### Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (1)

Fever (1)

Cough (1)

Transmission

fomite (7)

Transmission (3)

gender (3)

Seroprevalence
displaying 1 - 7 records in total 7
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### Analysis of clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and therapy of 134 cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective analysis.

Authors: Rui Zhang; Jie Zhang; Jiebing Chen

doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-79418/v1 Date: 2020-09-17 Source: ResearchSquare

Background：As everyone knows, the pandemic COVID-19 is spreading in the whole world. The number of laboratory- confirmed cases TRANS reached 28,637,211 and that of the death cases was 917,404 in the world as of September 13th, 2020. We sought to analyse the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and therapy of some cases with COVID-19.Methods: In this retrospective study, we extracted the data on 134 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Wuhan Xinzhou District People's Hospital from January 16th to April 24th , 2020. Cases were confirmed TRANS by real-time RT-PCR and abnormal radiologic findings. Outcomes were followed up until May 1th , 2020. Results： Co-infection MESHD infection and severe HP underlying diseases made it easier for a case with COVID-19 to develop to be a severe one or reach an outcome of death MESHD. Age TRANS above 60 years old, male TRANS and symptoms such as fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, chest tightness HP chest tightness MESHD, headaches HP headaches MESHD and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD were related to severe COVID-19 and an outcome of death MESHD. In addition, higher temperature, blood SERO leukocyte count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, D-dimer level, alanine aminotransferase activity, aspartate aminotransferase activity,α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity and creatine kinase activity were also related to severe COVID-19 and an outcome of death MESHD, and so was lower lymphocyte count. Administration of gamma globulin seemed helpful for reducing the mortality of patients with severe COVID-19, however the P value was greater than 0.05 (P=0.180), which mean under the same condition, studies of larger samples are needed in the future.                 Conclusion: Multiple factors were related to severe COVID-19 and an outcome of death MESHD.  Administration of gamma globulin seemed helpful for reducing the mortality of severe cases. More related studies are needed in the future.

### Analysis of COVID-19 and comorbidity co-infection MESHD Model with Optimal Control

Authors: Dr. Andrew Omame; Nometa Ikenna

doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168013 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

The new coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) infection MESHD is a double challenge for people infected MESHD with comorbidities such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases MESHD and diabetes MESHD. Comorbidities have been reported to be risk factors for the complications of COVID-19. In this work, we develop and analyze a mathematical model for the dynamics of COVID-19 infection MESHD in order to assess the impacts of prior comorbidity on COVID-19 complications and COVID-19 re-infection. The model is simulated using data relevant to the dynamics of the diseases in Lagos, Nigeria, making predictions for the attainment of peak periods in the presence or absence of comorbidity. The model is shown to undergo the phenomenon of backward bifurcation caused by the parameter accounting for increased susceptibility to COVID-19 infection MESHD by comorbid susceptibles as well as the rate of re-infection by those who have recovered from a previous COVID-19 infection MESHD. Sensitivity SERO analysis of the model when the population of individuals co-infected MESHD with COVID-19 and comorbidity is used as response function revealed that the top ranked parameters that drive the dynamics of the co-infection MESHD model are the effective contact rate for COVID-19 transmission TRANS, $\beta\sst{cv}$, the parameter accounting for increased susceptibility to COVID-19 by comorbid susceptibles, $\chi\sst{cm}$, the comorbidity development rate, $\theta\sst{cm}$, the detection rate for singly infected and co-infected MESHD individuals, $\eta_1$ and $\eta_2$, as well as the recovery rate from COVID-19 for co-infected MESHD individuals, $\varphi\sst{i2}$. Simulations of the model reveal that the cumulative confirmed cases TRANS (without comorbidity) may get up to 180,000 after 200 days, if the hyper susceptibility rate of comorbid susceptibles is as high as 1.2 per day. Also, the cumulative confirmed cases TRANS (including those co-infected MESHD with comorbidity) may be as high as 1000,000 cases by the end of November, 2020 if the re-infection rates for COVID-19 is 0.1 per day. It may be worse than this if the re-infection rates increase higher. Moreover, if policies are strictly put in place to step down the probability of COVID-19 infection MESHD by comorbid susceptibles to as low as 0.4 per day and step up the detection rate for singly infected MESHD individuals to 0.7 per day, then the reproduction number TRANS can be brought very low below one, and COVID-19 infection eliminated from the population. In addition, optimal control and cost-effectiveness analysis of the model reveal that the the strategy that prevents COVID-19 infection MESHD by comorbid susceptibles has the least ICER and is the most cost-effective of all the control strategies for the prevention of COVID-19.

### Profiling pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS cases with confirmed TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in Mexico City

Authors: Omar Yaxmehen Bello-Chavolla; Neftali Eduardo Antonio-Villa; Arsenio Vargas-Vázquez; Carlos A. Fermín-Martínez; Alejandro Márquez-Salinas; Jessica Paola Bahena-López

doi:10.1101/2020.07.02.20145516 Date: 2020-07-04 Source: medRxiv

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD are potential sources for transmission TRANS. OBJECTIVES: Here, we aimed to profile pre-symptomatic/ asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in Mexico City, its associated comorbidities and outcomes. METHODS: Prospective observational study of SARS-CoV-2 cases assessed by contact tracing TRANS within the National Epidemiological Surveillance System in Mexico City. We classified subjects as cases with and without respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms ( RS MESHD, NRS, respectively) assessed for SARS-CoV-2 using real time RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs to evaluate clinical characteristics as well as features associated with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Amongst 80735 cases with confirmed TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD as of July 23th, 2020, we identified 9659 cases without RS MESHD (12.0%), 5605 had only NRS (6.9%) and 4054 who were initially asymptomatic TRANS (5.1%). Compared to asymptomatic TRANS cases, those with NRS and those with RS MESHD+NRS had higher rates of severe COVID-19 outcomes including hospitalization, ICU admission, and intubation (p<0.001). Mortality was higher for cases with RS MESHD+NRS (HR 7.58, 95%CI 4.56-12.58) or NRS (HR 3.13, 95%CI 1.80-5.45) compared to asymptomatic TRANS cases, adjusted for age TRANS, sex and comorbidities. Predictors for mortality in asymptomatic TRANS SARS-Co-V-2 infections MESHD infections, chronic HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, previous exposure with suspected infection MESHD cases and older age TRANS were predictors for lethality. CONCLUSIONS: Definition of pre-symptomatic/ asymptomatic TRANS cases has relevant implications for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD outcomes. Older age TRANS and comorbidity impact on the probability of developing severe complications for cases who were asymptomatic TRANS or had only NRS at evaluation and were sent for domiciliary treatment. Extending testing for detection of asymptomatic TRANS cases must be considered in Mexico to better understand the impact of the pandemic.

### No indications for overt innate immune suppression in critically ill COVID-19 patients

Authors: Matthijs Kox; Tim Frenzel; Jeroen Schouten; Frank van de Veerdonk; Hans J.P.M. Koenen; Peter Pickkers; RCI-COVID-19 study group

doi:10.1101/2020.04.03.20049080 Date: 2020-04-06 Source: medRxiv

At the end of March 2020, there were in excess of 800.000 confirmed cases TRANS of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. Several reports suggest that, in severe cases, COVID-19 may cause a hyperinflammatory 'cytokine storm'. However, unlike SARS-CoV infection MESHD, high levels of anti-inflammatory mediators have also been reported in COVID-19 patients. One study reported that 16% of COVID-19 patients who died developed secondary infection MESHD, which might indicate an immune-suppressed state. We explored kinetics of mHLA-DR expression, the most widely used marker of innate immune suppression in critically ill patients, in COVID- 19 patients admitted to the ICU. Twenty-four confirmed COVID-19 patients were included, of which 75% was male TRANS and 79% had comorbidities. All patients were mechanically ventilated and exhibited large high levels of inflammatory parameters such as CRP and PCT. Although mHLA-DR expression levels in COVID-19 patients were lower than those observed in healthy subjects, the extent of suppression was less pronounced than observed in bacterial septic shock MESHD shock HP patients. mHLA-DR expression kinetics revealed no change over time. None of the COVID-19 patients developed a secondary infection MESHD. In conclusion, despite a pronounced inflammatory response, mHLA-DR expression kinetics indicate more moderate innate immune suppression in COVID-19 patients compared with bacterial septic shock MESHD shock HP patients. These data signify that innate immune suppression as a negative feedback mechanism following PAMP-induced inflammation MESHD appears less pronounced in COVID-19.

### Quantifying treatment effects of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin for COVID-19: a secondary analysis of an open label non-randomized clinical trial (Gautret et al, 2020)

Authors: Andrew A. Lover

doi:10.1101/2020.03.22.20040949 Date: 2020-03-27 Source: medRxiv

Human infections with a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) were first identified via syndromic surveillance in December of 2019 in Wuhan China. Since identification, infections MESHD (coronavirus disease-2019; COVID-19) caused by this novel pathogen have spread globally, with more than 250,000 confirmed cases TRANS as of March 21, 2020. An open-label clinical trial has just concluded, suggesting improved resolution of viremia HP viremia MESHD with use of two existing therapies: hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as monotherapy, and in combination with azithromycin (HCQ-AZ). The results of this important trial have major implications for global policy in the rapid scale-up and response to this pandemic. The authors present results with p-values for differences in proportions between the study arms, but their analysis is not able to provide effect size estimates. To address this gap, more modern analytical methods including survival models, have been applied to these data, and show modest to no impact of HCQ treatment, with more significant effects from the HCQ-AZ combination, potentially suggesting a role for co-infections MESHD in COVID-19 pathogenesis. The trial of Gautret and colleagues, with consideration of the effect sizes, and p-values from multiple models, does not provide sufficient evidence to support wide-scale rollout of HCQ monotherapy for the treatment of COVID-19; larger randomized studies should be considered. The trial of Gautret and colleagues, with consideration of the effect sizes, and p-values from multiple models, does not provide sufficient evidence to support wide-scale rollout of HCQ monotherapy for the treatment of COVID-19; larger randomized studies should be considered. These data also suggest further randomized-controlled studies of HCQ-AZ combination therapy should be undertaken.

### The Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution Concentrations and Lockdowns on Covid-19 Infections in Wuhan and Other Provincial Capitals in China

Authors: Yang Han; Jacqueline CK Lam; Victor OK Li; Peiyang Guo; Qi Zhang; Andong Wang; Jon Crowcroft; Shanshan Wang; Jinqi Fu; Zafar Gilani; Jocelyn Downey

id:10.20944/preprints202003.0364.v1 Date: 2020-03-24 Source: Preprints.org

Background: Covid-19 was first reported in Wuhan, China in Dec 2019. Since then, it has been transmitted rapidly in China and the rest of the world. While Covid-19 transmission TRANS rate has been declining in China, it is increasing exponentially in Europe and America. Although there are numerous studies examining Covid-19 infection MESHD, including an archived paper looking into the meteorological effect, the role of outdoor air pollution has yet to be explored rigorously. It has been shown that air pollution will weaken the immune system, and increase the rate of respiratory virus infection MESHD. We postulate that outdoor air pollution concentrations will have a negative effect on Covid-19 infections in China, whilst lockdowns, characterized by strong social distancing and home isolation measures, will help to moderate such negative effect. Methods: We will collect the number of daily confirmed Covid-19 cases in 31 provincial capital cities in China during the period of 1 Dec 2019 to 20 Mar 2020 (from a popular Chinese online platform which aggregates all cases reported by the Chinese national/provincial health authorities). We will also collect daily air pollution and meteorology data at the city-level (from the Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center and the US National Climatic Data Center), daily inter-city migration flows and intra-city movements (from Baidu). City-level demographics including age TRANS distribution and gender TRANS, education, and median household income can be obtained from the statistical yearbooks. City-level co-morbidity indicators including rates of chronic disease MESHD and co-infection MESHD can be obtained from related research articles. A regression model is developed to model the relationship between the infection rate of Covid-19 (number of confirmed cases TRANS/population at the city level) and outdoor air pollution at the city level, after taking into account confounding factors such as meteorology, inter- and intra-city movements, demographics, and co-morbidity and co-infection MESHD rates. In particular, we shall study how air pollution affects infection rates across different cities, including Wuhan. Our model will also study air pollution would affect infection rates in Wuhan before and after the lockdown. Expected findings: We expect there be a correlation between Covid-19 infection rate and outdoor air pollution. We also expect that reduced intra-city movement after the lockdowns in Wuhan and the rest of China will play an important role in reducing the infection rate. Interpretation: Infection rate is growing exponentially in major cities worldwide. We expect Covid-19 infection MESHD rate is related to the air pollution concentration, and is strongly dependent on inter- and intra-city movements. To reduce the infection rate, the international community may deploy effective air pollution reduction plans and social distancing policies.

### Optimization of Microbiological Laboratory Detection Strategy for Patients in A Designated Hospital Treating Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia HP in Anhui Province

Authors: Wenjiao Chang; Yuru Shi; Yingjie Qi; Jiaxing Liu; Ting Liu; Zhaowu Chen; Wenjing Zhang; Mengmeng Wang; Dongfeng Liu; Ming Yin; Jing Xu; Yun Yang; Xiaowu Zhu; Jing Ge; Shu Zhu; Yong Gao; Xiaoling Ma

doi:10.1101/2020.03.21.20039065 Date: 2020-03-23 Source: medRxiv

Novel coronavirus pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (NCP) is an emerging, highly contagious community acquired pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD (CAP) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2). Highly efficient and accurate microbiological laboratory assay is essential to confirm the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, rule out other pathogens that can cause CAP, and monitor secondary infections. Here, we enrolled and provide microbiological analysis for 129 suspected and 52 transferred confirmed NCP patients hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) from Jan 21 to Feb 29, 2020. By analyzing the dual swab samples (sputum and pharyngeal) from 129 suspected patients with realtime RT-PCR, we confirmed 33 SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD, with two co-infection MESHD cases with adenovirus or rhinovirus. We also used multiplex PCR to detect 13 common respiratory tract pathogens in 96 non-NCP patients, and found that 30 patients (31.25%) were infected MESHD with at least one respiratory tract pathogen that may cause CAP. Further, we performed bacterial and fungal cultures as well as fungal serologic tests SERO and found that there is no secondary bacterial/ fungal infections MESHD infections in confirmed TRANS NCP patients. Our studies suggest that, during the epidemic of NCP in Anhui province, there was a certain proportion of infection and co-infection MESHD of other common pathogens of CAP, and the secondary bacterial and fungal infection MESHD is not detectable in NCP patients. In comparison with SARS-CoV-2 detection alone, this optimized strategy combining multiple pathogen detection for identification of NCP and other CAP patients as well as cultures and serologic tests SERO for confirmed patients increases the diagnosis efficiency and facilitates the personalized medication.

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