Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (20)

Fever (13)

Cough (11)

Dyspnea (6)

Severe infection (4)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 110
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    Association of mental disorders with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe health outcomes: a nationwide cohort study

    Authors: Ha-Lim Jeon; Jun Soo Kwon; So-Hee Park; Ju-Young Shin

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20169201 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: No epidemiological data exists for the association between mental disorders and the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) severity. Aims: To evaluate the association between mental disorders and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP and severe outcomes following COVID-19. Methods: We performed a cohort study using the Korean COVID-19 patient database based on the national health insurance data. Each patient with a mental or behavioral disorder (diagnosed during six months prior to the first SARS-CoV-2 test) was matched by age TRANS, sex, and Charlson comorbidity index with up to four patients without mental disorders. SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk and risk of death MESHD or severe events (intensive care unit admission, use of mechanical ventilation, and acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD) post- infection MESHD were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 230,565 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2, 33,653 (14.6%) had mental disorders, 928/33,653 (2.76%) tested positive, and 56/928 (6.03%) died. In multivariate analysis with the matched cohort, there was no association between mental disorders and SARS-CoV-2 positivity risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.12); however, a higher risk was associated with schizophrenia HP-related disorders (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.02-1.81). Among confirmed cases TRANS, mortality risk significantly increased in patients with mental disorders (OR, 1.84, 95% CI, 1.07-3.15). Conclusion: Mental disorders are likely contributing factors of mortality following COVID-19. Although the infection MESHD infection risk TRANS infection risk TRANS risk did not increase in overall mental disorders, patients with schizophrenia HP-related disorders were more vulnerable to the infection MESHD.

    Epidemiological characteristics of SARS-COV-2 in Myanmar

    Authors: Aung Min Thway; Htun Tayza; Tun Tun Win; Ye Minn Tun; Moe Myint Aung; Yan Naung Win; Kyaw M Tun

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.02.20166504 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is an infectious disease MESHD caused by a newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In Myanmar, first COVID-19 reported cases were identified on 23rd March 2020. There were 336 reported confirmed cases TRANS, 261 recovered and 6 deaths MESHD through 13th July 2020. The study was a retrospective case series and all COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS from 23rd March to 13th July 2020 were included. The data series of COVID-19 cases were extracted from the daily official reports of the Ministry of Health and Sports (MOHS), Myanmar and Centers for Disease MESHD Control and Prevention (CDC), Myanmar. Among 336 confirmed cases TRANS, there were 169 cases with reported transmission TRANS events. The median serial interval TRANS was 4 days (IQR 3, 2-5) with the range of 0 - 26 days. The mean of the reproduction number TRANS was 1.44 with (95% CI = 1.30-1.60) by exponential growth method and 1.32 with (95% CI = 0.98-1.73) confident interval by maximum likelihood method. This study outlined the epidemiological characteristics and epidemic parameters of COVID-19 in Myanmar. The estimation parameters in this study can be comparable with other studies and variability of these parameters can be considered when implementing disease MESHD control strategy in Myanmar.

    Study on the COVID-19 infection MESHD status, prevention and control strategies among entry people in Shenzhen

    Authors: Jing-Zhong Wang; Xuan Zou; Zi-Qian Xu; Hai-Rui Wang; Bi-Xin Wang; Jian-Fan He

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52913/v1 Date: 2020-08-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The COVID-19 confirmed cases TRANS overseas continue to rise for months, while people overseas prefer to return at present. It is risky to have a large number of infected imported cases which may cause COVID-19 spread to China and even lead to outbreak again. In order to prevent imported infection MESHD, Shenzhen implemented the losed-loop management strategy by taking nucleic acid testing (NAT) for severe acute respiratory syndromes MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and medical observation for 14 days among individuals who have epidemic history (Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan province and other countries) within 14 days. Our study described the status of COVID-19 infection MESHD among entry people in Shenzhen, and also evaluated the effect of closed-loop management strategy.Methods A total of 86,844 people overseas entered Shenzhen from January 1 to April 18, 2020, and there were 39 imported cases. We made a descriptive study by analyzing the entry time, reported time, local confirmed cases TRANS in origin countries, and the number of entry people from abroad. The NAT were completed in Shenzhen center for disease MESHD control and prevention (CDC), ten district-level CDCs, as well as fever MESHD fever HP clinics.Results The infection MESHD rate of entry people was 4.49‰ (95% CI: 3.26‰ − 6.05‰). Most of the entry people or imported cases have Chinese nationality. The number of entry people and imported cases in Nanshan and Futian districts were larger than others. 15.73% of the entry people came from the US, and 12.67% came from the UK. 14 imported cases (35.9%) came from the UK, 9 (23.08%) came from the US. The imported risks from the US and UK in Shenzhen were higher than other countries or regions. According to the 14-days’ incubation period TRANS and the number of entry people, individuals from the US since Mar 9 were the high-risk population. Accordingly, entry people from the UK since Mar 13 were the high-risk population. It is important to evaluate the imported risk by analyzing local confirmed cases TRANS status in origin countries or regions and the number of entry people from these countries or regions to Shenzhen. The distribution of entry time and report time for imported cases in Shenzhen were similar. So it is important to prevent and control COVID-19 imported infection MESHD by taking NAT and medical observation at port.Conclusions It is effective to implement closed-loop management strategy for individuals who have epidemic history (Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan province and other countries) within 14 days. In order to control COVID-19 outbreak, we need the collaboration and cooperation at the global, national, and subnational levels to prevent, detect, and respond effectively.

    90 Days of COVID-19 Social Distancing and Its Impacts on Air Quality and Health in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Authors: Daniela Debone; Mariana da Costa; Simone Miraglia

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0022.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: preprints.org

    The coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic caused by spreading rapidly a severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has imposed a unique situation for the humanity. Sao Paulo has reported 124,105 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 and 5,623 deaths MESHD up to June 14th, being considered the epicenter of the pandemic in Brazil and in South America. Due to the measures for social distancing, there was a drop in the air pollution concentration in Sao Paulo. Starting on March 16th, 2020, we broke 90 days of social distancing into 13 weeks and compared to an equivalent period in 2019. We investigated the air quality improvement during the quarantine period and compared the associated avoided deaths MESHD to COVID-19 burden deaths MESHD. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was the best indicator of air quality in the analyzed weeks, since its reduction reached 58 %. Our study showed that the 5,623 deaths MESHD occurred during the analyzed weeks of quarantine represents an economic health loss of US$ 10.5 billion. In opposite, we observed a significant air quality improvement due to pollutants concentrations’ reductions during the analyzed weeks. Considering PM10, PM2.5 and NO2, the decrease of concentration levels respectively avoided 78, 337 and 387 premature deaths MESHD and prevented up to US$ 1.5 billion on health costs. These results highlight the importance of continuing to enforce existing air pollution regulations and measures to protect human health both during and after COVID-19 pandemic.

    Household transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis of secondary attack rate TRANS

    Authors: Zachary J. Madewell; Yang Yang; Ira M. Longini Jr.; M. Elizabeth Halloran; Natalie E. Dean

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164590 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spread by direct, indirect, or close contact TRANS with infected people via infected respiratory droplets or saliva. Crowded indoor environments with sustained close contact TRANS and conversations are a particularly high-risk setting. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis through July 29, 2020 of SARS-CoV-2 household secondary attack rate TRANS ( SAR TRANS), disaggregating by several covariates (contact type, symptom status, adult TRANS/ child TRANS contacts, contact sex, relationship to index case, index case sex, number of contacts in household TRANS, coronavirus). Findings: We identified 40 relevant published studies that report household secondary transmission TRANS. The estimated overall household SAR TRANS was 18.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.4%-22.2%), which is higher than previously observed SARs for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. We observed that household SARs were significantly higher from symptomatic index cases than asymptomatic TRANS index cases, to adult TRANS contacts than children TRANS contacts, to spouses than other family contacts, and in households TRANS with one contact than households TRANS with three or more contacts. Interpretation: To prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, people are being asked to stay at home worldwide. With suspected or confirmed infections TRANS infections MESHD referred to isolate at home, household transmission TRANS will continue to be a significant source of transmission TRANS.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibodies SERO in Utsunomiya City, Greater Tokyo, after first pandemic in 2020 (U-CORONA): a household- and population-based study

    Authors: Nobutoshi Nawa; Jin Kuramochi; Shiro Sonoda; Yui Yamaoka; Yoko Nukui; Yasunari Miyazaki; Takeo Fujiwara

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20155945 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The number of confirmed cases TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections MESHD in Japan are substantially lower in comparison to the US and UK, potentially due to the under-implementation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Studies reported that more than half of the SARS-CoV-2 infections are asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS, confirming the importance for conducting seroepidemiological studies. Although the seroepidemiological studies in Japan observed a reported prevalence SERO of 0.10% in Tokyo, 0.17% in Osaka, and 0.03% in Miyagi, sampling bias was not considered. The study objective was to assess the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in a random sample of households in Utsunomiya City in Tochigi Prefecture, Greater Tokyo, Japan. Methods: We launched the Utsunomiya COVID-19 seROprevalence SERO Neighborhood Association (U-CORONA) Study to assess the seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Utsunomiya City. The survey was conducted between 14 June 2020 and 5 July 2020, in between the first and second wave of the pandemic. Invitations enclosed with a questionnaire were sent to 2,290 people in 1,000 households randomly selected from Utsunomiya basic resident registry. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The level of IgG antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by chemiluminescence immunoassay SERO analysis. Results: Among 2,290 candidates, 753 returned the questionnaire and 742 received IgG tests (32.4 % participation rate). Of the 742 participants, 86.8% were 18 years or older, 52.6% were women, 71.1% were residing within 10 km from the test clinic, and 89.2% were living with another person. The age TRANS and sex distribution, distance to clinic and police district were similar with those of non-participants, while the proportion of single-person households was higher among non-participants than participants (16.2% vs. 10.8%). We confirmed three positive cases through quantitative antibody testing SERO. No positive cases were found among the people who live in the same household as someone with positive. All cases were afebrile. The estimated unweighted and weighted prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were 0.40% (95% confidence interval: 0.08-1.18%) and 1.23% (95% confidence interval: 0.17-2.28%), respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests the importance of detecting all cases using PCR or antigen testing, not only at a hospital, but also in areas where people assemble. Further prospective studies using this cohort are needed to monitor SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO levels.

    Time is of the essence: containment of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Switzerland from February to May 2020

    Authors: Christian L Althaus; Daniel Probst; Anthony Hauser; Julien L Riou

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20158014 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    AIM: In late February and early March 2020, Switzerland experienced rapid growth of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections MESHD with 30,243 confirmed cases TRANS and 1,860 deaths MESHD as of 10 May 2020. The sequential introduction of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) resulted in successful containment of the epidemic. A better understanding of how the timing of implementing NPIs influences the dynamics and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 epidemics will be crucial for the management of a potential resurgence in Switzerland. METHODS: We developed a dynamic transmission TRANS model that describes infection MESHD, hospitalization, recovery and death MESHD due to SARS-CoV-2 in Switzerland. Using a maximum likelihood framework, we fitted the model to aggregated daily numbers of hospitalized patients, ICU occupancy and death MESHD from 25 February to 10 May 2020. We estimated critical parameters of SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS in Switzerland and explored counterfactual scenarios of an earlier and later implementation of NPIs. RESULTS: We estimated the basic reproduction number TRANS R0 TRANS = 2.61 (95% compatibility interval, CI: 2.51-2.71) during the early exponential phase of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Switzerland. After the implementation of NPIs, the effective reproduction number TRANS approached Re = 0.64 (95% CI: 0.61-0.66). Based on the observed doubling times of the epidemic before and after the implementation of NPIs, we estimated that one week of early exponential spread required 3.1 weeks (95% CI: 2.8-3.3 weeks) of 'lockdown' to reduce the number of infections MESHD to the same level. Introducing the same sequence of NPIs one week earlier or later would have resulted in substantially lower (399, 95% prediction interval, PI: 347-458) and higher (8,683, 95% PI: 8,038-9,453) numbers of deaths MESHD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of NPIs in March 2020 prevented thousands of SARS-CoV-2-related deaths MESHD in Switzerland. Early implementation of NPIs during SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks can reduce the number of deaths MESHD and the necessary duration of strict control measures considerably.

    SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey in Health Care Workers of the Veneto Region

    Authors: Mario Plebani; Andrea Padoan; Ugo Fedeli; Elena Schievano; Elena Vecchiato; Giuseppe Lippi; Giuliana Lo Cascio; Stefano Porru; Giorgio Palu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20160457 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses formidable challenges to all health care systems. Serological assays SERO may improve disease MESHD management when appropriately used, for better understanding the antibody SERO responses mounted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and for assessing its real prevalence SERO. Although testing the whole population is impratical, well-designed serosurveys in selected subpopulations in specific risk groups may provide valuable information. Aim: we evaluated the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in health care workers who underwent molecular testing with reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in the main hospitals of the Veneto Region by measuring specific antibodies SERO (Abs). Methods: both IgM and IgG antibodies SERO against SARS-Cov-2 S-antigen and N-protein were measured using a validated chemiluminescent analytical system (CLIA) called Maglumi 2000 Plus (New Industries Biomedical EngineeringCo., Ltd [Snibe], Shenzhen, China) Results: A total of 8285 health care workers were tested. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies SERO (IgM, IgG or both) were detectable in 378 cases (4.6%, 95% CI 4.1-5.0%). Seroconversion was observed in 4.4% women and 5% men, but the difference was not significant. Although detectable antibodies SERO were found in all severe COVID-19 patients (100%), lower seropositivity was found in mild disease MESHD (83%) and the lowest prevalence SERO (58%) was observed in asymptomatic TRANS subjects. Conclusion: Seroprevalence SERO surveys are of utmost importance for understanding the rate of population that has already developed antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. The present study has the statistical power to define precisely the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of health workers in our region, with its prevalence SERO (4.6%) reflecting a relatively low circulation. Symptomatic individuals or those hospitalized for medical care were 100% antibody SERO positive, whilst Abs were only detectable in 58% of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS.

    Oral delivery of SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccines using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium as a carrier TRANS in rat

    Authors: Dezhi Yang; Dan Zhu; Yue Meng; Aaodeng Qimuge; Bilige Bilige; Tegexi Baiyin; Temuqile Temuqile; Shana Chen; Siqin Borjigen; Huricha Baigude

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.217174 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: bioRxiv

    The 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) is the disease MESHD that has been identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the prophylactic treatment of SARS-CoV-2 is still under investigation. The effective delivery of eukaryotic expression plasmids to the immune systems inductive cells constitutes an essential requirement for the generation of effective DNA vaccines. Here, we have explored the use of Salmonella typhimurium as vehicles to deliver expression plasmids orally. Attenuated Salmonella phoP harboring eukaryotic expression plasmids that encoded spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was administered orally to Wistar rats. Rats were immunized orally with Salmonella that carried a eukaryotic expression plasmid once a week for three consecutive weeks. The efficiency of the vaccination procedure was due to the transfer of the expression plasmid from the bacterial carrier TRANS to the mammalian host. Evidence for such an event could be obtained in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that all immunized animals generated humoral immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, indicating that a Salmonella-based vaccine carrying the Spike gene can elicit SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune responses in rats, and may be useful for the development of a protective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Are countries precautionary actions against COVID-19 effective? An assessment study of 175 countries worldwide

    Authors: Thamir M Alshammari; Khalidah Alenzi; Fatemah Alnofal; Ghada Fradees; Ali Altebainawi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.16.20155515 Date: 2020-07-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background The Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected many countries negatively, particularly in terms of their health care and financial systems. Numerous countries have attempted to employ precautions to address this pandemic. Objective This study was aimed at exploring and assessing the precautionary actions taken by 175 countries on six continents to prevent the spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods An observational study was conducted based on data collected during the period from December 31, 2019, until the end of April 2020. Several data were extracted, including information related to the date of the first reported case of SARS-CoV-2, total confirmed cases TRANS, total active cases, and more. In addition, seven validated indicators were used to assess the countries preparedness and precautionary actions. Results A total of 175 countries were included in the study. The total COVID-19 infection MESHD rate increased exponentially and rapidly in North America and Europe from March to April. The application of the precautions (indicators) varied between countries. School closures, quarantines and curfews were the most applied indicators among all countries. As for the relationship between the indicators and their effects on the infection MESHD rate, Italy and Spain were the top countries in Europe and adopted all indicators. Nevertheless, they faced high infection MESHD rates: 239,639 and 205,463 COVID-19 cases in Spain, and Italy, respectively. Conclusion The precautionary actions might have played a role in limiting the spread of COVID-19 in several countries. However, many countries did not benefit from applying these indicators.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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