Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


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    Identification of novel antiviral drug combinations in vitro and tracking their development

    Authors: Aleksandr Ianevski; Rouan Yao; Svetlana Biza; Eva Zusinaite; Andres Mannik; Gaily Kivi; Anu Planken; Kristiina Kurg; Eva-Maria Tombak; Mart Ustav Jr.; Nastassia Shtaida; Evgeny Kulesskiy; Eunji Jo; Jaewon Yang; Hilde Lysvand; Kirsti Loseth; Valentyn Oksenych; Per Arne Aas; Tanel Tenson; Astra Vitkauskiene; Marc P. Windisch; Mona H Fenstad; Svein Arne Nordbo; Mart Ustav; Magnar Bjoras; Denis E Kainov

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.17.299933 Date: 2020-09-17 Source: bioRxiv

    Combination therapies have become a standard for the treatment for HIV and HCV infections MESHD. They are advantageous over monotherapies due to better efficacy and reduced toxicity MESHD, as well as the ability to prevent the development of resistant viral strains and to treat viral co-infections MESHD. Here, we identify several new synergistic combinations against emerging and re-emerging viral infections in vitro. We observed synergistic activity of nelfinavir with investigational drug EIDD-2801 and convalescent serum SERO against SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells. We also demonstrated synergistic activity of vemurafenib combination with emetine, homoharringtonine, gemcitabine, or obatoclax against echovirus 1 infection MESHD in human lung epithelial A549 cells. We also found that combinations of sofosbuvir with brequinar and niclosamide were synergistic against HCV infection MESHD in hepatocyte derived Huh-7.5 cells, whereas combinations of monensin with lamivudine and tenofovir were synergistic against HIV-1 infection MESHD in human cervical TZM-bl cells. Finally, we present an online resource that summarizes novel and known antiviral drug combinations and their developmental status. Overall, the development of combinational therapies could have a global impact improving the preparedness and protection of the general population from emerging and re-emerging viral threats.

    Analysis of clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and therapy of 134 cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective analysis.

    Authors: Rui Zhang; Jie Zhang; Jiebing Chen

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:As everyone knows, the pandemic COVID-19 is spreading in the whole world. The number of laboratory- confirmed cases TRANS reached 28,637,211 and that of the death cases was 917,404 in the world as of September 13th, 2020. We sought to analyse the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and therapy of some cases with COVID-19.Methods: In this retrospective study, we extracted the data on 134 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Wuhan Xinzhou District People's Hospital from January 16th to April 24th , 2020. Cases were confirmed TRANS by real-time RT-PCR and abnormal radiologic findings. Outcomes were followed up until May 1th , 2020. Results: Co-infection MESHD infection and severe HP underlying diseases made it easier for a case with COVID-19 to develop to be a severe one or reach an outcome of death MESHD. Age TRANS above 60 years old, male TRANS and symptoms such as fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, chest tightness HP chest tightness MESHD, headaches HP headaches MESHD and fatigue HP fatigue MESHD were related to severe COVID-19 and an outcome of death MESHD. In addition, higher temperature, blood SERO leukocyte count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein level, D-dimer level, alanine aminotransferase activity, aspartate aminotransferase activity,α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity and creatine kinase activity were also related to severe COVID-19 and an outcome of death MESHD, and so was lower lymphocyte count. Administration of gamma globulin seemed helpful for reducing the mortality of patients with severe COVID-19, however the P value was greater than 0.05 (P=0.180), which mean under the same condition, studies of larger samples are needed in the future.                 Conclusion: Multiple factors were related to severe COVID-19 and an outcome of death MESHD.  Administration of gamma globulin seemed helpful for reducing the mortality of severe cases. More related studies are needed in the future.

    Ocular findings and retinal involvement in COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD patients: A cross-sectional study in an Italian referral centre

    Authors: Maria Pia Pirraglia; Giancarlo Ceccarelli; Alberto Cerini; Giacomo Visioli; Gabriella d'Ettorre; Claudio Maria Mastroianni; Francesco Pugliese; Alessandro Lambiase; Magda Gharbiya

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: changes in immune and coagulation systems and possible viral spread through blood SERO-brain barrier have been described in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. In this study, we evaluate the possible retinal involvement and ocular findings in severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD patients.  Methods: a cross sectional study was conducted on 46 patients affected by severe COVID-19 who were hospitalized in one Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and in two Infectious Diseases wards, including a bedside eye screening, corneal sensitivity SERO assessment and retinography. Results: a total of 43 SARS-CoV-2 positive pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients affected with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD were included, 25 males TRANS and 18 females TRANS, with a median age TRANS of 70 [IQR 59-78]. Except for one patient with unilateral posterior chorioretinitis HP of opportunistic origin, of whom aqueous tap was negative for SARS-CoV-2, no further retinal manifestation related to COVID-19 infection MESHD was found in our cohort. We found 3 patients (7%) with bilateral conjunctivitis MESHD conjunctivitis HP in whom PCR analysis on conjunctival swab provided negative results for SARS-CoV-2. No alterations of corneal sensitivity SERO were found.Conclusion: we demonstrated the absence of retinal involvement in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients. Ophthalmologic evaluation in COVID-19, particularly in patients hospitalized in an ICU setting, may be useful to reveal systemic co-infections MESHD infections by opportunistic HP pathogens. 

    Influence of influenza A virus in COVID-19 patients: A retrospective cohort study

    Authors: Yuan Cheng; Jing Ma; He Wang; Xi Wang; Zhanwei Hu; Haichao Li; Hong Zhang; Xinmin Liu

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-07-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background and objective: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is currently an urgent global issue, but we cannot ignore the impact of influenza A since there is an overlap of infection time and region and similar clinical manifestations and chest computed tomography (CT) images for influenza A and COVID-19 infections. We compared patients who had a COVID-19 infection MESHD and co-infection MESHD with the influenza A virus.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients who met the inclusion criteria for this study.Results: There were 213 patients included in this study, of whom 106 were females TRANS and 107 were males TRANS, with a median age TRANS of 63 years. All patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 and were subsequently divided into influenza positive (n = 97) and influenza negative (n = 116) groups according to the serum SERO test results for the influenza A IgM antibody SERO. The two groups had similar symptoms, outcomes, CT manifestation and CT scores, except for lymphadenopathy HP lymphadenopathy MESHD (6.2% in the influenza positive group vs. 14.7% in the negative group, P = 0.047). However, in the subgroup analysis, male TRANS or younger patients ( age TRANS <= 60 years) in the influenza negative group had higher CT scores than patients in the influenza positive group (P < 0.05).Conclusions: COVID-19 patients who had co-infection MESHD with the influenza A virus showed similar symptoms, outcomes, CT manifestation and CT scores to influenza negative patients. However, male TRANS patients and younger patients had higher CT scores in the influenza negative group.

    Routine measurement of serum SERO procalcitonin allows antibiotics to be safely withheld in patients admitted to hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Authors: Emma Jane Williams; Luke Mair; Thushan I. de Silva; Dan J. Green; Philip House; Kay Cawthron; Christopher Gillies; James Wigfull; Helena Parsons; David G. Partridge

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.29.20136572 Date: 2020-07-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background. It can be a diagnostic challenge to identify COVID-19 patients without bacterial co-infection MESHD in whom antibiotics can be safely stopped. We sought to evaluate the validity of a guideline that recommends withholding antibiotics in patients with a low serum SERO procalcitonin (PCT). Methods. We retrospectively collected 28-day outcome data on patients admitted to Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK, between 5 March and 15 April 2020, with a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCT within 48 hours of diagnosis. PCT was considered negative if [≤]0.25ng/ml and positive if >0.25ng/ml. Primary outcomes included antibiotic consumption, mortality, intensive care admission and length of hospital stay. Results. 368 patients met the inclusion criteria; 218 (59%) had a negative PCT and 150 (41%) positive. At 48 hours post-diagnosis, 73 (33%) of those with a negative PCT were receiving antimicrobials compared to 126 (84%) with a positive PCT (p<0.001), with a corresponding reduction in antimicrobial usage over 28 days (median DDD of 3.0 vs 6.8 (p<0.001); median DOT 2 vs 5 days (p<0.001) between the negative and positive PCT groups.) In the negative PCT group, there were fewer deaths (62 (28%) vs. 54 (36%), (p=0.021)) and critical care admissions (19 (9%) vs. 28 (19%), (p=0.007)) than in the positive PCT group. Median length of hospital stay was 8.7 and 9 days in the negative and positive PCT groups respectively. Conclusions. Procalcitonin is a valuable tool in the assessment of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, safely reducing the potential burden of unnecessary antibiotic usage.

    Factors Affecting SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic, including Zoonotic, Human Transmission and Chain TRANS of Infection. Reducing Public Health Risk by Serum SERO Antibody Testing SERO, Avoiding Screening in Unhygienic Places and False PCR Reporting. A Scientific Review

    Authors: Kamran Mahmood Ahmed Aziz; Abdullah Othman; Waleed Alqahtani; Sumaiya Azhar

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0284.v1 Date: 2020-06-23 Source:

    Since December 2019, a rapid increase in the number of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) cases was reported worldwide, despite strict infection control and lock down measures. Current paper investigated the actual facts behind this rapid increase in the number of cases. Study of genomic sequence reveals that domestic and wild animals were likely ancestors and zoonotic source for SARS-CoVs MESHD, MERS-CoVs, and SARS-CoV-2. Strong evidence suggest that these viruses already existed and replicated in animals and humans during past several decades, exhibiting diverse mutations, evolutions and self-limiting diseases, except during outbreaks. Serious zoonotic reservoir investigations are required to investigate animal transmission TRANS of SARS-CoVs and SARS-CoV-2 MESHD to limit current pandemic. This might be the reason of increasing number of cases via animals. SARS-CoV-2 has been retrospectively isolated in different studies in August 2019, several months before Wuhan announced. Hence, there is a possibility that viruses existed, went undetected, infecting subclinically, in past several years, and SARS-CoV-2 antigens and neutralizing antibodies SERO may have been present in humans since long time. This might be another reason of increasing number of cases by screening as mass screening and antigen or antibody testing SERO was not carried out in the past years. Randomized controlled trials are required to investigate human to human transmission TRANS by touch, as the current evidence is limited with conflicting results. As all SARS-CoVs MESHD are basically respiratory viruses, droplet precautions and infection MESHD control measures are essential, especially for hospital staff. Increased number of SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic TRANS, or subclinical cases are detected worldwide. This silent phase of transmission TRANS can be beneficial for humans. Lack of symptoms eventually lessen virus transmission TRANS and reduce the pathogen's long-term survival and provide humoral herd immunity up to several years. Hence, seropositivity with diverse antibodies SERO develops against mutating SARS-CoVs which will confer strong immunity during epidemics. Strategies such as identification, contact tracing TRANS and quarantine are costly and practically difficult. Hence, asymptomatic TRANS persons can continue their work with droplet precautions and standard infection control procedures, while symptomatic or sick persons can isolate themselves in their homes without the need for strict quarantine until clinical recovery, with reduced hospital visits and minimizing chances of hospital acquired infections. RT-PCR has low sensitivity SERO and specificity, carries a high risk of handling live virus antigens, and requires difficult protocols. As viral load also sharply declines after few days of onset of infection MESHD, this technique might overlook infection MESHD. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD may be present in blood SERO when oropharyngeal swabs are negative by RT-PCR. Additionally, RT-PCR usually gives false negative and false positive results and must be interpreted cautiously. This might be again a reason of increasing number of cases by false positive RT-PCR reporting. Moreover, antibodies SERO against SARS-CoVs develop robustly in serum SERO even by reduced amount of antigens. In contrast to RT-PCR, ELISA SERO for diagnosing antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity SERO, even in clinically asymptomatic TRANS individuals. These antibodies SERO can be used for serologic surveys SERO, monitoring and screening. However, screening tests for SARS-COV-2 should be avoided in unhygienic public places by nasopharyngeal swabs, which carry a high risk of further transmission TRANS, co-infection MESHD or superinfection. Such highly infectious virus must be isolated and tested in highly sterilized laboratory. Further strict international laws and policies are required to stop the possible spread of experimental viruses, biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    Investigation of subsequent and co-infections MESHD associated with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) in hospitalized patients

    Authors: Matthew P Crotty; Ronda L Akins; An T Nguyen; Rania Slika; Kristen Rahmanzadeh; Marie H Wilson; Edward A Dominguez

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.29.20117176 Date: 2020-05-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 has drastically affected healthcare globally and causes COVID-19, a disease that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We aim to describe rates and pathogens involved in co-infection MESHD or subsequent infections and their impact on clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods: Incidence of and pathogens associated with co-infections MESHD, or subsequent infections, were analyzed in a multicenter observational cohort. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients with a bacterial respiratory co-infection MESHD (BRC) and those without. A multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed evaluating survival. Results: A total of 289 patients were included, 48 (16.6%) had any co-infection MESHD and 25 (8.7%) had a BRC. No significant differences in comorbidities were observed between patients with co-infection MESHD and those without. Compared to those without, patients with a BRC had significantly higher white blood SERO cell counts, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and interleukin-6 levels. ICU admission (84.0 vs 31.8%), mechanical ventilation (72.0 vs 23.9%) and in-hospital mortality (45.0 vs 9.8%) were more common in patients with BRC compared to those without a co-infection MESHD. In Cox proportional hazards regression, following adjustment for age TRANS, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, corticosteroid administration, and pre-existing comorbidities, patients with BRC had an increased risk for in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.39 to 8.16; P = 0.007). Subsequent infections were uncommon, with 21 infections occurring in 16 (5.5%) patients. Conclusions: Co-infections MESHD are uncommon among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, however, when BRC occurs it is associated with worse clinical outcomes including higher mortality.

    Co-infection of COVID-19 and Influenza A in A Hemodialysis Patient: A Case Report

    Authors: Ran Jing; Rama R Vunnam; Elizabeth Schnaubelt; Chad Vokoun; Allison Cushman-Vokoun; David Goldner; Srinivas R Vunnam

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-05-22 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus that was first discovered in Wuhan, China in December 2019. With the growing numbers of community spread cases worldwide, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic on March 11. Like influenza viruses, SARS-CoV-2 is thought to be transmitted by contact, droplets, and fomites, and COVID-19 has a similar disease presentation to influenza. Here we present a case of influenza A and COVID-19 co-infection MESHD in a 60-year-old man with end-stage renal disease MESHD ( ESRD MESHD) on hemodialysis.Case presentation: A 60-year-old man with ESRD MESHD on hemodialysis (HD) presented for worsening cough HP cough MESHD, shortness of breath MESHD, and diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD. The patient first developed a mild fever HP fever MESHD (100 °F) during hemodialysis three days prior to presentation and has been experiencing worsening flu-like symptoms, including fever HP of up to 101.6 °F, non- productive cough HP, generalized abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD, nausea, vomiting HP nausea, vomiting MESHD vomiting MESHD, and liquid green diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD. He lives alone at home with no known sick contacts and denies any recent travel TRANS or visits to healthcare facilities other than the local dialysis center. Rapid flu test was positive for influenza A. Procalcitonin was elevated at 5.21 ng/mL with a normal white blood SERO cell (WBC) count. Computed tomography (CT) chest demonstrated multifocal areas of consolidation and extensive mediastinal and hilar adenopathy MESHD concerning for pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. He was admitted to the biocontainment unit of Nebraska Medicine for concerns of possible COVID-19 and was started on oseltamivir for influenza and vancomycin/cefepime for the probable bacterial cause of his pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD. GI MESHD pathogen panel and C. diff toxin assay were negative. On the second day of admission, initial nasopharyngeal swab came back positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. The patient received supportive care and resumed bedside hemodialysis in strict isolation, and eventually fully recovered from COVID-19.Conclusions: Our case demonstrated that co-infection of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 can occur in patients with no known direct exposure to COVID-19. The possibility of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection MESHD should not be overlooked even when other viruses including influenza can explain the clinical symptoms.

    A Mini Review on Current Clinical and Research Findings for Children TRANS Suffering from COVID-19

    Authors: Xiao Li; Kun Qian; Ling-ling Xie; Xiu-juan Li; Min Cheng; Li Jiang; Bjoern W. Schuller

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.30.20044545 Date: 2020-04-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: As the novel coronavirus triggering COVID-19 has broken out in Wuhan, China and spread rapidly worldwide, it threatens the lives of thousands of people and poses a global threat on the economies of the entire world. However, infection MESHD with COVID-19 is currently rare in children TRANS. Objective To discuss the latest findings and research focus on the basis of characteristics of children TRANS confirmed with COVID-19, and provide an insight into the future treatment and research direction. Methods: We searched the terms "COVID-19 OR coronavirus OR SARS-CoV-2" MESHD AND "Pediatric OR children TRANS" on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, NIH, CDC, and CNKI. The authors also reviewed the guidelines published on Chinese CDC and Chinese NHC. Results: We included 25 published literature references related to the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, accessary examination, treatment, and prognosis of pediatric patients with COVID-19. Conclusion: The numbers of children TRANS with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD infection are small, and most of them come from family aggregation. Symptoms are mainly mild or even asymptomatic TRANS, which allow children TRANS to be a risk factor for transmission TRANS. Thus, strict epidemiological history screening is needed for early diagnosis and segregation. This holds especially for infants, who are more susceptible to infection MESHD than other age groups TRANS in pediatric age TRANS, but have most likely subtle and unspecific symptoms. They need to be paid more attention to. CT examination is a necessity for screening the suspected cases, because most of the pediatric patients are mild cases, and plain chest X-ray do not usually show the lesions or the detailed features. Therefore, early chest CT examination combined with pathogenic detection is a recommended clinical diagnosis scheme in children TRANS. The risk factors which may suggest severe or critical progress for children TRANS are: Fast respiratory rate and/or; lethargy HP and drowsiness HP mental state and/or; lactate progressively increasing and/or; imaging showed bilateral or multi lobed infiltration, pleural effusion HP pleural effusion MESHD or rapidly expending of lesions in a short period of time and/or; less than 3 months old or those who underly diseases. For those critical pediatric patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, polypnea may be the most common symptom. For treatment, the elevated PCT seen in children TRANS in contrast to adults TRANS suggests that the underlying coinfection/ secondary infection MESHD may be more common in pediatric patients and appropriate antibacterial treatment should be considered. Once cytokine storm is found in these patients, anti-autoimmune or blood SERO-purifying therapy should be given in time. Furthermore, effective isolation measures and appropriate psychological comfort need to be provided timely.

    Active or latent tuberculosis increases MESHD susceptibility to COVID-19 and disease severity

    Authors: Yongyu Liu; Lijun Bi; Yu Chen; Yaguo Wang; Joy Fleming; Yanhong Yu; Ye Gu; Chang Liu; Lichao Fan; Xiaodan Wang; Moxin Cheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.10.20033795 Date: 2020-03-16 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Risk factors associated with COVID-19, the viral pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD originating in Wuhan, China, in Dec 2019, require clarification so that medical resources can be prioritized for those at highest risk of severe COVID-19 complications. Infection with M. tuberculosis MESHD (MTB), the pathogen that causes TB and latently infects MESHD ~25% of the global population, may be a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection and severe HP COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Objective: To determine if latent or active TB increase susceptibility to SARS-COV-19 infection MESHD and disease severity, and lead to more rapid development of COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Design: An observational case-control study of 36 confirmed COVID-19 cases from Shenyang, China, conducted in Feb 2020. Final date of follow-up: Feb 29, 2020. Cases were grouped according to COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD severity (mild/moderate, severe/critical), and MTB infection status compared. Comparisons were made with MTB infection data from another case-control study on bacterial/ viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP at Shenyang Chest Hospital. Setting: Multi-center study involving three primary care hospitals in Shenyang, China. Participants: 86 suspected COVID-19 cases from participating primary-care hospitals in Shenyang. All 36 SARS-CoV-2 +ve cases (based on RT-PCR assay) were included. Disease severity was assessed using the Diagnostic and Treatment Guidelines of the National Health Commission of China (v6). Mean age TRANS, 47 years (range: 25-79), gender TRANS ratio, 1:1. Exposures: Confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Interferon-gamma Release Assays (IGRA) were performed using peripheral blood SERO to determine MTB infection. Main Outcome and Measures: Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, radiological, and laboratory data were collected. Comparison of MTB infection status between patients with mild/moderate and severe/critical COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. Results: Mean age TRANS of 36 COVID-19 patients: 47 (range: 25-79); M/F: 18/18; Wuhan/Hubei connection: 42%. Mild/moderate cases: 27 (75%); severe/critical: 9 (25%). MTB infection (IGRA+ve): 13 cases (36.11%), including 7 of 9 severe/critical cases. MTB infection rate: higher in COVID-19 (36.11%) than bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (20%; p=0.0047) and viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP patients (16.13%; p=0.024). MTB infection more common than other co-morbidities (36.11% vs diabetes MESHD: 25%; hypertension HP hypertension MESHD: 22.2%; coronary heart disease MESHD: 8.33%; COPD: 5.56%). MTB co-infection linked with disease MESHD severity (severe/critical 78% vs mild/moderate cases 22%; p=0.0049), and rate of disease progression: infection MESHD to development of symptoms (MTB+SARS-CoV-2: 6.5+/-4.2 days vs SARS-COV-2: 8.9+/-5.2 days; p=0.073); from symptom development to diagnosed as severe (MTB+SARS-CoV-2: 3.4+/-2.0 days vs SARS-COV-2: 7.5+/-0.5 days; p=0.075). Conclusions and Relevance: MTB infection likely increases susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, and increases COVID-19 severity, but this requires validation in a larger study. MTB infection status of COVID-19 patients should be checked routinely at hospital admission.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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