardiovascular disease MESHD in Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID 19) infected MESHD patients. We determined the burden of pre-existing cardiovascular disease MESHD in persons residing in United States (US) who are at risk for severe COVID-19 infection MESHD. Methods Age TRANS (60 years or greater), presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD, diabetes, mellitus HP diabetes, mellitus MESHD mellitus MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, and/or malignancy were used to identify persons at risk for admission to intensive care unit, or invasive ventilation, or death MESHD with COVID-19 infection MESHD. Persons were classified as low risk (no risk factors), moderate risk (1 risk factor), and high risk (two or more risk factors present) using nationally representative sample of US adults TRANS from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017 and 2018 survey. Results Among a total of 5856 participants, 2386 (40.7%) were considered low risk, 1325 (22.6%) moderate risk, and 2145 persons (36.6%) as high risk for severe COVID-19 infection MESHD. The proportion of patients who had pre-existing stroke HP stroke MESHD increased from 0.6% to 10.5% in low risk patients to high risk patients (odds ratio [OR]19.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]11.6-34.3). The proportion of who had pre-existing myocardial infection MESHD ( MI MESHD) increased from 0.4% to 10.4% in low risk patients to high risk patients (OR 30.6, 95% CI 15.7-59.8). Conclusions A large proportion of persons in US who are at risk for developing severe COVID 19 infection MESHD are expected to have pre-existing cardiovascular disease MESHD. Further studies need to identify whether targeted strategies towards cardiovascular diseases MESHD can reduce the mortality in COVID-19 infected MESHD patients.

    Cerebrovascular complications MESHD in patients with  SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD: Case series 

    Authors: Mauro Morassi; Daniele Bagatto; Milena Cobelli; Serena D’Agostini; Gian Luigi Gigli; Claudio Bnà; Alberto Vogrig

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-23137/v1 Date: 2020-04-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Italy is one of the most affected countries by the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The responsible pathogen is named S evere Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) MESHD. The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic TRANS infection to severe HP nfection MESHDto severe pneumonia HP neumonia MESHDleading to intensive care unit admission. Evidence of c erebrovascular complications MESHDassociated with SARS-CoV-2 is limited. We herein report 6 patients who developed a cute stroke MESHD stroke HP during COVID-19 i nfection. MESHD Methods: Retrospective case series of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 using reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) on nasopharyngeal swabs, who developed clinical and neuroimaging evidence of a cute stroke MESHD stroke HP during S ARS-CoV-2 infection. MESHDResults: Six patients were identified (5 men); median age TRANS was 69 years (range: 57-82). Stroke HP troke MESHDsubtypes were i schemic MESHD(4, 67%) and h emorrhagic MESHD(2, 33%). All patients but 1 had pre-existing vascular risk factors. One patient developed encephalopathy HP ncephalopathy MESHDprior to stroke HP troke, MESHD characterized by focal seizures HP eizures MESHDand behavioral abnormalities HP ehavioral abnormalities. MESHD COVID-19-related pneumonia HP neumonia MESHDwas severe (i.e. requiring critical care support) in 5/6 cases (83%). Liver enzyme alteration and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) elevation was registered in all cases. Four patients (67%) manifested a cute kidney failure MESHDprior to stroke HP troke. MESHD Four patients (67%) had abnormal coagulation tests. Outcome was poor in the majority of the patients: 4 died (67%), 1 is still in coma HP oma MESHD(20%) and the remaining 1 remains severely neurologically affected (mRS: 4).Conclusions: Acute stroke HP troke MESHDcan complicate the course of COVI-19 i nfection. MESHD In our series, stroke HP troke MESHDdeveloped mostly in patients with severe pneumonia HP neumonia MESHDand m ulti organ failure, MESHD liver enzymes and LDH were markedly increased in all cases, and the outcome was poor.

    Insight from a noticeable difference between two families infected with COVID-19

    Authors: Shugang Cao; Yuancheng Li; Hong Yue; Chenchen Li; Mingwu Xia; Fang Liu; Juncang Wu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-22850/v1 Date: 2020-04-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    The outbreak of COVID-19 shows a high potent of person-to-person transmission TRANS and thus contributes to a large spread of infection sweeping the world. The family cluster of infection MESHD has been paid much more attention. We reported two different families infected by SARS-CoV-2 in the context of family clustering, one of which is a typical family cluster of infection MESHD with the transmission chain TRANS being an asymptomatic TRANS patient in the incubation period TRANS. However, the outcome of another family was exactly the opposite, in which the index patient was the only individual infected and complicated with fatal ischemic stroke HP ischemic stroke MESHD. These two families highlight that more attention should be paid to the distinctions underlying the family cluster of infections MESHD and the possibility of COVID-19-related stroke HP stroke MESHD

    The 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD with secondary ischemic stroke HP ischemic stroke MESHD: two cases report

    Authors: Bin Fu; Yun Chen; Ping Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-20943/v2 Date: 2020-04-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD is an outbreak of respiratory illness MESHD first detected in Wuhan, China in the end of Dec, 2019. The older patients complicated with underlying diseases MESHD are reported more likely to have clinical symptoms. But its secondary lesion is rarely reported. Case presentation: We reported two cases of coronavirus infected pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP with acute ischemic stroke MESHD ischemic stroke HP in patients at their middle- age TRANS. In both 2019 coronavirus diseases MESHD cases, neurological physical examination are normal before infection MESHD. Lymphocytopenia MESHD and high expression of cytokines and D-dimer were found from serum SERO clinical laboratory test at admission. The dysarthria HP dysarthria MESHD and limb muscle weakness HP muscle weakness MESHD are initial manifestations in one week after 2019 novel coronavirus infection MESHD. The head CT and head/neck arterial CTA showed small-vessel occlusion MESHD. The patients were diagnosed with coronavirus diseases MESHD with secondary acute ischemic stroke HP ischemic stroke MESHD. They were treated with tirofiban and followed up with daily aspirin and atorvastatin. Conclusion: The present cases suggested that secondary ischemic stroke HP ischemic stroke MESHD, which mainly manifested as small-vessel occlusion MESHD, should be considered for coronavirus disease MESHD patients with prompt diagnosis and treatment. 

    The epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases MESHD (COVID-19) in Jingmen,Hubei,China

    Authors: Qijun Gao; yingfu hu; zhiguo dai Sr.; Jing wu; Feng Xiao; Jing wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.07.20031393 Date: 2020-03-10 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Background:There is currently a global outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19),and its epidemic characteristics in the areas where the outbreak has been successfully controlled are rarely reported. Objective: Describe the epidemic characteristics of COVID-19 in Jingmen,Hubei,introduce the local prevention and control experience,and observe the impact of various prevention and control measures on the number of new cases. Methods: All the COVID-19 patients diagnosed in the municipal districts of Jingmen from January 12 to February 29,2020 were enrolled in this study. We described epidemiological data and observed the impact of control measures on the epidemic. Findings: Of the 219 cases (110 men and 109 women), 88 (40%) had exposure to Wuhan. The median age TRANS was 48 years ( range,2-88 years;IQR,35-60). Thirty-three severe patients with a median age TRANS of 66 years(range,33-82 years,IQR,57-76) were treated in intensive care units; out of these patients, 66.7 %(22) were men and 19 (57.5%) had chronic diseases MESHD, including hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, diabetes MESHD, heart failure MESHD, stroke HP stroke MESHD, and renal insufficiency HP renal insufficiency MESHD. Under the control measures, the number of new patients gradually decreased and nearly disappeared after 18 days. Wearing masks in all kinds of situations prevents most infections MESHD and is one of the most effective prevention and control measures. Interpretation: In conclusion,all people are susceptible to COVID-19, and older males TRANS and those with comorbid conditions are more likely to become severe cases. Even though COVID-19 is highly contagious,control measures have proven to be very effective, particularly wearing masks,which could prevent most infections.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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