Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 227
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    A single-cell mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 induced pyroptosis and the anti-inflammatory response to the drug tranilast

    Authors: Sara J Hamis; Fiona R Macfarlane

    id:2008.04172v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: arXiv

    Pyroptosis is an inflammatory mode of cell death MESHD that contributes to the cytokine storm associated with severe cases of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Central to pyroptosis induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Inflammasome formation, and by extension pyroptosis, may be inhibited by certain anti-inflammatory drugs. One such drug, tranilast, is currently being evaluated as a COVID-19 treatment target in a clinical trial. In this study, we present a single-cell mathematical model that captures the formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, pyroptotic cell death MESHD and drug-responses to tranilast. The model is formulated in terms of a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that describe the dynamics of proteins involved in pyroptosis. The model demonstrates that tranilast delays the formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and thus may alter the mode of cell death MESHD from inflammatory (pyroptosis) to non-inflammatory (e.g., apoptosis).

    Association of mental disorders with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe health outcomes: a nationwide cohort study

    Authors: Ha-Lim Jeon; Jun Soo Kwon; So-Hee Park; Ju-Young Shin

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20169201 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: No epidemiological data exists for the association between mental disorders and the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) severity. Aims: To evaluate the association between mental disorders and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe outcomes following COVID-19. Methods: We performed a cohort study using the Korean COVID-19 patient database based on the national health insurance data. Each patient with a mental or behavioral disorder (diagnosed during six months prior to the first SARS-CoV-2 test) was matched by age TRANS, sex, and Charlson comorbidity index with up to four patients without mental disorders. SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk and risk of death MESHD or severe events (intensive care unit admission, use of mechanical ventilation, and acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD) post- infection MESHD were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 230,565 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2, 33,653 (14.6%) had mental disorders, 928/33,653 (2.76%) tested positive, and 56/928 (6.03%) died. In multivariate analysis with the matched cohort, there was no association between mental disorders and SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.12); however, a higher risk was associated with schizophrenia HP-related disorders (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81). Among confirmed cases TRANS, mortality risk significantly increased in patients with mental disorders (OR, 1.84, 95% CI, 1.07-3.15). Conclusion: Mental disorders are likely contributing factors of mortality following COVID-19. Although the infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk did not increase in overall mental disorders, patients with schizophrenia HP-related disorders were more vulnerable to the infection MESHD.

    An improved methodology for estimating the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Virag Patel; Catherine McCarthy; Rachel A Taylor; Ruth Moir; Louise A Kelly; Emma L Snary

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168187 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Since the identification of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China in December 2019, there have been more than 17 million cases of the disease MESHD in 216 countries worldwide. Comparisons of prevalence SERO estimates between different communities can inform policy decisions regarding safe travel TRANS between countries, help to assess when to implement (or remove) disease MESHD control measures and identify the risk of over-burdening healthcare providers. Estimating the true prevalence SERO can, however, be challenging because officially reported figures are likely to be significant underestimates of the true burden of COVID-19 within a community. Previous methods for estimating the prevalence SERO fail to incorporate differences between populations (such as younger populations having higher rates of asymptomatic TRANS cases) and so comparisons between, for example, countries, can be misleading. Here, we present an improved methodology for estimating COVID-19 prevalence SERO. We take the reported number of cases and deaths MESHD (together with population size) as raw prevalence SERO for the population. We then apply an age TRANS-adjustment to this which allows the age TRANS-distribution of that population to influence the case-fatality rate and the proportion of asymptomatic TRANS cases. Finally, we calculate the likely underreporting factor for the population and use this to adjust our prevalence SERO estimate further. We use our method to estimate the prevalence SERO for 166 countries (or the states of the United States of America, hereafter referred to as US state) where sufficient data were available. Our estimates show that as of the 30th July 2020, the top three countries with the highest estimated prevalence SERO are Brazil (1.26%, 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.37), Kyrgyzstan (1.10%, 95% CI: 0.82 - 1.19) and Suriname (0.58%, 95% CI: 0.44 - 0.63). Brazil is predicted to have the largest proportion of all the current global cases (30.41%, 95%CI: 27.52 - 30.84), followed by the USA (14.52%, 95%CI: 14.26 - 16.34) and India (11.23%, 95%CI: 11.11 - 11.24). Amongst the US states, the highest prevalence SERO is predicted to be in Louisiana (1.07%, 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.12), Florida (0.90%, 95% CI: 0.86 - 0.94) and Mississippi (0.77%, 95% CI: 0.74 - 0.81) whereas amongst European countries, the highest prevalence SERO is predicted to be in Montenegro (0.47%, 95% CI: 0.42 - 0.50), Kosovo (0.35%, 95% CI: 0.29 - 0.37) and Moldova (0.28%, 95% CI: 0.23 - 0.30). Our results suggest that Kyrgyzstan (0.04 tests per predicted case), Brazil (0.04 tests per predicted case) and Suriname (0.29 tests per predicted case) have the highest underreporting out of the countries in the top 25 prevalence SERO. In comparison, Israel (34.19 tests per predicted case), Bahrain (19.82 per predicted case) and Palestine (9.81 tests per predicted case) have the least underreporting. The results of this study may be used to understand the risk between different geographical areas and highlight regions where the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 is increasing most rapidly. The method described is quick and easy to implement. Prevalence SERO estimates should be updated on a regular basis to allow for rapid fluctuations in disease MESHD patterns.

    Clinical Mortality Review in a Large COVID-19 Cohort

    Authors: Mark P Jarrett; Susanne F Schultz; Julie S Lyall; Jason J Wang; Lori Stier; Marcella De Geronimo; Karen L Nelson

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168146 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Northwell Health (Northwell), an integrated health system in New York, treated more than 15000 inpatients with coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) at the US epicenter of the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. We describe the demographic characteristics of COVID-19 mortalities, observation of frequent rapid response teams (RRT)/ cardiac arrest HP (CA) calls for non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and factors that contributed to RRT/CA calls. Methods: A team of registered nurses reviewed medical records of inpatients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) before or on admission and died between March 13 (first Northwell inpatient expiration) and April 30, 2020 at 15 Northwell hospitals. Findings for these patients were abstracted into a database and statistically analyzed. Findings: Of 2634 COVID-19 mortalities, 56.1% had oxygen saturation levels greater than or equal to 90% on presentation and required no respiratory support. At least one RRT/CA was called on 42.2% of patients at a non-ICU level of care. Before the RRT/CA call, the most recent oxygen saturation levels for 76.6% of non-ICU patients were at least 90%. At the time RRT/CA was called, 43.1% had an oxygen saturation less than 80%. Interpretation: This study represents one of the largest cohorts of reviewed mortalities that also captures data in non-structured fields. Approximately 50% of deaths MESHD occurred at a non-ICU level of care, despite admission to the appropriate care setting with normal staffing. The data imply a sudden, unexpected deterioration in respiratory status requiring RRT/CA in a large number of non-ICU patients. Patients admitted to a non-ICU level of care suffer rapid clinical deterioration MESHD, often with a sudden decrease in oxygen saturation. These patients could benefit from additional monitoring (eg, continuous central oxygenation saturation), although this approach warrants further study.

    Cold-adapted live attenuated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine completely protects human ACE2 transgenic mice from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Sang Heui Seo; Yunyueng Jang

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.235689 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has infected more than 16,000,000 people and has caused the death MESHD of more than 650,000 individuals since December 2019. A safe and effective vaccine that can provide herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed to stop the spread of this virus among humans. Many human viral vaccines are live attenuated forms of viruses that elicit humoral and cellular immunity. Here, we describe the development of a cold-adapted live attenuated vaccine (SARS-CoV-2/human/Korea/CNUHV03-CA22{degrees}C/2020) by gradually adapting the growth of SARS-CoV-2 from 37{degrees}C to 22{degrees}C in Vero cells. This vaccine can be potentially administered to humans through nasal spray. Its single dose was observed to strongly induce the neutralising antibody SERO (>640), cellular immunity, and mucosal IgA antibody SERO in intranasally immunised K18-hACE2 mice, which are very susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection MESHD. The one-dose vaccinated mice were completely protected from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and did not show loss of body weight MESHD, death MESHD, and the presence of virus in tissues, such as the nasal turbinates, brain, lungs, and kidneys. Taken together, the cold-adapted live attenuated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine developed by us may contribute to saving of human lives from the threat of SARS-CoV-2.

    A longitudinal survey for genome-based identification of SARS-CoV-2 in sewage water in selected lockdown areas of Lahore city, Pakistan; a potential approach for future smart lockdown strategy

    Authors: Tahir Yaqub; Muhammad Nawaz; Muhammad Zubair Shabbir; Muhammad Asad Ali; Imran Altaf; Sohail Raza; Muhammad Abu Bakr Shabbir; Muhammad Adnan Ashraf; Syed Zahid Aziz; Sohail Qadir Cheema; Muhammad Bilal Shah; Sohail Hassan; Saira Rafique; Nageen Sardar; Adnan Mehmood; Muhammad Waqar Aziz; Sehar Fazal; Nadir Khan; Muhammad Tahir Khan; Muhammad Moavia Attique; Ali Asif; Muhammad Anwar; Nabeel Ahmad Awan; Muhammad Usman Younis; Muhammad Ajmal Bhatti; Zarfishan Tahir; Nadia Mukhtar; Huda Sarwar; Maaz Sohail Rana

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165126 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections MESHD has affected more than 15 million people and, as of 22 July 2019, caused deaths MESHD of more than 0.6 million individuals globally. With the excretion of SARS-CoV-2 in the stool of symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 patients, its genome detection in the sewage water can be used as a powerful epidemiological tool to predict the number of positive cases in a population. This study was conducted to detect SARS-CoV-2 genome in sewage water during the lockdown. Sewage samples, from 28 pre-selected sites, were collected on alternate days from 13-25 July, 2020 from two selected areas [Johar Town (n = 05) and Township (n = 23)], where smart lockdown were implemented by the government authorities on 9th July, 2020. Genomic RNA was extracted and the SARS-CoV-2 was detected and quantified using commercially available kit through Real-Time PCR. Out of 28, sixteen samples were positive on day one while 19, 17, 23, 17, 05 and 09 samples were positive on day 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13, respectively. These results indicate the decreasing viral copy load with the passage of time however few sites did not followed a clear pattern indicating the complexities in sewage water based surveillance i.e time of sampling. Hourly sampling from two sites for 24 hours also revealed the impact of time sampling time on detection of SARS-CoV-2 genome in sewage pipelines and lift/disposal stations. Results of current study indicate a possible role of sewage-based COVID-19 surveillance in monitoring and execution of smart lockdowns.

    Epidemiological characteristics of SARS-COV-2 in Myanmar

    Authors: Aung Min Thway; Htun Tayza; Tun Tun Win; Ye Minn Tun; Moe Myint Aung; Yan Naung Win; Kyaw M Tun

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166504 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is an infectious disease MESHD caused by a newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In Myanmar, first COVID-19 reported cases were identified on 23rd March 2020. There were 336 reported confirmed cases TRANS, 261 recovered and 6 deaths MESHD through 13th July 2020. The study was a retrospective case series and all COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS from 23rd March to 13th July 2020 were included. The data series of COVID-19 cases were extracted from the daily official reports of the Ministry of Health and Sports (MOHS), Myanmar and Centers for Disease MESHD Control and Prevention (CDC), Myanmar. Among 336 confirmed cases TRANS, there were 169 cases with reported transmission TRANS events. The median serial interval TRANS was 4 days (IQR 3, 2-5) with the range of 0 - 26 days. The mean of the reproduction number TRANS was 1.44 with (95% CI = 1.30-1.60) by exponential growth method and 1.32 with (95% CI = 0.98-1.73) confident interval by maximum likelihood method. This study outlined the epidemiological characteristics and epidemic parameters of COVID-19 in Myanmar. The estimation parameters in this study can be comparable with other studies and variability of these parameters can be considered when implementing disease MESHD control strategy in Myanmar.

    90 Days of COVID-19 Social Distancing and Its Impacts on Air Quality and Health in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Authors: Daniela Debone; Mariana da Costa; Simone Miraglia

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0022.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: preprints.org

    The coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic caused by spreading rapidly a severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has imposed a unique situation for the humanity. Sao Paulo has reported 124,105 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 and 5,623 deaths MESHD up to June 14th, being considered the epicenter of the pandemic in Brazil and in South America. Due to the measures for social distancing, there was a drop in the air pollution concentration in Sao Paulo. Starting on March 16th, 2020, we broke 90 days of social distancing into 13 weeks and compared to an equivalent period in 2019. We investigated the air quality improvement during the quarantine period and compared the associated avoided deaths MESHD to COVID-19 burden deaths MESHD. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was the best indicator of air quality in the analyzed weeks, since its reduction reached 58 %. Our study showed that the 5,623 deaths MESHD occurred during the analyzed weeks of quarantine represents an economic health loss of US$ 10.5 billion. In opposite, we observed a significant air quality improvement due to pollutants concentrations’ reductions during the analyzed weeks. Considering PM10, PM2.5 and NO2, the decrease of concentration levels respectively avoided 78, 337 and 387 premature deaths MESHD and prevented up to US$ 1.5 billion on health costs. These results highlight the importance of continuing to enforce existing air pollution regulations and measures to protect human health both during and after COVID-19 pandemic.

    High SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in Health Care Workers but relatively low numbers of deaths MESHD in urban Malawi

    Authors: Marah Grace Chibwana; Khuzwayo Chidiwa Jere; Jonathan Mandolo; Vincent Katunga-Phiri; Dumizulu Tembo; Ndaona Mitole; Samantha Musasa; Simon Sichone; Agness Lakudzala; Lusako Sibale; Prisca Matambo; Innocent Kadwala; Rachel Louise Byrne; Alice Mbewe; Marc Y.R. Henrion; Ben Morton; Chimota Phiri; Jane Mallewa; Henry C Mwandumba; Emily R Adams; Stephen B Gordon; Kondwani Charles Jambo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164970 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background In low-income countries, like Malawi, important public health measures including social distancing or a lockdown, have been challenging to implement owing to socioeconomic constraints, leading to predictions that the COVID-19 pandemic would progress rapidly. However, due to limited capacity to test for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD, there are no reliable estimates of the true burden of infection MESHD and death MESHD. We, therefore, conducted a SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey amongst health care workers (HCW) in Blantyre city to estimate the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in urban Malawi. Methods Five hundred otherwise asymptomatic TRANS HCWs were recruited from Blantyre City (Malawi) from 22nd May 2020 to 19th June 2020 and serum samples SERO were collected all participants. A commercial ELISA SERO was used to measure SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in serum SERO. We run local negative samples (2018 - 2019) to verify the specificity of the assay. To estimate the seroprevalence SERO of SARS CoV-2 antibodies SERO, we adjusted the proportion of positive results based on local specificity of the assay. Results Eighty-four participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. The HCW with a positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO result came from different parts of the city. The adjusted seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO was 12.3% [CI 9.0-15.7]. Using age TRANS-stratified infection MESHD fatality estimates reported from elsewhere, we found that at the observed adjusted seroprevalence SERO, the number of predicted deaths MESHD was 8 times the number of reported deaths MESHD. Conclusion The high seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO among HCW and the discrepancy in the predicted versus reported deaths MESHD, suggests that there was early exposure but slow progression of COVID-19 epidemic in urban Malawi. This highlights the urgent need for development of locally parameterised mathematical models to more accurately predict the trajectory of the epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa for better evidence-based policy decisions and public health response planning.

    Fighting COVID-19 spread among nursing home residents even in absence of molecular diagnosis: a retrospective cohort study.

    Authors: Alessio Strazzulla; Paul Tarteret; Maria Concetta Postorino; Marie Picque; Astrid de Pontfarcy; Nicolas Vignier; Catherine Chakvetadze; Coralie Noel; Cecile Drouin; Zine Eddine Benguerdi; Sylvain Diamantis

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51305/v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Access to molecular diagnosis was limited out-of-hospital in France during the 2020 coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. This study describes the evolution of COVID-19 outbreak in a nursing home in absence of molecular diagnosis. Methods A monocentric prospective study was conducted in a French nursing home from March 17th, 2020 to June 11th, 2020. Because of lack of molecular tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD 2 (SARS-Cov2) infection MESHD, probable COVID-19 cases were early identified considering only respiratory and not-respiratory symptoms and therefore preventing measures and treatments were enforced. Once available, serology tests were performed at the end of the study.A chronologic description of new cases and deaths MESHD was made together with a description of COVID-19 symptoms. Data about personal characteristics and treatments were collected and the following comparisons were performed: i) probable COVID-19 cases vs asymptomatic TRANS residents; ii) SARS-Cov2 seropositive residents vs seronegative residents. Results Overall, 32/66 (48.5%) residents and 19/39 (48.7%) members of health-care personnel were classified as probable COVID-19 cases. A total of 34/61 (55.7%) tested residents resulted seropositive. Death MESHD occurred in 4/66 (6%) residents. Diagnosis according to symptoms had 65% of sensitivity SERO, 78% of specificity, 79% of positive predictive value SERO and 64% of negative predictive value SERO.In resident population, the following symptoms were registered: 15/32 (46.8%) lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP, 15/32 (46.8%) fever MESHD fever HP, 8/32 (25%) fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, 8/32 (25%) cough MESHD cough HP, 6/32 (18.8%) diarrhoea, 4/32 (12.5%) severe respiratory distress HP requiring oxygen therapy, 4/32 (12.5%) fall HP, 3/32 (9.4%) conjunctivitis MESHD conjunctivitis HP, 2/32 (6.3%) abnormal pulmonary noise at chest examination and 2/32 (6,25%) abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP. Probable COVID-19 cases were older (81.3 vs 74.9; p=0.007) and they had higher prevalence SERO of atrial fibrillation MESHD atrial fibrillation HP (8/32, 25% vs 2/34, 12%; p=0.030); insulin treatment (4/34, 12% vs 0, 0%; p=0.033) and positive SARS-Cov2 serology (22/32, 69% vs 12/34, 35%; p=0.001) than asymptomatic TRANS residents. Seropositive residents had lower prevalence SERO of diabetes (4/34, 12% vs 9/27, 33%; p=0.041) and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors’ intake (1/34, 1% vs 5/27, 19%; p=0.042). Conclusions During SARS-Cov2 epidemic, early detection of respiratory and not-respiratory symptoms allowed to enforce extraordinary measures. They achieved limiting contagion and deaths MESHD among nursing home residents, even in absence of molecular diagnosis.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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