Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (14)

Cough (11)

Pneumonia (6)

Fatigue (5)

Hypertension (4)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 79
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    Detection of asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD among healthcare workers: results from a large-scale screening program based on rapid serological testing SERO.

    Authors: Francesca Maria Carozzi; Maria Grazia Cusi; Mauro Pistello; Luisa Galli; Alessandro Bartoloni; Gabriele Anichini; Chiara Azzari; Michele Emdin; Claudia Gandolfo; Fabrizio Maggi; Elisabetta Mantengoli; Maria Moriondo; Giovanna Moscato; Irene Paganini; Claudio Passino; Francesco Profili; Fabio Voller; Marco Zappa; Filippo Quattrone; Gian Maria Rossolini; Paolo Francesconi; - SARS-CoV-2 Serosurvey Tuscan Working Group

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20149567 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the performance SERO of two available rapid immunological tests for identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 ( SARS-CoV-2) antibodies SERO and their subsequent application to a regional screening of health care workers (HCW) in Tuscany (Italy). Design: measures of accuracy and HCW serological surveillance Setting: 6 major health facilities in Tuscany, Italy. Participants: 17,098 HCW of the Tuscany Region. Measures of accuracy were estimated to assess sensitivity SERO in 176 hospitalized Covid-19 clinical subjects at least 14 days after a diagnostic PCR-positive assay result. Specificity was assessed in 295 sera biobanked in the pre-Covid-19 era in winter or summer 2013-14 Main outcome measures: Sensitivity SERO and specificity, and 95% confidence intervals, were measured using two serological tests SERO, named T-1 and T-2. Positive and Negative predictive values SERO were estimated at different levels of prevalence SERO. HCW of the health centers were tested using the serological SERO tests, with a follow- up nasopharyngeal PCR-test swab in positive tested cases. Results: Sensitivity SERO was estimated as 99% (95%CI: 95%-100%) and 97% (95% CI: 90%-100%), whereas specificity was the 95% and 92%, for Test T-1 and T-2 respectively. In the historical samples IgM cross-reactions were detected in sera collected during the winter period, probably linked to other human coronaviruses. Out of the 17,098 tested, 3.1% have shown the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO, among them 6.8% were positive at PCR follow-up test on nasopharyngeal swabs. Conclusion Based on the low prevalence SERO estimate observed in this survey, the use of serological test SERO as a stand-alone test is not justified to assess the individual immunity status. Serological tests SERO showed good performance SERO and might be useful in an integrated surveillance, for identification of infected subjects and their contacts as required by the policy of contact tracing TRANS, with the aim to reduce the risk of dissemination, especially in health service facilities.

    Household transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis of secondary attack rate TRANS

    Authors: Zachary J. Madewell; Yang Yang; Ira M. Longini Jr.; M. Elizabeth Halloran; Natalie E. Dean

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164590 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spread by direct, indirect, or close contact TRANS with infected people via infected respiratory droplets or saliva. Crowded indoor environments with sustained close contact TRANS and conversations are a particularly high-risk setting. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis through July 29, 2020 of SARS-CoV-2 household secondary attack rate TRANS ( SAR TRANS), disaggregating by several covariates (contact type, symptom status, adult TRANS/ child TRANS contacts, contact sex, relationship to index case, index case sex, number of contacts in household TRANS, coronavirus). Findings: We identified 40 relevant published studies that report household secondary transmission TRANS. The estimated overall household SAR TRANS was 18.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.4%-22.2%), which is higher than previously observed SARs for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. We observed that household SARs were significantly higher from symptomatic index cases than asymptomatic TRANS index cases, to adult TRANS contacts than children TRANS contacts, to spouses than other family contacts, and in households TRANS with one contact than households TRANS with three or more contacts. Interpretation: To prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, people are being asked to stay at home worldwide. With suspected or confirmed infections TRANS infections MESHD referred to isolate at home, household transmission TRANS will continue to be a significant source of transmission TRANS.

    Rapid real-time tracking of non-pharmaceutical interventions and their association SARS-CoV-2 positivity: The COVID-19 Pandemic Pulse Study

    Authors: Steven J. Clipman; Amy P. Wesolowski; Dustin G. Gibson; Smisha Agarwal; Anastasia S. Lambrou; Gregory D. Kirk; Alain B. Labrique; Shruti H. Mehta; Sunil S. Solomon

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164665 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Current mitigation strategies for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rely on population-wide adoption of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Collecting demographically and geographically resolved data on NPIs and their association with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD history can provide critical information related to reopening geographies. Methods: We sampled 1,030 individuals in Maryland from June 17 - June 28, 2020 to capture socio-demographically and geographically resolved information about NPI adoption, access to SARS-CoV-2 testing, and examine associations with self-reported SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Results: Median age TRANS of the sample was 43 years and 45% were men; Whites and Blacks/African Americans represented 60% and 23%, respectively. Overall, 96% of the sample reported traveling TRANS outside their home for non-employment related services: most commonly cited reasons were essential services (92%) and visiting friends TRANS/family (66%). Use of public transport was reported by 18% of respondents. 68% reported always social distancing indoors and 53% always wearing masks indoors; indoor social distancing was significantly less common among younger vs. older individuals, and race/ethnicity and income were significantly associated with mask use (p<0.05 for all). 55 participants (5.3%) self-reported ever testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 with strong dose-response relationships between movement frequency and SARS-CoV-2 positivity that were significantly attenuated by social distancing. In multivariable analysis, history of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was negatively associated with the practice of social distancing (adjusted Odd Ratio [aOR]: 0.10; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.03 - 0.33); the only travel TRANS associated with higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was use of public transport (aOR for 7 or more times vs. never: 4.29) and visiting a place of worship (aOR for 3 or more times vs. never: 16.0) after adjusting for social distancing. Conclusions: Using a rapid cost-efficient approach, we highlight the role of movement and social distancing on SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk TRANS. Continued monitoring of NPI uptake, access to testing, and the subsequent impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS will be critical for pandemic control and decisions about reopening geographies.

    Infectivity, susceptibility, and risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS under intensive contact tracing TRANS in Hunan, China

    Authors: Shixiong Hu; Wei Wang; Yan Wang; Maria Litvinova; Kaiwei Luo; Lingshuang Ren; Qianlai Sun; Xinghui Chen; Ge Zeng; Jing Li; Lu Liang; Zhihong Deng; Wen Zheng; Mei Li; Hao Yang; Jinxin Guo; Kai Wang; Xinhua Chen; Ziyan Liu; Han Yan; Huilin Shi; Zhiyuan Chen; Yonghong Zhou; Kaiyuan Sun; Alessandro Vespignani; Cécile Viboud; Lidong Gao; Marco Ajelli; Hongjie Yu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20160317 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Importance Several parameters driving the transmission TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain unclear, including age TRANS-specific differences in infectivity and susceptibility, and the contribution of inapparent infections MESHD to transmission TRANS. Robust estimates of key time-to-event distributions remain scarce as well. Objective Illustrate SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS patterns and risk factors, and estimate key time-to-event distributions. Design, Setting, and Participants Individual-based data on 1,178 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and their 15,648 contacts identified by contact tracing TRANS monitoring over the period from January 13-April 02, 2020 were extracted from the notifiable infectious diseases MESHD reporting system in Hunan Province, China. Demographic characteristics, severity classification, exposure and travel TRANS history, and key clinical timelines were retrieved. Exposures Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD by positive polymerase chain reaction test result of respiratory samples, and exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals via household, relative, social, and other types of contacts. Main Outcomes and Measures The relative contribution of pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS transmission TRANS, key time-to-event parameters, and the effect of biological, demographic, and behavioral factors on SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and susceptibility were quantified. Results Among SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals, the estimated mean serial interval TRANS was 5.5 days (95%CI -5.0, 19.9) and the mean generation time was 5.5 days (95%CI 1.7, 11.6). Infectiousness was estimated to peak 1.8 days before symptom onset TRANS, with 95% of transmission TRANS events occurring between -7.6 days and 7.3 days from the date of symptom onset TRANS. The proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission TRANS was estimated at 62.5%, while a lower bound for the proportion of asymptomatic TRANS transmission TRANS was 3.5%. Infectiousness of SARS-CoV-2 was not significantly different between working- age TRANS adults TRANS (15-59 years old) and other age groups TRANS (0-14 years old: p-value=0.16; 60 years and over: p-value=0.33), whilst susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was estimated to increase with age TRANS (p-value=0.03). In addition, transmission risk TRANS was higher for household contacts TRANS (p-value<0.001), but decreased in later generations of a cluster (second generation: OR=0.13, p-value<0.001; generations 3-4: OR=0.05, p-value<0.001, relative to generation 1) and for those exposed to infectors with a larger number of contacts (p-value=0.04). Conclusions and Relevance These findings support the contribution of children TRANS to transmission TRANS and the importance of pre-symptomatic transmission TRANS, in turn highlighting the importance of large-scale testing, contact tracing TRANS activities, and the use of personnel protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in children TRANS of parents TRANS with symptomatic COVID-19

    Authors: Shidan Tosif; Melanie Neelan; Philip Sutton; Paul Licciardi; Sohinee Sarkar; Kevin Selva; Lien Anh Ha Do; Celeste Donato; Zheng Quan Toh; Rachel Higgins; Carolien van de Sandt; Melissa Lemke; Christina Lee; Suzanne Shoffner; Katie Flanagan; Kelly Arnold; Francesca Mordant; Kim Mulholland; Julie Bines; Kate Dohle; Dan Pellicci; Nigel Curtis; Sarah McNab; Andrew Steer; Richard Saffery; Kanta Subbarao; Amy Chung; Katherine Kedzierska; David Burgner; Nigel Crawford

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-47021/v1 Date: 2020-07-21 Source: ResearchSquare

    Compared to adults TRANS, children TRANS with severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have mild or asymptomatic infection MESHD asymptomatic TRANS, but the underlying immunological differences remain unclear. We describe clinical features, virology, longitudinal cellular and cytokine immune profile, SARS-CoV-2-specific serology and salivary antibody SERO responses in a family of two parents TRANS with PCR-confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and their three children TRANS, who were repeatedly SARS-CoV-2 PCR negative. Cellular immune profiles and cytokine responses of all children TRANS were similar to their parents TRANS at all timepoints. All family members TRANS had salivary anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO detected, predominantly IgA, that coincided with symptom resolution in 3 of 4 symptomatic members. Plasma SERO from both parents TRANS and one child TRANS had IgG antibody SERO detected against the S1 protein and virus neutralising activity ranging from just detectable to robust titers. Using a systems serology approach, we show that all family members TRANS demonstrated higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody SERO features than healthy controls. These data indicate that children TRANS can mount an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 without virological evidence of infection MESHD. This raises the possibility that despite chronic exposure, immunity in children TRANS prevents establishment of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Relying on routine virological and serological testing SERO may therefore not identify exposed children TRANS, with implications for epidemiological and clinical studies across the life-span.

    SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in recovered COVID-19 cases and the presence of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 in recovered COVID-19 cases and close contacts TRANS

    Authors: Chintana Chirathaworn; Manit Sripramote; Piti Chalongviriyalert; Supunee Jirajariyavej; Phatharaporn Kiatpanabhikul; Jatuporn Saiyarin; Chulikorn Soudon; Orawan Thienfaidee; Thitisan Palakawong Na Ayuthaya; Chantapat Brukesawan; Dootchai Chaiwanichsiri; Duangnapa Intharasongkroh; Nasamon Wanlapakorn; Jira Chansaenroj; Jiratchaya Puenpa; Ritthideach Yorsaeng; Arunee Thitithanyanont; Rungrueng Kitphati; Anek Mungaomklang; Pijaya Nagavajara; Yong Poovorawan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.17.208439 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: bioRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 emerged in December 2019 and has spread globally. Although Thailand has been effective at controlling the spread of COVID-19, disease MESHD surveillance and information on antibody SERO responses in infected cases and close contacts TRANS are needed because there is still no specific treatment or vaccine available. We investigated 217 recovered COVID-19 cases to monitor their viral RNA shedding and production of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. The presence of antibodies SERO in blood SERO samples from 308 close contacts TRANS of COVID-19 cases was also determined. Viral RNA was still detectable in 6.6 % of recovered COVID-19 cases. The most prolonged duration of viral RNA shedding detected in this study was 105 days. IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 13.82, 88.48, and 83.41 % of the recovered cases 4-12 weeks after disease MESHD onset, respectively. Although the patients had recovered from their illness, the levels of antibodies SERO detected showed association with their symptoms during their stay in hospital. Fifteen of the 308 contacts (4.87 %) of COVID-19 cases tested positive for IgG antibodies SERO. The presence of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 suggested that there was viral exposure among close contacts TRANS. Viral clearance and the pattern of antibody SERO responses in infected individuals are both crucial for effectively combatting SARS-CoV-2. Our study provides additional information on the natural history of this newly emerging disease MESHD related to both natural host defenses and a strategy for vaccine development.

    Presymptomatic Transmission TRANS and Diverse Progression of Familial Clustering Covid-19 Cases in Zhoushan, China

    Authors: Miao Liu; Leijie Liu; Ping Li; Yibo Ding; Ting Wu; Weina Tang; Zhongfa Wang; Guangwen Cao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44177/v1 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-caused emerging infectious disease MESHD, firstly identified in Wuhan (Hubei, China), is pandemic. However, data concerning presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS and disease MESHD diversity among family members TRANS are limited. Herein, We investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of presymptomatic transmission TRANS-caused familial clustering cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Zhoushan island, China.Methods All family members TRANS were tested for SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA by quantitative reverse transcription PCR in 3 different samples and serum SERO antibody SERO immunoglobin M (IgM) and IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Exposure identification, laboratory test, and imaging were performed according to the national guideline of COVID-19 (7th edition, China).Results Of the 6 cases, index case who ever met his relative with COVID-19 from Xianning, Hubei on January 26–31, 2020, transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to his family members TRANS in Zhoushan via visiting family during January 31 and February 3, 2020. The index was identified as common-type COVID-19 on February 6, 2020. All 5 family members TRANS were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Of those, a 7-year-old girl was an asymptomatic TRANS carrier TRANS whereas her grandparents, especially her grandfather, were very sick. Case 6 (grandfather) remained positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in his sputum specimen in subsequent 2 months. Case 2 (mother) tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in all samples but positive for IgM and IgG to SARS-CoV-2 since February 9, 2020.Conclusions Presymptomatic transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 causes familial cluster of COVID-19. Exposed to the same source of infection MESHD, family members TRANS present their differences in disease MESHD severity and viral clearance.

    Comparison of the COVID-19 infection MESHD infection risks TRANS infection risks TRANS risks by close contact TRANS and aerosol transmission TRANS

    Authors: Xiaole Zhang; Jing Wang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.13.20152900 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: medRxiv

    A comprehensive understanding of the transmission TRANS routes of the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of great importance for the effective control of the spread of Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Human-to-human transmission TRANS by close contact TRANS where large respiratory droplets play a significant role has been established as the main transmission TRANS route. At the same time the transmission TRANS by small aerosol is getting increasing attention. There is no distinct boundary between droplets and aerosol in nature so it is natural to investigate the infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk due to aerosol. Here, we utilized a newly developed dose-response relation, combined with a box model for the exposure estimation, to quantitatively evaluate the infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk of SARS-CoV-2 through aerosol transmission TRANS and compared with the risk due to close contact TRANS. The results indicated that the median infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk via aerosol transmission TRANS was about 3.7x10-5 (95% confidence interval: 3.5x10-6 to 4.4x10-4) for one hour of exposure in a room with the size of 10 m (width)x10 m (length)x3 m (height) with one infected individual in it. The risk was more than three orders of magnitude lower than the risk at short distance, about 12.8% within 1 m, based on a meta-analysis. A simple exponential regression model Risk=10-0.90xD+0.10 (D<=5 m) could be utilized to characterize the magnitude of infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk in the considered scenario based on the distance D from the infected individual. With prolonged exposure duration and large exposed population, the infection MESHD caused by aerosol transmission TRANS could be considerable, thus it is necessary to be cautious for the potential aerosol transmission risk TRANS in such situations.

    Psychosocial impact of respiratory infectious disease MESHD pandemics on children TRANS: a systematic review

    Authors: Chenran Wang; Shuyue Xiao; Yijie Sun; Jinpeng Wang; Tao Xu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-41460/v1 Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective To examine the impact of respiratory infectious disease MESHD pandemics in the new millennium on mental health, behavioral responses, and parenting TRANS practices in children TRANS, and provide further intervention directions to mitigate negative effects of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19).Methods We conducted a systemic literature review of researches from January 2003 to May 2020 with three mainstream electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Quality of included studies were assessed using Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) according to different study design. Further directions were identified for developing appropriate interventions.Results Twenty-four studies conducted in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS) (n = 10), influenza A (H1N1) (n = 3), and COVID-19 (n = 11) pandemics met the inclusion criteria. Children TRANS showed emotional conditions such as anxiety HP, fear, and depression, while psychological responses varied across age TRANS and gender TRANS groups. Children TRANS with mental illness history experienced an exacerbation of psychological symptoms. The pandemics changed hygiene habits and learning styles, and led to the increased participation in unfavorable lifestyles. For families with pediatric patients, the pandemic decreased parents’ participation in providing family-centered care and threatened to supportive family relationship and effective parents TRANS- child TRANS communication.Conclusion The emerging virus outbreaks and subsequent disease MESHD-control measures have impacts on mental health status, behavioral responses, and parenting TRANS practices in children TRANS. In response to COVID-19, greater efforts taking into account children’s developmental stage should be made to implement evidence-based psychological interventions, enhance effective communication, and encourage collaboration.

    Health-Care Organization For The Management and Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD in Children TRANS During Pandemic in Italy

    Authors: Francesco Nunziata; Eugenia Bruzzese; Marco Poeta; Luca Pierri; Andrea Catzola; Gian Paolo Ciccarelli; Edoardo Vassallo; Emma Montella; Andrea Lo Vecchio; Alfredo Guarino

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-41370/v1 Date: 2020-07-13 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: In comparison with adults TRANS, severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS has a milder course. The management of children TRANS with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) needs to be appropriately targeted. Methods: We designed a hub-and-spoke system involving a Hub Centre to provide relevant healthcare information, based on the use of telemedicine and stringent admission criteria. Result: Between March and April 2020, the Hub Centre managed a total of 119 children TRANS (62 males TRANS, 52%; median age TRANS, 5.5 years; interquartile range [IQR], 2; 10) with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Of the 119 children TRANS, 90 were managed in cooperation with family paediatricians and 29 with hospital-based physicians. In total, 8 (6.7%) children TRANS were hospitalised, with a median length of hospital stay of 10 days (IQR, 8.5 days; range, 4–22 days). Conclusion: case-by-case management allows a global evaluation in which the clinical condition is one determinant in medical decision-making along with the use of isolation to prevent the spread of COVID-19 among family members TRANS and cohabitants, and biocontainment measures. Large centres could coordinate paediatric COVID-19 cases through telemedicine, taking advantage of the generally milder presentation in children TRANS but also considering their dependence on adults TRANS and risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD spreading.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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