Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (34)

Cough (26)

Fever (24)

Diarrhea (8)

Falls (6)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 268
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    Rapid Inactivation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by Tungsten Trioxide-Based (WO3) Photocatalysis

    Authors: Silvia Ghezzi; Isabel Pagani; Guido Poli; Stefano Perboni; Elisa Vicenzi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.232199 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19), is transmitted person-to-person via respiratory droplets and, likely, via smaller droplet nuclei light enough to remain suspended in the air for hours and contaminate surfaces particularly in indoor conditions. Thus, effective measures are needed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS in indoor environments. In this regard, we have investigated whether a system based on a filter combining Tungsten Trioxide-Based (WO3) photocatalysis and an antiviral fabric treated-copper nanocluster could inactivate SARS-CoV-2. To this purpose, an infectious SARS-CoV-2 suspension was introduced in the upper opening of a closed cylinder containing a WO3 filter and a light-based system that activates WO3 and the antiviral fabric. From the bottom exit, aliquots of fluid were collected every 10 min (up to 60 min) and tested for their infectivity by means of a viral plaque assay in Vero cells whereas, in parallel, the viral RNA content was measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR). As we have previously shown for SARS-CoV, a 1:1,000 ratio of plaque forming units (PFU) vs. viral RNA copies was observed also for SARS-CoV-2. After 10 min, the infectious viral content was already decreased by 98.2% reaching 100% inactivation after 30 min whereas the SARS-CoV-2 RNA load was decreased of 1.5 log10 after 30 min. Thus, in spite of only a partial decrease of viral RNA, SARS-CoV-2 infectivity was completely abolished by the WO3 photocatalysis system by 30 min. These results support the hypothesis that this system could be exploited to achieve SARS-CoV-2 inactivation in indoor environments.

    Repurposing of Approved Drugs with Potential to Interact with SARS-CoV-2 Receptor

    Authors: Abu Sajib

    id:202004.0369/v2 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: Preprints.org

    Respiratory transmission TRANS is the primary route of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD. Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the known receptor of SARS-CoV-2 surface spike glycoprotein for entry into human cells. A recent study reported absent to low expression of ACE2 in a variety of human lung epithelial cell samples. Three bioprojects (PRJEB4337, PRJNA270632 and PRJNA280600) invariably found abundant expression of ACE1 (a homolog of ACE2 and also known as ACE) in human lungs compared to very low expression of ACE2. In fact, ACE1 has a wider and more abundant tissue distribution compared to ACE2. Although it is not obvious from the primary sequence alignment of ACE1 and ACE2, comparison of X-ray crystallographic structures show striking similarities in the regions of the peptidase domains (PD) of these proteins, which is known (for ACE2) to interact with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Critical amino acids in ACE2 that mediate interaction with the viral spike protein are present and organized in the same order in the PD of ACE1. In silico analysis predicts comparable interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with ACE1 and ACE2. In addition, this study predicts from a list of 1263 already approved drugs that may interact with ACE2 and/or ACE1, potentially interfere with the entry of SARS-CoV-2 inside the host cells and alleviate the symptoms of Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19).

    Household transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis of secondary attack rate TRANS

    Authors: Zachary J. Madewell; Yang Yang; Ira M. Longini Jr.; M. Elizabeth Halloran; Natalie E. Dean

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164590 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spread by direct, indirect, or close contact TRANS with infected people via infected respiratory droplets or saliva. Crowded indoor environments with sustained close contact TRANS and conversations are a particularly high-risk setting. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis through July 29, 2020 of SARS-CoV-2 household secondary attack rate TRANS ( SAR TRANS), disaggregating by several covariates (contact type, symptom status, adult TRANS/ child TRANS contacts, contact sex, relationship to index case, index case sex, number of contacts in household TRANS, coronavirus). Findings: We identified 40 relevant published studies that report household secondary transmission TRANS. The estimated overall household SAR TRANS was 18.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.4%-22.2%), which is higher than previously observed SARs for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. We observed that household SARs were significantly higher from symptomatic index cases than asymptomatic TRANS index cases, to adult TRANS contacts than children TRANS contacts, to spouses than other family contacts, and in households TRANS with one contact than households TRANS with three or more contacts. Interpretation: To prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, people are being asked to stay at home worldwide. With suspected or confirmed infections TRANS infections MESHD referred to isolate at home, household transmission TRANS will continue to be a significant source of transmission TRANS.

    Rapid real-time tracking of non-pharmaceutical interventions and their association SARS-CoV-2 positivity: The COVID-19 Pandemic Pulse Study

    Authors: Steven J. Clipman; Amy P. Wesolowski; Dustin G. Gibson; Smisha Agarwal; Anastasia S. Lambrou; Gregory D. Kirk; Alain B. Labrique; Shruti H. Mehta; Sunil S. Solomon

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164665 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Current mitigation strategies for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rely on population-wide adoption of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Collecting demographically and geographically resolved data on NPIs and their association with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD history can provide critical information related to reopening geographies. Methods: We sampled 1,030 individuals in Maryland from June 17 - June 28, 2020 to capture socio-demographically and geographically resolved information about NPI adoption, access to SARS-CoV-2 testing, and examine associations with self-reported SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Results: Median age TRANS of the sample was 43 years and 45% were men; Whites and Blacks/African Americans represented 60% and 23%, respectively. Overall, 96% of the sample reported traveling TRANS outside their home for non-employment related services: most commonly cited reasons were essential services (92%) and visiting friends TRANS/family (66%). Use of public transport was reported by 18% of respondents. 68% reported always social distancing indoors and 53% always wearing masks indoors; indoor social distancing was significantly less common among younger vs. older individuals, and race/ethnicity and income were significantly associated with mask use (p<0.05 for all). 55 participants (5.3%) self-reported ever testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 with strong dose-response relationships between movement frequency and SARS-CoV-2 positivity that were significantly attenuated by social distancing. In multivariable analysis, history of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was negatively associated with the practice of social distancing (adjusted Odd Ratio [aOR]: 0.10; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.03 - 0.33); the only travel TRANS associated with higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was use of public transport (aOR for 7 or more times vs. never: 4.29) and visiting a place of worship (aOR for 3 or more times vs. never: 16.0) after adjusting for social distancing. Conclusions: Using a rapid cost-efficient approach, we highlight the role of movement and social distancing on SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk TRANS. Continued monitoring of NPI uptake, access to testing, and the subsequent impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS will be critical for pandemic control and decisions about reopening geographies.

    Determining the period of communicability of SARS-CoV-2: A rapid review of the literature

    Authors: Mina Park; Colleen Pawliuk; Tribesty Nguyen; Amanda Griffitt; Linda Dix-Cooper; Nadia Fourik; Martin Dawes

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20163873 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: How long individuals may transmit virus after infection MESHD infection with severe HP with severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unclear. Understanding the communicability period of SARS-CoV-2 is important to inform the period of isolation required to prevent nosocomial and community spread. The objective of this study was to identify the reported communicable period of SARS-CoV-2, based on a rapid review of existing literature. Methods: Studies reporting empirical data on the period of communicability of SARS-CoV-2 through investigations of duration of communicability based on in-person contact ('contact transmission TRANS'), isolation and culture of virus ('viral isolation'), and viral shedding by detection of nucleic acids by RT-PCR ('viral shedding') were identified through searches of peer-reviewed and pre-print health sciences literature databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, medRxiv and arXiv) and the grey literature. Articles were screened for relevance, then data were extracted, analyzed, and synthesized. Results: Out of the 165 studies included for qualitative analysis, one study investigated contact transmission TRANS, three investigated viral isolation, 144 investigated viral shedding, and 17 studies focused on both viral shedding and viral isolation. The median length of time until viral clearance across all viral isolation studies was nine days; however, the maximum identified duration was 32 days. Studies with data on both viral isolation and viral shedding showed a prolonged maximum time until viral clearance for viral shedding (9 days vs 24 days). Discussion: Findings from this review support a minimum 10-day period of isolation; however, additional observation should be considered for individuals being released into high-risk settings.

    Use of a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody SERO (itolizumab) in elderly TRANS patients with moderate COVID-19

    Authors: Mayra Ramos-Suzarte; Yayquier Diaz; Yordanis Martin; Nestor Antonio Calderon; William Santiago; Orlando Vinet; Yulieski La O; Jorge Perez; Augusto Oyarzabal; Yoan Perez; Geidy Lorenzo; Meylan Cepeda; Danay Saavedra; Zayma Mazorra; Daymys Estevez; Patricia Lorenzo-Luaces; Carmen Valenzuela; Armando Caballero; Kalet leon; Tania Crombet; Carlos Jorge Hidalgo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20153833 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Introduction: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a recent outbreak of Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19). In Cuba, the first case of COVID-19 was reported on March 11. Elderly TRANS with multiple comorbidities are particularly susceptible to adverse clinical outcomes in the course of SARS CoV-2 infection MESHD. During the outbreak, a local transmission TRANS event took place in a nursing home in Villa Clara province, Cuba, in which nineteen elderly TRANS residents were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Based on the increased susceptibility to viral-induced cytokine release syndrome MESHD inducing respiratory and systemic complications in this population, the patients were included in an expanded access clinical trial to receive itolizumab, an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody SERO. Results: All the patients had underlying medical conditions. The product was well tolerated. After the first dose, the course of the disease MESHD was favorable and 18 out of 19 (94.7%) patients were discharged clinically recovered with negative RT-PCR at 13 days (median). One dose of itolizumab, circulating IL-6 decreased in the first 24-48 hours in patients with high baseline values, whereas in patients with low levels, this concentration remained over low values. To preliminary assess the effect of itolizumab, a control group was selected among the Cuban COVID-19 patients, which did not receive immunomodulatory therapy. Control subjects were well-matched regarding age TRANS, comorbidities and severity of the disease MESHD. Every three moderately ill patients treated with itolizumab, one admission in intensive care unit (ICU) was prevented. Discussion/Conclusion: Itolizumab was well tolerated. Its effect is associated with a reduction and controlling IL-6 serum SERO levels. Moreover, treated patients had a favorable clinical outcome, considering their poor prognosis. This treatment is associated significantly with a decrease the risk to be admitted in ICU and reduced 10 times the risk of death MESHD. This study corroborates that the timely use of itolizumab, in combination with other antiviral and anticoagulant therapies, is associated with a reduction the COVID-19 disease MESHD worsening and mortality. The humanized antibody SERO itolizumab emerges as a therapeutic alternative for patients with COVID-19 and suggests its possible use in patients with cytokine release syndrome MESHD from other pathologies.

    Identification of novel mutations in SARS-COV-2 isolates from Turkey

    Authors: Shazia Rehman; Tariq Mahmood; Ejaz Aziz; Riffat Batool

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-51012/v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), originally emerged from Wuhan, has caused an unprecedented worldwide pandemic in the first half of 2020. Since the first report of SARS-CoV-2 on March 10th, 2020 in Turkey, more than 150,000 people in the country have been infected with this virus. In this study, a total of 80 genomic virulent strains from Turkey which were uploaded in NCBI and GISAID database were analyzed with other genomic sequences from different countries with the aim to characterize notable genomic features of SARS-CoV-2 and to identify some novel mutations. Consistent with other studies, the combination of variants at positions C3037T, C14408T and A23403G were most common mutations (73%), that exist together in isolates from Turkey. Our secondary structure prediction analysis also highlighted 11 unique non-substitutional mutations from viral SARS-COV-2 isolates of Turkey in different regions such as in spike (S) protein and non-structural proteins (Nsp2, Nsp3, NSP4, and NSP12/RdRP). Of these 11 mutations, nine of them have been found to be involved in structural alterations at different sites. 3/9 mutants (A771V, T1238I and G1251V) cause alteration in structure of S protein, while the rest of them induces structural changes in Nsp2 (A206T, R207C, T265I), Nsp3 (A1824V), Nsp4 (M2796I) and NSP12 (A4489V). These mutations identified here might have significant functional implications that needs to be addressed for future studies in the context of vaccine engineering and therapeutic interventions. Moreover, transmission TRANS and phylogenetic analysis revealed multiple independent sources of introductions for infection MESHD of hCovs in Turkey and close phylogenetic relationship of Turkish strains with Saudi strains.

    EUAdb: a resource for COVID-19 test development

    Authors: Alyssa Woronik; Henry W Shaffer; Karin Kiontke; Jon M Laurent; Ronald Zambrano; Jef D Boeke; David H.A. Fitch

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.228890 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: bioRxiv

    Due to the sheer number of COVID-19 ( coronavirus disease MESHD 2019) cases, the prevalence SERO of asymptomatic TRANS cases and the fact that undocumented cases appear to be significant for transmission TRANS of the causal virus, SARS-CoV-2 ( severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2), there is an urgent need for increased SARS-CoV-2 testing capability that is both efficient and effective1. In response to the growing threat of the COVID-19 pandemic in February, 2020, the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) began issuing Emergency MESHD Use Authorizations (EUAs) to laboratories and commercial manufacturers for the development and implementation of diagnostic tests1. So far, the gold standard assay for SARS-CoV-2 detection is the RT-qPCR (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction) test2. However, the authorized RT-qPCR test protocols vary widely, not only in the reagents, controls, and instruments they use, but also in the SARS-CoV-2 genes they target, what results constitute a positive SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, and their limit of detection (LoD). The FDA has provided a web site that lists most of the tests that have been issued EUAs, along with links to the authorization letters and summary documents describing these tests1. However, it is very challenging to use this site to compare or replicate these tests for a variety of reasons. First, at least 12 of 18 tests that were issued EUAs prior to March 31, 2020, are not listed there. Second, the data are not standardized and are only provided as longhand prose in the summary documents. Third, some details (e.g. primer sequences) are absent from several of the test descriptions. Fourth, for tests provided by commercial manufacturers, summary documents are completely missing. To address at least the first three issues, we have developed a database, EUAdb (EUAdb.org), that holds standardized information about EUA-issued tests and is focused on RT-qPCR diagnostic tests, or "high complexity molecular-based laboratory developed tests"1. By providing a standardized ontology and curated data in a relational architecture, we seek to facilitate comparability and reproducibility, with the ultimate goal of consistent, universal and high-quality testing nationwide. Here, we document the basics of the EUAdb data architecture and simple data queries. The source files can be provided to anyone who wants to modify the database for his/her own research purposes. We ask that the original source of the files be made clear and that the database not be used in its original or modified forms for commercial purposes.

    Mathematical Modelling the Impact Evaluation ofLockdown on Infection MESHD Dynamics of COVID-19 inItaly.

    Authors: Daniyar Yergesh; Shirali Kadyrov; Hayot Saydaliev; Alibek Orynbassar

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20162537 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2), the cause of the coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19), within months of emergence from Wuhan, China, has rapidly spread, exacting a devastating human toll across around the world reaching the pandemic stage at the the beginning of March 2020. Thus, COVID-19s daily increasing cases and deaths MESHD have led to worldwide lockdown, quarantine and some restrictions. Covid-19 epidemic in Italy started as a small wave of 2 infected cases on January 31. It was followed by a bigger wave mainly from local transmissions TRANS reported in 6387 cases on March 8. It caused the government to impose a lockdown on 8 March to the whole country as a way to suppress the pandemic. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the lockdown and awareness dynamics on infection MESHD in Italy over the period of January 31 to July 17 and how the impact varies across different lockdown scenarios in both periods before and after implementation of the lockdown policy. The findings SEIR reveal that implementation lockdown has minimised the social distancing flattening the curve. The infections MESHD associated with COVID-19 decreases with quarantine initially then easing lockdown will not cause further increasing transmission TRANS until a certain period which is explained by public high awareness. Completely removing lockdown may lead to sharp transmission TRANS second wave. Policy implementation and limitation of the study were evaluated at the end of the paper. Keywords COVID-19 - Lockdown - Epidemic model - SEIR - Awareness - Dynamical systems.

    Clinical characteristics of neonates with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review

    Authors: Yuan Hu; Jing Xiong; Yuan Shi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50795/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    This study aimed to summarize the existing literature on severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in newborns to clarify the clinical features and outcomes of neonates with COVID-19. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and VIP databases from January 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020. The references of relevant studies were also searched. A descriptive summary was organized by aspects of clinical presentations (symptoms, laboratory examinations, and imaging) and outcomes. We identified 14 studies reporting 18 newborns with COVID-19. The most common clinical manifestations were fever MESHD fever HP (62.5%), shortness of breath (50.0%), diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP/ vomiting MESHD vomiting HP/feeding intolerance(43.8%), cough MESHD cough HP (37.5%), dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP (25.0%), and nasal congestion/runny nose/ sneeze MESHD sneeze HP(25.0%). Atypical symptoms included jaundice MESHD jaundice HP and convulsion. Lymphocyte numbers decreased in 5 cases, and radiographic findings were likely to show pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. All newborns recovered and discharged from the hospital, and there was no death MESHD.Conclusion: Clinical symptoms of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are atypical, most of them are mild. Up to now, the prognosis of newborns is good, and there is no death MESHD. Intrauterine vertical transmission TRANS is possible, but confirmed evidence is still lacking. The Long-term follow-up of potential influences of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on neonates need further exploration.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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