Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 75
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    Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza and the impact of coinfection on disease severity: A test negative design

    Authors: Julia Stowe; Elise Tessier; Hongxin Zhao; Rebecca Guy; Berit Muller-Pebody; Maria Zambon; Nick Andrews; Mary Ramsay; Jamie Lopez Bernal; Jonathan Josephs-Spaulding; Philipp Koehler; Axel Kuenstner; Elisa Rosati; Anna C. Aschenbrenner; Petra Bacher; Nathan Baran; Teide Boysen; Burkhard Brandt; Niklas Bruse; Jonathan Doerr; Andreas Draeger; Gunnar Elke; David Ellinghaus; Julia Fischer; Michael Forster; Andre Franke; Soeren Franzenburg; Norbert Frey; Anette Friedrichs; Janina Fuss; Andreas Glueck; Jacob Hamm; Finn Hinrichsen; Marc P. Hoeppner; Simon Imm; Ralf Juenker; Sina Kaiser; Ying H. Kan; Rainer Knoll; Christoph Lange; Georg Laue; Clemes Lier; Matthias Lindner; Georgios Marinos; Robert Markewitz; Jacob Nattermann; Rainer Noth; Peter Pickkers; Klaus F. Rabe; Alina Renz; Christoph Roecken; Jan Rupp; Annika Schaffarzyk; Alexander Scheffold; Jonas Schulte-Schrepping; Domagoj Schunck; Dirk Skowasch; Thomas Ulas; Klaus-Peter Wandinger; Michael Wittig; Johannes Zimmermann; Hauke Busch; Bimba F. Hoyer; Christoph Kaleta; Jan Heyckendorf; Matthijs Kox; Jan Rybniker; Stefan Schreiber; Joachim Schultze; Philip Rosenstiel; - HCA Lung Biological Network; - Deutsche COVID-19 Omics Initiative (DeCOI)

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.18.20189647 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The potential impact of COVID-19 alongside influenza on morbidity, mortality and health service capacity is a major concern as the Northern Hemisphere winter approaches. This study investigates the interaction between influenza and COVID-19 during the latter part of the 2019-20 influenza season in England. Methods: Individuals tested for influenza and SARS-CoV-2 were extracted from national surveillance systems between 20/01/2020 and 25/04/2020. To estimate influenza infection on the risk TRANS infection on the risk TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, univariable and multivariable analyses on the odds of SARS-CoV-2 in those who tested positive for influenza compared to those who tested negative for influenza. To assess whether a coinfection was associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 outcome, univariable and multivariable analyses on the odds of death MESHD adjusted for age TRANS, sex, ethnicity, comorbidity and coinfection status. Findings: The risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 was 68% lower among influenza positive cases, suggesting possible pathogenic competition between the two viruses. Patients with a coinfection had a risk of death of 5.92 (95% CI, 3.21-10.91) times greater than among those with neither influenza nor SARS-CoV-2 suggesting possible synergistic effects in coinfected individuals. The odds of ventilator use or death MESHD and ICU admission or death MESHD was greatest among coinfection MESHD patients showing strong evidence of an interaction effect compared to SARS-CoV-2/influenza acting independently. Interpretation: Cocirculation of these viruses could have a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and health service demand. Testing for influenza alongside SARS-CoV-2 and maximising influenza vaccine uptake should be prioritised to mitigate these risks.

    Unexpected Co-infection MESHD with Different Strains of SARS-CoV-2 in Patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Hayder O. Hashim; Mudher K. Mohammed; Mazin J. Mousa; Hadeer H. Abdulameer; Alaa T.S. Alhassnawi; Safa A. Hassan; Mohammed Baqur S. Al-Shuhaib

    id:10.20944/preprints202009.0375.v1 Date: 2020-09-17 Source: Preprints.org

    There is a rising global concern for the ongoing outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 due to its high transmission TRANS rate and unavailability of treatment. Through the binding of its spike glycoprotein with angiotensin type 2 (ACE2), SARS-CoV-2 can efficiently get in the cells of patients and start its pandemic cycle. Herein, the biological diversity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was assessed in Babylon province of Iraq by investigating the possible genetic variations of the spike glycoprotein. A specific coding region of 795 bp within the viral spike (S) gene was amplified from 19 patients who suffered from obvious symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Sequencing results identified fifteen novel nucleic acid variations with a variety of distributions within the investigated samples. The electropherograms of all the identified variations showed obvious co-infections MESHD with at least two different viral strains per sample. Within these co-infections, the majority of samples exhibited three nonsense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)s, p.301Cdel, p.380Ydel, and p.436del, which yielded three truncated SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins of 301, 380, and 436 amino acids length, respectively. The network and phylogenetic analyses indicated that for all viral infections were derived from multi-ancestral origins. Results inferred from the specific clade-based tree entailed that some viral strains were derived from European G-clade sequences. In conclusion, our data demonstrated the absence of any single strain infection MESHD among all investigated viral samples in the studied area, which may entail a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 in this country. Through the identified high frequency of truncated spike proteins, we suggest that defective SARS-CoV-2 may depend on helper strains having intact spikes in its infection. Alternatively, another putative ACE2-independent route of viral infection MESHD way also suggested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the co-infection MESHD of multiple strains of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19.

    Identification of novel antiviral drug combinations in vitro and tracking their development

    Authors: Aleksandr Ianevski; Rouan Yao; Svetlana Biza; Eva Zusinaite; Andres Mannik; Gaily Kivi; Anu Planken; Kristiina Kurg; Eva-Maria Tombak; Mart Ustav Jr.; Nastassia Shtaida; Evgeny Kulesskiy; Eunji Jo; Jaewon Yang; Hilde Lysvand; Kirsti Loseth; Valentyn Oksenych; Per Arne Aas; Tanel Tenson; Astra Vitkauskiene; Marc P. Windisch; Mona H Fenstad; Svein Arne Nordbo; Mart Ustav; Magnar Bjoras; Denis E Kainov

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.17.299933 Date: 2020-09-17 Source: bioRxiv

    Combination therapies have become a standard for the treatment for HIV and HCV infections MESHD. They are advantageous over monotherapies due to better efficacy and reduced toxicity MESHD, as well as the ability to prevent the development of resistant viral strains and to treat viral co-infections MESHD. Here, we identify several new synergistic combinations against emerging and re-emerging viral infections in vitro. We observed synergistic activity of nelfinavir with investigational drug EIDD-2801 and convalescent serum SERO against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells. We also demonstrated synergistic activity of vemurafenib combination with emetine, homoharringtonine, gemcitabine, or obatoclax against echovirus 1 infection MESHD in human lung epithelial A549 cells. We also found that combinations of sofosbuvir with brequinar and niclosamide were synergistic against HCV infection MESHD in hepatocyte derived Huh-7.5 cells, whereas combinations of monensin with lamivudine and tenofovir were synergistic against HIV-1 infection MESHD in human cervical TZM-bl cells. Finally, we present an online resource that summarizes novel and known antiviral drug combinations and their developmental status. Overall, the development of combinational therapies could have a global impact improving the preparedness and protection of the general population from emerging and re-emerging viral threats.

    Laboratory based Retrospective Study to determine the start of SARS-CoV-2 in Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Illness MESHD in Egypt at El-Demerdash tertiary hospitals

    Authors: Sara H.A.Agwa; Hesham Elghazaly; Sarah El-Nakeep; Ahmad Moustafa; Manal H El-Sayed; Hala Hafez; Samia abdo; Marwa Matboli; Maha Saad; Shaimaa M.Elsayed; Aya M.Abd Elsamie; Reham M.Darwish; Hoda ezz elarab; Fatma S. E. Ebeid; Sara Makkeyah; Mahmoud S El Meteini

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-76216/v1 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Subject Area: SARS-CoV-2Purpose: COVID-19 is the most recent pandemic causing morbidity and mortality. Although a part of the pathogens causing SARI, it is unique in causing pulmonary thrombosis MESHD and lung fibrosis MESHD. Thus different management is needed. We aimed o explore the start of SARS-CoV-2 in preserved SARI samples to know the exact time of its emergence in our hospital, to conduct whole-genome sequencing in positive SARS-CoV-2 samples to define its strain.  To assess the clinical characteristics of the severe respiratory infection MESHD admitted to El-Demerdash hospitals in that same period from our own file reports.Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among SARI patients who were admitted to Ain Shams university hospitals. preserved nasopharyngeal& oropharyngeal swabs from 333 SARI patients were used in SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-Real time PCR. Moreover, whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 positive samples was performed. Clinical characteristics of the SARI patients were analyzed in the same period to show the relation to morbidity and mortality.Results: The first case of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a 6months aged TRANS female TRANS patient on mid-April 2020, B.1.1.7, clade GR. Co-infection MESHD (with both bacterial and viral) was most prevalent in pediatrics than adults TRANS, but mortality was higher in adults TRANS than pediatrics (18.1% versus 7.1%). ICU admission was higher in adults TRANS than in the pediatric group (65% versus 12.8%). Co-morbidities were associated with higher mortality and more severe infection HP infection MESHD. The most common bacterial infection MESHD in both adults TRANS and pediatrics was Klebsiella pneumoniae MESHD pneumoniae HP, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae HP. Conclusion: COVID-19 didn’t start till mid-April in the Egyptian hospitals as remarked by this tertiary hospital’s data. Co-infection MESHD is the most prevalent in children TRANS and further research is needed in this area.

    Laboratory based Retrospective Study to determine the start of SARS-CoV-2 in Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Illness MESHD in Egypt at El-Demerdash tertiary hospitals

    Authors: Sara H.A.Agwa; Hesham Elghazaly; Sarah El-Nakeep; Ahmad Moustafa; Manal H El-Sayed; Hala Hafez; Samia abdo; Marwa Matboli; Maha Saad; Shaimaa M.Elsayed; Aya M.Abd Elsamie; Reham M.Darwish; Hoda ezz elarab; Fatma S. E. Ebeid; Sara Makkeyah; Mahmoud S El Meteini

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-76216/v2 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: COVID-19 is the most recent pandemic causing morbidity and mortality. Although a part of the pathogens causing SARI, it is unique in causing pulmonary thrombosis MESHD and lung fibrosis MESHD. Thus different management is needed. We aimed o explore the start of SARS-CoV-2 in preserved SARI samples to know the exact time of its emergence in our hospital, to conduct whole-genome sequencing in positive SARS-CoV-2 samples to define its strain.  To assess the clinical characteristics of the severe respiratory infection MESHD admitted to El-Demerdash hospitals in that same period from our own file reports.Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among SARI patients who were admitted to Ain Shams university hospitals. preserved nasopharyngeal& oropharyngeal swabs from 333 SARI patients were used in SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-Real time PCR. Moreover, whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 positive samples was performed. Clinical characteristics of the SARI patients were analyzed in the same period to show the relation to morbidity and mortality.Results: The first case of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a 6months aged TRANS female TRANS patient on mid-April 2020, B.1.1.7, clade GR. Co-infection MESHD (with both bacterial and viral) was most prevalent in pediatrics than adults TRANS, but mortality was higher in adults TRANS than pediatrics (18.1% versus 7.1%). ICU admission was higher in adults TRANS than in the pediatric group (65% versus 12.8%). Co-morbidities were associated with higher mortality and more severe infection HP infection MESHD. The most common bacterial infection MESHD in both adults TRANS and pediatrics was Klebsiella pneumoniae MESHD pneumoniae HP, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae HP. Conclusion: COVID-19 didn’t start till mid-April in the Egyptian hospitals as remarked by this tertiary hospital’s data. Co-infection MESHD is the most prevalent in children TRANS and further research is needed in this area.

    Metagenomic sequencing to detect respiratory viruses in persons under investigation for COVID-19

    Authors: Ahmed Babiker; Heath Bradley; Victoria Stittleburg; Autum Key; Colleen Suzanne Kraft; Jesse Waggoner; Anne Piantadosi; Evangelos Terpos; Ioannis P. Trougakos; Andreas Mentis; Markos Marangos; George Panayiotakopoulos; Meletios A. Dimopoulos; Charalampos Gogos; Alexandros Spyridonidis; Leonidas G. Alexopoulos

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.20178764 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: medRxiv

    We used metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) to assess the frequencies of alternative viral infections in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative persons under investigations (PUIs) (n=30) and viral co-infections MESHD in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive PUIs (n=45). mNGS identified both co-infections MESHD and alternative viral infections that were not detected by routine clinical workup

    Beneficial and Harmful Outcomes of Tocilizumab in Severe COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Manuel Rubio-Rivas; Jose M. Mora-Lujan; Abelardo Montero; Narcis A. Homs; Jordi Rello; Xavier Corbella; Christina Tsigalou; Olga Tsachouridou; Eleni Sertaridou; Petros Rafailidis; Arja Pasternack; Dimitrios Boumpas; Georgios Germanidis; Olli Ritvos; Symeon Metalidis; Panagiotis Skendros; Paschalis Sideras; Sajid A Khan; Akiko Iwasaki; Caroline H Johnson

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.05.20188912 Date: 2020-09-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Pending for randomized control trials, the use of tocilizumab (TCZ) in COVID-19 is based on observational studies and remains controversial. Purpose: To summarize evidence about the effect of TCZ to treat severe COVID-19. Data sources: PubMed (via MEDLINE), Scopus, and medRxiv repository databases from 1 January to 21 August 2020. Study Selection: Observational studies in any language reporting efficacy and safety outcomes of TCZ use in hospitalized adults TRANS with COVID-19. Data Extraction: Independent, dually performed data extraction and quality assessments. Data synthesis: Of 57 eligible studies, 27 were controlled and 30 were not. The overall included patients were 8,128: 4,021 treated with TCZ, in addition to standard of care (SOC), and 4,107 only receiving SOC. The pooled mortality was lower in the TCZ-group vs. the control group, with a relative risk (RR) of 0.73 (95%CI 0.57-0.93; p=0.010). The overall NNT to avoid one death was 20. In hospital wards, patients in the TCZ-group were transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) in a higher proportion than those in the control group; however, ICU mortality of the TCZ-group was lower than in the control group. Secondary infections occurred in a higher proportion in TCZ-treated patients. Among survivors, the length of stay was similar in both groups. Limitations: Conclusions should be considered as weak evidence since they are based on observational studies, most of them retrospective. A variety of factors influencing the indication and effect of TCZ could not be evaluated in-depth. Conclusions: TCZ to seem beneficial in preventing in-hospital mortality in severe, non-critically ill COVID-19 patients. Conversely, patients receiving TCZ appear to be at higher risk for secondary infections MESHD, especially those admitted to ICU.

    Does Respiratory Co-Infection MESHD Facilitate Dispersal of SARS-CoV-2? Investigation of a Super-Spreading Event in an Open-Space Office

    Authors: Dana Weissberg; Jürg Böni; Silvana Rampini; Verena Kufner; Maryam Zaheri; Peter W. Schreiber; Irene A. Abela; Michael Huber; Hugo Sax; Aline Wolfensberger

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-73054/v1 Date: 2020-09-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Super-spreaders are individuals infecting disproportionately large numbers of contacts. They probably play a crucial role in the transmission TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). We describe a super-spreading event within a team working in an open-space office and investigate factors potentially having facilitated SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, semi-structured telephone interviews with all team members were carried out to identify symptoms, contacts, and adherence to basic hygiene measures. During site visits, we gathered information about workplace and seating arrangements. The secondary attack rate TRANS in office and households was calculated. Potential respiratory viral co-infections MESHD were assessed by multiplex PCR. SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing was performed using a tiled-amplicon sequencing approach.Results: Of 13 team members, 11 fell HP ill with Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Due to the sequence of events and full genome sequence data, one person was considered the index case for this outbreak, directly infecting 67% to 83% of the teammates. All team members reported repetitive close contacts TRANS among themselves during joint computer work, team meetings and a “Happy Birthday” serenade. Two individuals shared nuts and dates. The arrangement of the office and meeting rooms precluded sufficient adherence to physical distancing. The index case and a further individual were diagnosed with an adenovirus serotype 4 co-infection MESHD, but secondary household attack rate TRANS was not higher for co-infected MESHD individuals. Conclusion: We identified several environmental and behavioral factors that probably have facilitated the transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2. The relevance of the adenovirus co-infection MESHD remains unclear and merits further investigation.

    Kawasaki Disease MESHD Outbreak in Children TRANS During COVID-19 Pandemic.

    Authors: Ewelina Gowin; Jacek Wysocki; Magdalena Frydrychowicz; Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-70123/v1 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundIn response to the recent information about the outbreak of Kawasaki disease MESHD ( KD MESHD) in children TRANS connected to SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, we would like to present a group of six patients hospitalized from March to May 2020 with an inflammatory disease similar to KD MESHD. Findings There were four girls and two boys, aged TRANS from 15 months to 16 years. They all presented with fever HP fever MESHD lasting at least five days, irritability HP irritability MESHD, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis HP conjunctivitis MESHD, lymphadenopathy, mucus membrane changes, rash MESHD, edema HP edema MESHD.Neither the patients nor the other members of the patients' households had a positive history of COVID-19 infection MESHD. None of the six children TRANS had a positive PCR result for SARS-CoV-2 or a positive results for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO. All patients received empiric antibiotic therapy. Four patients were diagnosed with KD MESHD. Three children TRANS received standard treatment. One boy did not respond and received an additional 14-days course of methylprednisolone.In two girls, the diagnosis of KD MESHD was not made. All patients survived ConclusionFinding a correlation with the Covid-19 pandemic is difficult regarding the situation in our country. According to ECDC, in May 2020 Poland wass still before the peak of the epidemy. The intention of this article is to report that increased hospitalization of children TRANS with the inflammatory syndrome MESHD is also observed in countries with low levels of transmission TRANS of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. Our observation may broaden the knowledge of new inflammatory syndrome MESHD, which is not necessarily caused by SARS-Cov-2 but may be worsened by co-infection MESHD.

    Engineered interferon alpha effectively improves clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Chuan Li; Fengming Luo; Chengwu Liu; Nian Xiong; Zhihua Xu; Wei Zhang; Ming Yang; Ye Wang; Dan Liu; Chao Yu; Jia Zeng; Li Zhang; Duo Li; Yanbin Liu; Mei Feng; Ruoyang Liu; Jiandong Mei; Senyi Deng; Zhen Zeng; Yuanhong He; Haiyan Liu; Zhengyu Shi; Meng Duan; Deying Kang; Jiayu Liao; Weimin Li; Lunxu Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-65224/v1 Date: 2020-08-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Interferons are key to the antiviral host defense, yet the therapeutic value of interferon for coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. Recombinant super-compound interferon ( rSIFN-co MESHD) is a new genetically engineered interferon, thus we conducted a multicenter, randomized controlled trial (ChiCTR2000029638) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant super-compound interferon versus traditional interferon alpha added to baseline antiviral agents (lopinavir–ritonavir or umifenovir) for the treatment of moderate-to-severe COVID-19. Participants received rSIFN-co MESHD (12 million international units [IU], twice daily) or interferon alpha (5 million IU, twice daily) nebulization added to baseline antiviral agents for no more than 28 days. The primary outcome was the time to clinical improvement. Secondary outcomes included the overall rate of clinical improvement assessed on day 28,the time to radiological improvement and virus nucleic acid negative conversion, and adverse events. 94 patients hospitalized with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 were included in the safety set (46 patients assigned to rSIFN-co group, 48 to interferon alpha group). Individuals in the rSIFN-co group showed shorter time to clinical improvement (11.5 days vs 14.0 days; P = 0.019) as compared to those in the interferon alpha group. The overall rate of clinical improvement on day 28 was much higher in the rSIFN-co MESHD group than that in the interferon alpha group (93.5% vs 77.1%; difference, 16.4%; 95% confidence interval 3% to 30%). The time to radiological improvement and the time to virus nucleic acid negative conversion were also much shorter in the rSIFN-co group (8.0 days vs 10.0 days, P = 0.002; 7.0 days vs 10.0 days, P = 0.018, respectively). Adverse events were reported in 13 (28.3%) patients in the rSIFN-co group and 18 (37.5%) patients in the interferon alpha group. No patients died during the study. Our study showed that rSIFN-co added to antiviral agents was safe and more efficient than interferon alpha plus antiviral agents in the treatment of moderate-to-severe COVID-19. Future clinical study of rSIFN-co therapy alone or combined with other antiviral therapy is warranted.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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