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MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Kawasaki Disease MESHD Outbreak in Children TRANS During COVID-19 Pandemic.

    Authors: Ewelina Gowin; Jacek Wysocki; Magdalena Frydrychowicz; Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-70123/v1 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundIn response to the recent information about the outbreak of Kawasaki disease MESHD ( KD MESHD) in children TRANS connected to SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, we would like to present a group of six patients hospitalized from March to May 2020 with an inflammatory disease similar to KD MESHD. Findings There were four girls and two boys, aged TRANS from 15 months to 16 years. They all presented with fever HP fever MESHD lasting at least five days, irritability HP irritability MESHD, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis HP conjunctivitis MESHD, lymphadenopathy, mucus membrane changes, rash MESHD, edema HP edema MESHD.Neither the patients nor the other members of the patients' households had a positive history of COVID-19 infection MESHD. None of the six children TRANS had a positive PCR result for SARS-CoV-2 or a positive results for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO. All patients received empiric antibiotic therapy. Four patients were diagnosed with KD MESHD. Three children TRANS received standard treatment. One boy did not respond and received an additional 14-days course of methylprednisolone.In two girls, the diagnosis of KD MESHD was not made. All patients survived ConclusionFinding a correlation with the Covid-19 pandemic is difficult regarding the situation in our country. According to ECDC, in May 2020 Poland wass still before the peak of the epidemy. The intention of this article is to report that increased hospitalization of children TRANS with the inflammatory syndrome MESHD is also observed in countries with low levels of transmission TRANS of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. Our observation may broaden the knowledge of new inflammatory syndrome MESHD, which is not necessarily caused by SARS-Cov-2 but may be worsened by co-infection MESHD.

    Influence of influenza A virus in COVID-19 patients: A retrospective cohort study

    Authors: Yuan Cheng; Jing Ma; He Wang; Xi Wang; Zhanwei Hu; Haichao Li; Hong Zhang; Xinmin Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39932/v1 Date: 2020-07-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background and objective: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is currently an urgent global issue, but we cannot ignore the impact of influenza A since there is an overlap of infection time and region and similar clinical manifestations and chest computed tomography (CT) images for influenza A and COVID-19 infections. We compared patients who had a COVID-19 infection MESHD and co-infection MESHD with the influenza A virus.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients who met the inclusion criteria for this study.Results: There were 213 patients included in this study, of whom 106 were females TRANS and 107 were males TRANS, with a median age TRANS of 63 years. All patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 and were subsequently divided into influenza positive (n = 97) and influenza negative (n = 116) groups according to the serum SERO test results for the influenza A IgM antibody SERO. The two groups had similar symptoms, outcomes, CT manifestation and CT scores, except for lymphadenopathy HP lymphadenopathy MESHD (6.2% in the influenza positive group vs. 14.7% in the negative group, P = 0.047). However, in the subgroup analysis, male TRANS or younger patients ( age TRANS <= 60 years) in the influenza negative group had higher CT scores than patients in the influenza positive group (P < 0.05).Conclusions: COVID-19 patients who had co-infection MESHD with the influenza A virus showed similar symptoms, outcomes, CT manifestation and CT scores to influenza negative patients. However, male TRANS patients and younger patients had higher CT scores in the influenza negative group.

    Factors Affecting SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic, including Zoonotic, Human Transmission and Chain TRANS of Infection. Reducing Public Health Risk by Serum SERO Antibody Testing SERO, Avoiding Screening in Unhygienic Places and False PCR Reporting. A Scientific Review

    Authors: Kamran Mahmood Ahmed Aziz; Abdullah Othman; Waleed Alqahtani; Sumaiya Azhar

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0284.v1 Date: 2020-06-23 Source: Preprints.org

    Since December 2019, a rapid increase in the number of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) cases was reported worldwide, despite strict infection control and lock down measures. Current paper investigated the actual facts behind this rapid increase in the number of cases. Study of genomic sequence reveals that domestic and wild animals were likely ancestors and zoonotic source for SARS-CoVs MESHD, MERS-CoVs, and SARS-CoV-2. Strong evidence suggest that these viruses already existed and replicated in animals and humans during past several decades, exhibiting diverse mutations, evolutions and self-limiting diseases, except during outbreaks. Serious zoonotic reservoir investigations are required to investigate animal transmission TRANS of SARS-CoVs and SARS-CoV-2 MESHD to limit current pandemic. This might be the reason of increasing number of cases via animals. SARS-CoV-2 has been retrospectively isolated in different studies in August 2019, several months before Wuhan announced. Hence, there is a possibility that viruses existed, went undetected, infecting subclinically, in past several years, and SARS-CoV-2 antigens and neutralizing antibodies SERO may have been present in humans since long time. This might be another reason of increasing number of cases by screening as mass screening and antigen or antibody testing SERO was not carried out in the past years. Randomized controlled trials are required to investigate human to human transmission TRANS by touch, as the current evidence is limited with conflicting results. As all SARS-CoVs MESHD are basically respiratory viruses, droplet precautions and infection MESHD control measures are essential, especially for hospital staff. Increased number of SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic TRANS, or subclinical cases are detected worldwide. This silent phase of transmission TRANS can be beneficial for humans. Lack of symptoms eventually lessen virus transmission TRANS and reduce the pathogen's long-term survival and provide humoral herd immunity up to several years. Hence, seropositivity with diverse antibodies SERO develops against mutating SARS-CoVs which will confer strong immunity during epidemics. Strategies such as identification, contact tracing TRANS and quarantine are costly and practically difficult. Hence, asymptomatic TRANS persons can continue their work with droplet precautions and standard infection control procedures, while symptomatic or sick persons can isolate themselves in their homes without the need for strict quarantine until clinical recovery, with reduced hospital visits and minimizing chances of hospital acquired infections. RT-PCR has low sensitivity SERO and specificity, carries a high risk of handling live virus antigens, and requires difficult protocols. As viral load also sharply declines after few days of onset of infection MESHD, this technique might overlook infection MESHD. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD may be present in blood SERO when oropharyngeal swabs are negative by RT-PCR. Additionally, RT-PCR usually gives false negative and false positive results and must be interpreted cautiously. This might be again a reason of increasing number of cases by false positive RT-PCR reporting. Moreover, antibodies SERO against SARS-CoVs develop robustly in serum SERO even by reduced amount of antigens. In contrast to RT-PCR, ELISA SERO for diagnosing antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity SERO, even in clinically asymptomatic TRANS individuals. These antibodies SERO can be used for serologic surveys SERO, monitoring and screening. However, screening tests for SARS-COV-2 should be avoided in unhygienic public places by nasopharyngeal swabs, which carry a high risk of further transmission TRANS, co-infection MESHD or superinfection. Such highly infectious virus must be isolated and tested in highly sterilized laboratory. Further strict international laws and policies are required to stop the possible spread of experimental viruses, biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    Clinical Characteristics and Comparative Analysis of Covid-19 Patients With or Without HIV Coinfection MESHD in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Rongrong Yang; Xien Gui; Yongxi Zhang; Yong Xiong; Shicheng Gao; Hengning Ke

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-34735/v1 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 is a public health emergency that is spreading worldwide and seriously affecting global economy. Information about the impact of HIV co-infection MESHD and anti-HIV drugs on the clinical characteristics and prognosis of COVID-19 patients remains limited.Methods: In this retrospective study, the maximum body temperatures, fever HP fever MESHD duration, chest computed tomography changes and viral shedding, lymphocyte counts changes and titer of SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO were compared between COVID-19 patients with and without HIV infection MESHD in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 20th to February 14th, 2020. Results: Compared with 50 control COVID-19 patients, the two COVID-19/ HIV co-infection MESHD patients had higher maximum body temperatures(40.2℃ and 40.3℃ vs 38.2℃), longer fever HP fever MESHD duration(11 days and 15 days vs 7 days), longer time of lung recovery(20 days and 24 days vs 14 days), shorter duration of viral shedding after the onset of symptoms TRANS(6 days and 4 days vs 10 days). Compared with three COVID-19 infection MESHD colleagues who had exposure history with the same COVID-19 patient, the third COVID-19/ HIV co-infection MESHD patient had the same duration of viral shedding after exposure(29 days vs 29 days), lower titer of SARS-CoV-2 IgG MESHD(negative vs positive for all). Conclusion: For patients co-infected MESHD with HIV MESHD, the clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were diverse. The ability of those COVID-19/ HIV co-infection MESHD patients with severe immunodeficiency HP immunodeficiency MESHD to produce SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO were weakened. The small sample in this study implied that the effects of anti-HIV drugs in prevention and treatment of COVID-19 appears to be limited.

    A 49-year-old Woman Co-infected MESHD with SARS-COV-2 and Mycoplasma – A Case Report

    Authors: Ziang Gao; Lingbao Gao; Xinjie Chen; Yu Xu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-16376/v1 Date: 2020-03-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: SARS-COV-2 is a new virus responsible for the outbreak of respiratory illness MESHD known as Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Mycoplasma is an uncommon co-infected MESHD pathogen with SARS-COV-2 MESHD and has not been reported yet. Besides, Computed Tomography (CT), used as an accessory examination, may play a more significant role this time.Case presentation: A 49-year-old female TRANS presented with cough HP, expectoration and chest congestion followed by elevated CRP and ESR. CT images showed ground-glass opacities MESHD in bilateral lower lobes and patchy and striate shadow in right upper lobe. IgM antibody SERO of Mycoplasma pneumoniae MESHD pneumoniae HP was positive and RT-PCR outcome of sputum was positive for the SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid. Her diagnosis of COVID-19 was made on the basis of laboratory results, chest CT images, clinical manifestations and epidemiologic characteristics. She was treated with combination therapy for 17 days following which she showed marked recovery.Conclusion: Co-infection of SARS-COV-2 MESHD and Mycoplasma in COVID-19 patients appears to be uncommon. Computed tomography is an acceptive way to make primary diagnosis and treatment for patients as soon as possible. Combination therapy of antiviral, anti-inflammatory, traditional Chinese medical herbal and supportive care may be a reference for further progress.

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MeSH Disease
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Transmission
Seroprevalence


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