Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (18)

Cough (17)

Pneumonia (14)

Hypertension (12)

Fatigue (6)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD Among Symptom-Free Healthcare Workers

    Authors: Ryan T. Demmer; Angela Ulrich; Talia Wiggen; Ali Strickland; Brianna Naumchik; Shalini Kulasingam; Steven D. Stovitz; Clarisse Marotz; Pedro Belda-Ferre; Greg Humphrey; Peter De Hoff; Louise Laurent; Susan Kline; Rob Knight

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166066 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Current evidence suggests that transmission TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is possible among symptom-free individuals but limited data are available on this topic in healthcare workers (HCW). The quality and acceptability of self-collected nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) is unknown. Objective: To estimate the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and to assess the acceptability of self-collected NPS among HCW. Design: Cross-sectional convenience sample enrolled between April 20th and June 24th, 2020. We had >95% power to detect at least one positive test if the true underlying prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV2 was > 1%. Setting: The metropolitan area surrounding Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Participants: HCW free of self-reported upper respiratory symptoms were recruited. Exposures: Participants completed questionnaires regarding demographics, household characteristics, personal protective equipment (PPE) utilization and comorbidities. Outcomes: A participant self-collected nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) was obtained. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was assessed via polymerase chain reaction. NPS discomfort was assessed on a scale of 1 (no discomfort) - 10 (extreme discomfort). NPS duration and depth into the nasopharynx, and willingness to perform future self-collections were assessed. Results: Among n=489 participants 80% were female TRANS and mean age TRANS+/-SD was 41+/-11. Participants reported being physicians (14%), nurse practitioners (8%), physicians assistants (4%), nurses (51%), medics (3%), or other which predominantly included laboratory technicians and administrative roles (22%). Exposure to a known/suspected COVID-19 case in the 14 days prior to enrollment was reported in 40% of participants. SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any participant. The mean+/-SD discomfort level of the NPS was 4.5+/-2.0. 95% of participants reported that their self-swab was longer than or equal to the duration of patient swabs they had previously performed, and 89% reported the depth to be deeper than or equal to the depth of previous patient swabs. Over 95% of participants reported a willingness to repeat a self-collected NP swab in the future. Conclusions and Relevance: The point prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was likely very low in symptom-free Minnesota healthcare workers from April 20th and June 24th, 2020. Self-collected NP swabs are well-tolerated and a viable alternative to provider-collected swabs to preserve PPE.

    Microbial contamination of powered air purifying respirators (PAPR) used during the COVID-19 pandemic: an in situ microbiological study

    Authors: Abhijoy Chakladar; Claire Gabrielle Jones; Jimmy Siu; Mohammed Osman Hassan-Ibrahim; Mansoor Khan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165423 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether internal components of powered air purifying respirators (PAPR) used during the Corona virus 2019 disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic are contaminated with bacteria, fungi and/or any viral material. DESIGN In situ microbiological study. SETTING Single NHS Trust, UK. OUTCOME MEASURES Growth of any bacteria or fungi, or positive polymerase chain reaction results for common respiratory viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RESULTS 25 PAPR hoods were swabbed; ten (40%) returned positive results. Bacterial growth was detected on six hoods (bacillus simplex, kocuria rhizophilia, bacillus weihenstephensis, microcccus luteus and staphylococcus epidermidis); five of the hoods were positive for fungal growth (non-sporulating environmental mould, NSEM); all sampled hoods tested negative for both SARS-CoV-2 and an expanded panel of respiratory viruses. There was wide variation in the storage of cleaned hoods. CONCLUSION Despite following recommended cleaning procedures, bacteria and fungi can remain on the internal components of PAPR hoods, at levels significant enough to be swabbed and cultured. PAPR hoods have the potential to cross-infect wearers and patients and are used primarily by clinicians who fail to fit disposable FFP3 respirators; the female TRANS sex and non-Caucasian people are less likely to fit FFP3 respirators. The hoods tested cannot be adequately cleaned for use in high risk healthcare environments, PAPR hoods and tubes can act as fomites, and there are evident shortcomings in their provision.

    Clinical manifestations of patients with Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID- 19) attending at hospitals in Bangladesh

    Authors: Md. Shahed Morshed; Abdullah Al Mosabbir; Prodipta Chowdhury; Sheikh Mohammad Ashadullah; Mohammad Sorowar Hossain

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165100 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Bangladesh is in the rising phase of the ongoing pandemic of the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The scientific literature on clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients from Bangladesh is scarce. This study aimed to report the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study at three dedicated COVID-19 hospitals. The severity of the COVID-19 cases was assessed based on the WHO interim guidance. Data were collected only from non-critical COVID-19 patients as critical patients required immediate intensive care admission making them unable to respond to the questions. A total of 103 RT-PCR confirmed non-critical COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Most of the patients (71.8%) were male TRANS. Mild, moderate and severe illness were assessed in 74.76%, 9.71% and 15.53% of patients respectively. Nearly 52.4% of patients had a co-morbidity, with hypertension MESHD hypertension HP being the most common (34%), followed by diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (21.4%) and ischemic heart disease MESHD (9.7%). Fever MESHD Fever HP (78.6%), weakness (68%) and cough MESHD cough HP (44.7%) were the most common clinical manifestations. Other common symptoms included loss of appetite (37.9%), difficulty in breathing (37.9%), altered sensation of taste or smell (35.0%), headache MESHD headache HP (32%) and body ache (32%). The median time from onset of symptom TRANS to attending hospitals was 7 days (IQR 4-10). This study will help both the clinicians and epidemiologists to understand the magnitude and clinical spectrum of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh.

    Corticosteroid Use in Severely Hypoxemic COVID-19 Patients: An Observational Cohort Analysis of Dosing Patterns and Outcomes in the Early Phase of the Pandemic

    Authors: Omar Rahman; Russel A Trigonis; Mitchell K Craft; Rachel M Kruer; Emily M Miller; Colin L Terry; Sarah A Persaud; Rajat Kapoor

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164277 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    INTRODUCTION Hypoxemia HP in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD due to Novel Coronavirus of 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) is mediated by severe inflammation MESHD that may be mitigated by corticosteroids. We evaluated pattern and effects of corticosteroid use in these patients during an early surge of the pandemic. METHODS Observational study of 136 SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted to the Intensive care Unit between March 1 and April 27, 2020 at a tertiary care hospital in Indianapolis, USA. Statistical comparison between cohorts and dosing pattern analysis was done. Outcome measures included number of patients requiring intubation, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay and inpatient mortality. RESULTS: Of 136 patients, 72 (53%) received corticosteroids. Groups demographics: Age TRANS (60.5 vs. 65; p .083), sex (47% male TRANS vs. 39% female TRANS; p .338) and comorbidities were similar. Corticosteroid group had increased severity of illness: PaO2/FiO2 (113 vs. 130; p .014) and SOFA (8 vs. 5.5; p < .001). Overall mortality (21% vs. 30%; p .234) or proportion of patients intubated (78 vs. 64%; p .078) was similar. Mortality was similar among mechanically ventilated (27% vs. 15%; p .151) however there were no deaths MESHD among patients who were not mechanically ventilated and received corticosteroids (0% vs. 57%; p

    Characterizing SARS-CoV-2 mutations in the United States

    Authors: Rui Wang; Jiahui Chen; Kaifu Gao; Yuta Hozumi; Changchuan Yin; Guo-Wei Wei

    id:2007.12692v1 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: arXiv

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been mutating since it was first sequenced in early January 2020. The genetic variants have developed into a few distinct clusters with different properties. Since the United States (US) has the highest number of viral infected patients globally, it is essential to understand the US SARS-CoV-2. Using genotyping, sequence-alignment, time-evolution, $k$-means clustering, protein-folding stability, algebraic topology, and network theory, we reveal that the US SARS-CoV-2 has four substrains and five top US SARS-CoV-2 mutations were first detected in China (2 cases), Singapore (2 cases), and the United Kingdom (1 case). The next three top US SARS-CoV-2 mutations were first detected in the US. These eight top mutations belong to two disconnected groups. The first group consisting of 5 concurrent mutations is prevailing, while the other group with three concurrent mutations gradually fades out. Our analysis suggests that female TRANS immune systems are more active than those of males TRANS in responding to SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD. We identify that one of the top mutations, 27964C$>$T-(S24L) on ORF8, has an unusually strong gender TRANS dependence. Based on the analysis of all mutations on the spike protein, we further uncover that three of four US SASR-CoV-2 substrains become more infectious. Our study calls for effective viral control and containing strategies in the US.

    Comparison of Acute Appendicitis MESHD Before and Within COVID 19 Era: A Retrospective Study from Rural Nepal

    Authors: Suman Baral; Rajkumar Chhetri; Neeraj Thapa

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-47510/v1 Date: 2020-07-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Currently, the world has been engulfed with the pandemicity of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and various mitigating measures like lock down and social distancing are being taken which have created significant impact in the emergency MESHD surgical health delivery including acute appendicitis MESHD (AA). The main aim of this study was to compare the demographic and clinical parameters between two cohorts before the onset of lockdown and within the pandemic.Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was performed between two groups of patients presenting with AA in one of the tertiary care centers of rural Nepal. The cohorts were named group A and group B who presented three months prior to and after initiation of lockdown on March 24 2020 respectively. These two groups of patients were compared in demographics, clinicopathological characteristics and surgical aspects of acute appendicitis MESHD. Results There were 42 patients in group A and 50 patients in group B. Mean age TRANS of the patients was 31.32±171.18 years with male TRANS preponderance in group B (N= 29). Mean duration of pain MESHD pain HP increased significantly in group B [55.4±25.9(B) vs 43.52±30.3(A) hours, P= 0.04] along with mean duration of surgery. [51.06±9.4(B) vs 45.27±11.8(A) minutes, P= 0.015] There was significant decrease in post-operative hospital stay among group B patients. [3.05±1.19(B) vs 4.05±0.8(A) days, P= 0.0001] Complicated cases increased in group B (38% vs 33.3 % including appendicular perforation in 10 cases with perforation rate of 20 %. Six of these 10 cohorts had fecalith present intraoperatively. (P= 0.0001) Similarly, mean duration of presentation to hospital significantly increased in group B patients with perforation. [64.8±22.7(B) vs 52.05±14.7(A) hours]    Conclusion During the adversity of COVID 19, increased number of cases of AA can be dealt with surgery as the chances of late presentation and complexity of the lesion exists.

    Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes for 7,995 Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Jacob McPadden; Frederick Warner; H. Patrick Young; Nathan C. Hurley; Rebecca A. Pulk; Avinainder Singh; Thomas JS Durant; Guannan Gong; Nihar Desai; Adrian Haimovich; Richard Andrew Taylor; Murat Gunel; Charles S. Dela Cruz; Shelli F Farhadian; Jonathan Siner; Merceditas Villanueva; Keith Churchwell; Allen Hsiao; Charles J. Torre Jr.; Eric J. Velazquez; Roy S. Herbst; Akiko Iwasaki; Albert I. Ko; Bobak J. Mortazavi; Harlan M. Krumholz; Wade L. Schulz

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.19.20157305 Date: 2020-07-21 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD virus (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people worldwide. Our goal was to identify risk factors associated with admission and disease MESHD severity in patients with SARS-CoV-2. Design: This was an observational, retrospective study based on real-world data for 7,995 patients with SARS-CoV-2 from a clinical data repository. Setting: Yale New Haven Health (YNHH) is a five-hospital academic health system serving a diverse patient population with community and teaching facilities in both urban and suburban areas. Populations: The study included adult TRANS patients who had SARS-CoV-2 testing at YNHH between March 1 and April 30, 2020. Main outcome and performance SERO measures: Primary outcomes were admission and in-hospital mortality for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD as determined by RT-PCR testing. We also assessed features associated with the need for respiratory support. Results: Of the 28605 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2, 7995 patients (27.9%) had an infection MESHD (median age TRANS 52.3 years) and 2154 (26.9%) of these had an associated admission (median age TRANS 66.2 years). Of admitted patients, 1633 (75.8%) had a discharge disposition at the end of the study period. Of these, 192 (11.8%) required invasive mechanical ventilation and 227 (13.5%) expired. Increased age TRANS and male TRANS sex were positively associated with admission and in-hospital mortality (median age TRANS 81.9 years), while comorbidities had a much weaker association with the risk of admission or mortality. Black race (OR 1.43, 95%CI 1.14-1.78) and Hispanic ethnicity (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.50-2.18) were identified as risk factors for admission, but, among discharged patients, age TRANS-adjusted in-hospital mortality was not significantly different among racial and ethnic groups. Conclusions: This observational study identified, among people testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, older age TRANS and male TRANS sex as the most strongly associated risks for admission and in-hospital mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. While minority racial and ethnic groups had increased burden of disease MESHD and risk of admission, age TRANS-adjusted in-hospital mortality for discharged patients was not significantly different among racial and ethnic groups. Ongoing studies will be needed to continue to evaluate these risks, particularly in the setting of evolving treatment guidelines.

    A Cross-Sectional Study of Olfactory and Taste Disorders MESHD in COVID-19 Patients in China

    Authors: Jianhui Li; Yi Sun; Meirong Li; Hu Yuan; Changliang Yang; Chengcheng Huang; Fengjie Zhou; Ruiyao Chen; Leibo Zhang; Ning Yu; Qiong Liu; Jingjing He; Xuejun Zhou; Xiaobing Fu; Shiming Yang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-46082/v1 Date: 2020-07-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective To determine the prevalance and features of olfactory and taste disorders MESHD in coronavirus disease MESHD of 2019(CoVID-19)patients in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed from 3 April to 15 April 2020 in Wuhan. A total of 187 patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD completed face-to-face interviews or telephone follow-up. Patients information including epidemiological, clinical, imaging, and serological records and treatment and outcomes data. Patients were further evaluated using questionnaires and visual analogue scale. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software (version 22.0).  Results The enrolled 187 patients, 23 (12.3%) reported olfactory disorders, 42 (22.46%) reported taste disorders MESHD. Females TRANS are more prone to olfactory and taste disorders MESHD. Among patients that can clearly describe the fluctuation of olfactory and taste disfunctions, 4 (20.0%) and 7(18.92%) cases occurred before other symptoms appeared, the average number of days in advance was 3.5 and 3.57, respectively. The majority of patients can return to normal or basic normal, but in 4(17.39%) and 9(21.43%) cases olfactory and taste can not fully recoveried during the research period. Conclusions  Prevalence of olfactory and taste disorders MESHD substantially lower in China cohorts compared to abroad COVID-19 cohorts. The prevalence SERO of olfactory and taste disorders MESHD in COVID-19 patients was higher in females TRANS than in males TRANS. In some patients, olfactory and taste disorders MESHD precede other symptoms and can be used as a symbol for early screening and warning. The restoration of olfactory and taste function was independent of age TRANS; females recover more easily than males TRANS; olfactory or taste disorders MESHD was not easily recovered for patients with clinically classified as severe; when olfactory or taste disorders MESHD itself was serious, it was not easy to recover; olfactory or taste disorders MESHD occured early in the disease MESHD were more likely to be recovered, otherwise they were hard to be recovered. 

    Clinical Characteristics of 107 Patients with COVID-19 in Ningbo, China: Single Center Experience Outside Hubei

    Authors: Boming Wu; Junjie Li; Hongping Xuan; Nanhong Zheng; Honghua Ye; Yaoren Hu; Tong’en Chen; Hao Ying; Lingyan Fan; Qing Xie; Zike Sheng; Yin Ying

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44830/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Since December 2019, there has be an outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China. Nowadays, it rapidly spread across the country and then the worldwide. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19.Methods The patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted between January 25 and February 10, 2020, were enrolled. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological data, and antivirus therapies, were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The 90-day follow-up of these patients was also performed.Results A total of 107 patients were included. The median age TRANS was 55.0 years (range from 18.0 to 85.0 years), and 72 (67.3%) were female TRANS. Ninety-three (86.9%) of the patients had a history of contacting with residents from Wuhan (n=31), or contacting with confirmed COVID-19 patients (n=62) within 2 weeks. Fifty-eight (54.2%) had a family cluster onset. Fever MESHD Fever HP and cough MESHD cough HP were the most common symptoms. Only two patients had diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP. The most common underlying disease MESHD was hypertension MESHD hypertension HP. Lymphopenia MESHD Lymphopenia HP was observed in 26 patients. Fifty-two patients with an elevated level of IL-6. On admission, bilateral patchy shadowing and ground-glass opacity were the typical radiological findings on chest computed tomography. Six patients had an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Antivirus therapy was performed to all patients. 105 patients discharged with an improved condition, and no death MESHD was occurred during our 90-day follow-up for these patients.Conclusions Patients with COVID-19 in our hospital had relatively mild symptoms, and good prognosis. This study also highlights the importance of human-to-human transmission TRANS in COVID-19.

    Clinical characteristics of children TRANS and young people hospitalised with covid-19 in the United Kingdom: prospective multicentre observational cohort study

    Authors: Olivia V Swann; Karl A Holden; Lance Turtle; Louisa Pollock; Cameron J Fairfield; Thomas M Drake; Sohan Seth; Conor Egan; Hayley Hardwick; Sophie Halpin; Michelle Girvan; Chloe Donohue; Mark G Pritchard; Latifa Patel; Shamez Ladhani; Louise Sigfrid; Ian P Sinha; Piero L Olliaro; Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam; Peter W Horby; Laura Merson; Gail Carson; W Jake Dunning; Peter JM Openshaw; J Kenneth Baillie; Ewen M Harrison; Annemarie B Docherty; Malcolm Gracie Semple; - ISARIC Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium (ISARIC4C) Investigators

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20153320 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To characterise the clinical features of children TRANS and young people admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in the UK, and explore factors associated with admission to critical care, mortality, and development of multisystem inflammatory syndrome MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents temporarily related to covid-19 (MIS-C). Design Prospective observational cohort study with rapid data gathering and near real time analysis. Setting 260 acute care hospitals in England, Wales, and Scotland between 17th January and 5th June 2020, with a minimal follow-up time of two weeks (to 19th June 2020). Participants 451 children TRANS and young people aged TRANS less than 19 years admitted to 116 hospitals and enrolled into the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emergency MESHD Infections MESHD Consortium (ISARIC) WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK study with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcome Measures Admission to critical care (high dependency or intensive care), in-hospital mortality, or meeting the WHO preliminary case definition for MIS-C. Results Median age TRANS was 3.9 years [interquartile range (IQR) 0.3-12.9 years], 36% (162/451) were under 12 months old, and 57% (256/450) were male TRANS. 56% (224/401) were White, 12% (49/401) South Asian and 10% (40/401) Black. 43% (195/451) had at least one recorded comorbidity. A muco-enteric cluster of symptoms was identified, closely mirroring the WHO MIS-C criteria. 17% of children TRANS (72/431) were admitted to critical care. On multivariable analysis this was associated with age TRANS under one month odds ratio 5.05 (95% confidence interval 1.69 to 15.72, p=0.004), age TRANS 10 to 14 years OR 3.11 (1.21 to 8.55, p=0.022) and Black ethnicity OR 3.02 (1.30 to 6.84, p=0.008). Three young people died (0.7 %, 3/451) aged TRANS 16 to 19 years, all of whom had profound comorbidity. Twelve percent of children TRANS (36/303) met the WHO MIS-C criteria, with the first patient developing symptoms in mid-March. Those meeting MIS-C criteria were older, (median age TRANS 10.8 years ([IQR 8.4-14.1] vs 2.0 [0.2-12.6]), p<0.001) and more likely to be of non-White ethnicity (70% (23/33) vs 43% (101/237), p=0.005). Children TRANS with MIS-C were four times more likely to be admitted to critical care (61% (22/36) vs 15% (40/267, p<0.001). In addition to the WHO criteria, children TRANS with MIS-C were more likely to present with headache MESHD headache HP (45% (13/29) vs 11% (19/171), p<0.001), myalgia MESHD myalgia HP (39% (11/28) vs 7% (12/170), p<0.001), sore throat (37% (10/27) vs (13% (24/183, p = 0.004) and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP (57% (17/30) vs 31% (60/192), p =0.012) than children TRANS who did not and to have a platelet count of less than 150 x109/L (30% (10/33) vs 10% (24/232), p=0.004). Conclusions Our data confirms less severe covid-19 in children TRANS and young people than in adults TRANS and we provide additional evidence for refining the MIS-C case definition. The identification of a muco-enteric symptom cluster also raises the suggestion that MIS-C is the severe end of a spectrum of disease MESHD. Study registration ISRCTN66726260

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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