Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza and the impact of coinfection on disease severity: A test negative design

    Authors: Julia Stowe; Elise Tessier; Hongxin Zhao; Rebecca Guy; Berit Muller-Pebody; Maria Zambon; Nick Andrews; Mary Ramsay; Jamie Lopez Bernal; Jonathan Josephs-Spaulding; Philipp Koehler; Axel Kuenstner; Elisa Rosati; Anna C. Aschenbrenner; Petra Bacher; Nathan Baran; Teide Boysen; Burkhard Brandt; Niklas Bruse; Jonathan Doerr; Andreas Draeger; Gunnar Elke; David Ellinghaus; Julia Fischer; Michael Forster; Andre Franke; Soeren Franzenburg; Norbert Frey; Anette Friedrichs; Janina Fuss; Andreas Glueck; Jacob Hamm; Finn Hinrichsen; Marc P. Hoeppner; Simon Imm; Ralf Juenker; Sina Kaiser; Ying H. Kan; Rainer Knoll; Christoph Lange; Georg Laue; Clemes Lier; Matthias Lindner; Georgios Marinos; Robert Markewitz; Jacob Nattermann; Rainer Noth; Peter Pickkers; Klaus F. Rabe; Alina Renz; Christoph Roecken; Jan Rupp; Annika Schaffarzyk; Alexander Scheffold; Jonas Schulte-Schrepping; Domagoj Schunck; Dirk Skowasch; Thomas Ulas; Klaus-Peter Wandinger; Michael Wittig; Johannes Zimmermann; Hauke Busch; Bimba F. Hoyer; Christoph Kaleta; Jan Heyckendorf; Matthijs Kox; Jan Rybniker; Stefan Schreiber; Joachim Schultze; Philip Rosenstiel; - HCA Lung Biological Network; - Deutsche COVID-19 Omics Initiative (DeCOI)

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.18.20189647 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The potential impact of COVID-19 alongside influenza on morbidity, mortality and health service capacity is a major concern as the Northern Hemisphere winter approaches. This study investigates the interaction between influenza and COVID-19 during the latter part of the 2019-20 influenza season in England. Methods: Individuals tested for influenza and SARS-CoV-2 were extracted from national surveillance systems between 20/01/2020 and 25/04/2020. To estimate influenza infection on the risk TRANS infection on the risk TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, univariable and multivariable analyses on the odds of SARS-CoV-2 in those who tested positive for influenza compared to those who tested negative for influenza. To assess whether a coinfection was associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 outcome, univariable and multivariable analyses on the odds of death MESHD adjusted for age TRANS, sex, ethnicity, comorbidity and coinfection status. Findings: The risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 was 68% lower among influenza positive cases, suggesting possible pathogenic competition between the two viruses. Patients with a coinfection had a risk of death of 5.92 (95% CI, 3.21-10.91) times greater than among those with neither influenza nor SARS-CoV-2 suggesting possible synergistic effects in coinfected individuals. The odds of ventilator use or death MESHD and ICU admission or death MESHD was greatest among coinfection MESHD patients showing strong evidence of an interaction effect compared to SARS-CoV-2/influenza acting independently. Interpretation: Cocirculation of these viruses could have a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and health service demand. Testing for influenza alongside SARS-CoV-2 and maximising influenza vaccine uptake should be prioritised to mitigate these risks.

    Laboratory based Retrospective Study to determine the start of SARS-CoV-2 in Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Illness MESHD in Egypt at El-Demerdash tertiary hospitals

    Authors: Sara H.A.Agwa; Hesham Elghazaly; Sarah El-Nakeep; Ahmad Moustafa; Manal H El-Sayed; Hala Hafez; Samia abdo; Marwa Matboli; Maha Saad; Shaimaa M.Elsayed; Aya M.Abd Elsamie; Reham M.Darwish; Hoda ezz elarab; Fatma S. E. Ebeid; Sara Makkeyah; Mahmoud S El Meteini

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-76216/v1 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Subject Area: SARS-CoV-2Purpose: COVID-19 is the most recent pandemic causing morbidity and mortality. Although a part of the pathogens causing SARI, it is unique in causing pulmonary thrombosis MESHD and lung fibrosis MESHD. Thus different management is needed. We aimed o explore the start of SARS-CoV-2 in preserved SARI samples to know the exact time of its emergence in our hospital, to conduct whole-genome sequencing in positive SARS-CoV-2 samples to define its strain.  To assess the clinical characteristics of the severe respiratory infection MESHD admitted to El-Demerdash hospitals in that same period from our own file reports.Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among SARI patients who were admitted to Ain Shams university hospitals. preserved nasopharyngeal& oropharyngeal swabs from 333 SARI patients were used in SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-Real time PCR. Moreover, whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 positive samples was performed. Clinical characteristics of the SARI patients were analyzed in the same period to show the relation to morbidity and mortality.Results: The first case of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a 6months aged TRANS female TRANS patient on mid-April 2020, B.1.1.7, clade GR. Co-infection MESHD (with both bacterial and viral) was most prevalent in pediatrics than adults TRANS, but mortality was higher in adults TRANS than pediatrics (18.1% versus 7.1%). ICU admission was higher in adults TRANS than in the pediatric group (65% versus 12.8%). Co-morbidities were associated with higher mortality and more severe infection HP infection MESHD. The most common bacterial infection MESHD in both adults TRANS and pediatrics was Klebsiella pneumoniae MESHD pneumoniae HP, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae HP. Conclusion: COVID-19 didn’t start till mid-April in the Egyptian hospitals as remarked by this tertiary hospital’s data. Co-infection MESHD is the most prevalent in children TRANS and further research is needed in this area.

    Laboratory based Retrospective Study to determine the start of SARS-CoV-2 in Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Illness MESHD in Egypt at El-Demerdash tertiary hospitals

    Authors: Sara H.A.Agwa; Hesham Elghazaly; Sarah El-Nakeep; Ahmad Moustafa; Manal H El-Sayed; Hala Hafez; Samia abdo; Marwa Matboli; Maha Saad; Shaimaa M.Elsayed; Aya M.Abd Elsamie; Reham M.Darwish; Hoda ezz elarab; Fatma S. E. Ebeid; Sara Makkeyah; Mahmoud S El Meteini

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-76216/v2 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: COVID-19 is the most recent pandemic causing morbidity and mortality. Although a part of the pathogens causing SARI, it is unique in causing pulmonary thrombosis MESHD and lung fibrosis MESHD. Thus different management is needed. We aimed o explore the start of SARS-CoV-2 in preserved SARI samples to know the exact time of its emergence in our hospital, to conduct whole-genome sequencing in positive SARS-CoV-2 samples to define its strain.  To assess the clinical characteristics of the severe respiratory infection MESHD admitted to El-Demerdash hospitals in that same period from our own file reports.Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among SARI patients who were admitted to Ain Shams university hospitals. preserved nasopharyngeal& oropharyngeal swabs from 333 SARI patients were used in SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-Real time PCR. Moreover, whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 positive samples was performed. Clinical characteristics of the SARI patients were analyzed in the same period to show the relation to morbidity and mortality.Results: The first case of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a 6months aged TRANS female TRANS patient on mid-April 2020, B.1.1.7, clade GR. Co-infection MESHD (with both bacterial and viral) was most prevalent in pediatrics than adults TRANS, but mortality was higher in adults TRANS than pediatrics (18.1% versus 7.1%). ICU admission was higher in adults TRANS than in the pediatric group (65% versus 12.8%). Co-morbidities were associated with higher mortality and more severe infection HP infection MESHD. The most common bacterial infection MESHD in both adults TRANS and pediatrics was Klebsiella pneumoniae MESHD pneumoniae HP, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae HP. Conclusion: COVID-19 didn’t start till mid-April in the Egyptian hospitals as remarked by this tertiary hospital’s data. Co-infection MESHD is the most prevalent in children TRANS and further research is needed in this area.

    Beneficial and Harmful Outcomes of Tocilizumab in Severe COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Authors: Manuel Rubio-Rivas; Jose M. Mora-Lujan; Abelardo Montero; Narcis A. Homs; Jordi Rello; Xavier Corbella; Christina Tsigalou; Olga Tsachouridou; Eleni Sertaridou; Petros Rafailidis; Arja Pasternack; Dimitrios Boumpas; Georgios Germanidis; Olli Ritvos; Symeon Metalidis; Panagiotis Skendros; Paschalis Sideras; Sajid A Khan; Akiko Iwasaki; Caroline H Johnson

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.05.20188912 Date: 2020-09-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Pending for randomized control trials, the use of tocilizumab (TCZ) in COVID-19 is based on observational studies and remains controversial. Purpose: To summarize evidence about the effect of TCZ to treat severe COVID-19. Data sources: PubMed (via MEDLINE), Scopus, and medRxiv repository databases from 1 January to 21 August 2020. Study Selection: Observational studies in any language reporting efficacy and safety outcomes of TCZ use in hospitalized adults TRANS with COVID-19. Data Extraction: Independent, dually performed data extraction and quality assessments. Data synthesis: Of 57 eligible studies, 27 were controlled and 30 were not. The overall included patients were 8,128: 4,021 treated with TCZ, in addition to standard of care (SOC), and 4,107 only receiving SOC. The pooled mortality was lower in the TCZ-group vs. the control group, with a relative risk (RR) of 0.73 (95%CI 0.57-0.93; p=0.010). The overall NNT to avoid one death was 20. In hospital wards, patients in the TCZ-group were transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) in a higher proportion than those in the control group; however, ICU mortality of the TCZ-group was lower than in the control group. Secondary infections occurred in a higher proportion in TCZ-treated patients. Among survivors, the length of stay was similar in both groups. Limitations: Conclusions should be considered as weak evidence since they are based on observational studies, most of them retrospective. A variety of factors influencing the indication and effect of TCZ could not be evaluated in-depth. Conclusions: TCZ to seem beneficial in preventing in-hospital mortality in severe, non-critically ill COVID-19 patients. Conversely, patients receiving TCZ appear to be at higher risk for secondary infections MESHD, especially those admitted to ICU.

    Kawasaki Disease MESHD Outbreak in Children TRANS During COVID-19 Pandemic.

    Authors: Ewelina Gowin; Jacek Wysocki; Magdalena Frydrychowicz; Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-70123/v1 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundIn response to the recent information about the outbreak of Kawasaki disease MESHD ( KD MESHD) in children TRANS connected to SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, we would like to present a group of six patients hospitalized from March to May 2020 with an inflammatory disease similar to KD MESHD. Findings There were four girls and two boys, aged TRANS from 15 months to 16 years. They all presented with fever HP fever MESHD lasting at least five days, irritability HP irritability MESHD, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis HP conjunctivitis MESHD, lymphadenopathy, mucus membrane changes, rash MESHD, edema HP edema MESHD.Neither the patients nor the other members of the patients' households had a positive history of COVID-19 infection MESHD. None of the six children TRANS had a positive PCR result for SARS-CoV-2 or a positive results for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO. All patients received empiric antibiotic therapy. Four patients were diagnosed with KD MESHD. Three children TRANS received standard treatment. One boy did not respond and received an additional 14-days course of methylprednisolone.In two girls, the diagnosis of KD MESHD was not made. All patients survived ConclusionFinding a correlation with the Covid-19 pandemic is difficult regarding the situation in our country. According to ECDC, in May 2020 Poland wass still before the peak of the epidemy. The intention of this article is to report that increased hospitalization of children TRANS with the inflammatory syndrome MESHD is also observed in countries with low levels of transmission TRANS of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. Our observation may broaden the knowledge of new inflammatory syndrome MESHD, which is not necessarily caused by SARS-Cov-2 but may be worsened by co-infection MESHD.

    Clinical characteristics and outcome of influenza virus infection MESHD among adults TRANS hospitalized with severe COVID-19: A retrospective cohort study from Wuhan, China

    Authors: Xunliang Tong; Xiaomao Xu; Guoyue Lv; He Wang; Anqi Cheng; Dingyi Wang; Yue Zhang; Yanming Li

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50577/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infection disease MESHD that rapidly spreads worldwide. Co-infection MESHD may occur in some cases of COVID-19, like influenza virus and so on. Clinical features and outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients with co-infection MESHD of influenza virus need to be noticed.Methods Retrospective cohort study was performed and total of 140 patients with severe COVID-19 was enrolled in designated wards of Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital between Feb 8th and March 15th in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. The demographic, clinical features, laboratory indices, treatment and outcomes of these patients were collected and analyzed.Results Of 140 severe COVID-19 hospitalized patients, 73 patients were with median age TRANS of 66 years old with identification of influenza virus IgM-positive and 67 patients were with median age TRANS of 62 years old in influenza virus IgM-negative. Nearly half of severe COVID-19 patients in this research are male TRANS. Majority of the severe COVID-19 patients had chronic underlying conditions. Wheeze HP was the clinical feature of severe COVID-19 patients with influenza IgM-positive (26.4% vs 9.0%, P = 0.008). On contrary, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD or myalgia HP myalgia MESHD was the feature of the COVID-19 patients without IgM-positive (38.4% vs 58.2%, P = 0.019). Increased levels of ferritin and prolonging APTT were showed in severe COVID-19 patients without influenza IgM-positive compared with patients in other group with significant differences. Death rate in the group of severe COVID-19 patients with influenza IgM-positive is lower than it in other group with significant differences (4.1% vs 14.9%, P = 0.040). In univariate regression analysis, several factors were associated with higher risk of death MESHD, which included LDH, troponin, NT-proBNP, D-dimer, PT, APTT, lymphocytes, platelet and eGFR. However, influenza virus IgM positive was associated with lower risk of death.Conclusions Characteristic features of patients with severe COVID-19 with influenza virus IgM-positive were described. Co-infection MESHD may occur during the pandemic of COVID-19, and we need to improve our understanding in order to confront this crisis in the future.

    Ocular findings and retinal involvement in COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD patients: A cross-sectional study in an Italian referral centre

    Authors: Maria Pia Pirraglia; Giancarlo Ceccarelli; Alberto Cerini; Giacomo Visioli; Gabriella d'Ettorre; Claudio Maria Mastroianni; Francesco Pugliese; Alessandro Lambiase; Magda Gharbiya

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-48240/v1 Date: 2020-07-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: changes in immune and coagulation systems and possible viral spread through blood SERO-brain barrier have been described in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. In this study, we evaluate the possible retinal involvement and ocular findings in severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD patients.  Methods: a cross sectional study was conducted on 46 patients affected by severe COVID-19 who were hospitalized in one Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and in two Infectious Diseases wards, including a bedside eye screening, corneal sensitivity SERO assessment and retinography. Results: a total of 43 SARS-CoV-2 positive pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients affected with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD were included, 25 males TRANS and 18 females TRANS, with a median age TRANS of 70 [IQR 59-78]. Except for one patient with unilateral posterior chorioretinitis HP of opportunistic origin, of whom aqueous tap was negative for SARS-CoV-2, no further retinal manifestation related to COVID-19 infection MESHD was found in our cohort. We found 3 patients (7%) with bilateral conjunctivitis MESHD conjunctivitis HP in whom PCR analysis on conjunctival swab provided negative results for SARS-CoV-2. No alterations of corneal sensitivity SERO were found.Conclusion: we demonstrated the absence of retinal involvement in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients. Ophthalmologic evaluation in COVID-19, particularly in patients hospitalized in an ICU setting, may be useful to reveal systemic co-infections MESHD infections by opportunistic HP pathogens. 

    COVID-19 among people living with HIV MESHD: A systematic review

    Authors: Hossein Mirzaei; Willi McFarland; Mohammad Karamouzian; Hamid Sharifi

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.11.20151688 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    This systematic review summarizes the evidence on the earliest patients with COVID-19-HIV co-infection MESHD. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, preprint databases, and Google Scholar from December 01, 2019 to June 1, 2020. From an initial 547 publications and 75 reports, 25 studies provided specific information on COVID-19 patients living with HIV MESHD. Studies described 252 patients, 80.9% were male TRANS, mean age TRANS was 52.7 years, and 98% were on ART. Co-morbidities in addition to HIV and COVID-19 (multimorbidity) included hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (39.3%), obesity HP obesity MESHD or hyperlipidemia HP (19.3%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD (18.0%), and diabetes MESHD (17.2%). Two-thirds (66.5%) had mild to moderate symptoms, the most common being fever HP fever MESHD (74.0%) and cough HP (58.3%). Among patients who died, the majority (90.5%) were over 50 years old, male TRANS (85.7%), and had multimorbidity (64.3%). Our findings highlight the importance of identifying co-infections MESHD, addressing co-morbidities, and ensuring a secure supply of ART for PLHIV during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 Emergence Amidst Community-Acquired Respiratory Viruses

    Authors: Karoline Leuzinger; Tim Roloff; Rainer Gosert; Kirstine Soegaard; Klaudia Naegele; Katharina Rentsch; Roland Bingisser; Christian Nickel; Hans Pargger; Stefano Bassetti; Julia Anna Bielicki; Nina Khanna; Sarah Tschudin Sutter; Andreas Widmer; Vladimira Hinic; Manuel Battegay; Adrian Egli; Hans H Hirsch

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20148163 Date: 2020-07-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background. SARS-CoV-2 emerged in China in December 2019 as new cause of severe viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (CoVID-19) reaching Europe by late January 2020. We validated the WHO-recommended assay and describe the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 and community-acquired respiratory viruses (CARVs). Methods. Naso-oropharyngeal swabs (NOPS) from 7663 individuals were prospectively tested by the Basel-S-gene and the WHO-based E-gene-assay (Roche) using Basel-N-gene-assay for confirmation. CARVs were tested in 2394 NOPS by multiplex-NAT, including 1816 together with SARS-CoV-2. Results. Basel-S-gene and Roche-E-gene-assays were concordant in 7475 cases (97.5%) including 825 (11%) positive samples. In 188 (2.5%) discordant cases, SARS-CoV-2 loads were significantly lower than in concordant positive ones and confirmed in 105 NOPS. Adults TRANS were more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2, while children TRANS were more likely to test CARV-positive. CARV co-infections MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 occurred in 1.8%. SARS-CoV-2 replaced other CARVs within 3 weeks reaching 48% of all detected respiratory viruses followed by rhino/enterovirus (13%), influenzavirus (12%), coronavirus (9%), respiratory syncytial (6%) and metapneumovirus (6%). Conclusions. The differential diagnosis for respiratory infections MESHD was broad during the early pandemic, affecting infection control and treatment decisions. We discuss the role of pre-existing immunity and competitive CARV replication for the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among adults TRANS and children TRANS.

    Profiling pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS cases with confirmed TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Mexico City

    Authors: Omar Yaxmehen Bello-Chavolla; Neftali Eduardo Antonio-Villa; Arsenio Vargas-Vázquez; Carlos A. Fermín-Martínez; Alejandro Márquez-Salinas; Jessica Paola Bahena-López

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.02.20145516 Date: 2020-07-04 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD are potential sources for transmission TRANS. OBJECTIVES: Here, we aimed to profile pre-symptomatic/ asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in Mexico City, its associated comorbidities and outcomes. METHODS: Prospective observational study of SARS-CoV-2 cases assessed by contact tracing TRANS within the National Epidemiological Surveillance System in Mexico City. We classified subjects as cases with and without respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms ( RS MESHD, NRS, respectively) assessed for SARS-CoV-2 using real time RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs to evaluate clinical characteristics as well as features associated with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Amongst 80735 cases with confirmed TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD as of July 23th, 2020, we identified 9659 cases without RS MESHD (12.0%), 5605 had only NRS (6.9%) and 4054 who were initially asymptomatic TRANS (5.1%). Compared to asymptomatic TRANS cases, those with NRS and those with RS MESHD+NRS had higher rates of severe COVID-19 outcomes including hospitalization, ICU admission, and intubation (p<0.001). Mortality was higher for cases with RS MESHD+NRS (HR 7.58, 95%CI 4.56-12.58) or NRS (HR 3.13, 95%CI 1.80-5.45) compared to asymptomatic TRANS cases, adjusted for age TRANS, sex and comorbidities. Predictors for mortality in asymptomatic TRANS SARS-Co-V-2 infections MESHD infections, chronic HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, previous exposure with suspected infection MESHD cases and older age TRANS were predictors for lethality. CONCLUSIONS: Definition of pre-symptomatic/ asymptomatic TRANS cases has relevant implications for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD outcomes. Older age TRANS and comorbidity impact on the probability of developing severe complications for cases who were asymptomatic TRANS or had only NRS at evaluation and were sent for domiciliary treatment. Extending testing for detection of asymptomatic TRANS cases must be considered in Mexico to better understand the impact of the pandemic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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