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MeSH Disease


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    Loneliness among older adults TRANS in the community during COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Rachel D Savage; Wei Wu; Joyce Li; Andrea Lawson; Susan E Bronskill; Stephanie A. Chamberlain; Jim Grieve; Andrea Gruneir; Christina Reppas-Rindlisbacher; Nathan M. Stall; Paula A Rochon; Fanlong Bu; Sarah Klingenberg; Christian Gluud; Janus Christian Jakobsen; Willem Hanekom; Bernadett I Gosnell; COMMIT-KZN Team; Emily Wong; Tulio de Oliveira; Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa; Alasdair Leslie; Henrik Kloverpris; Alex Sigal

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.23.20237289 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Physical distancing and stay-at-home measures implemented to slow transmission TRANS of novel coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) may intensify feelings of loneliness in older adults TRANS, especially those living alone. Our aim was to characterize the extent of loneliness in a sample of older adults TRANS living in the community and assess characteristics associated with loneliness. Design: Online cross-sectional survey between May 6 and May 19, 2020 Setting: Ontario, Canada Participants: Convenience sample of the members of a national retired educators' organization. Primary outcome measures: Self-reported loneliness, including differences between women and men. Results: 4879 respondents (71.0% women; 67.4% 65-79 years) reported that in the preceding week, 43.1% felt lonely at least some of the time, including 8.3% that felt lonely always or often. Women had increased odds of loneliness compared to men, whether living alone (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 1.52 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.13-2.04]) or with others (2.44 [95% CI 2.04-2.92]). Increasing age group TRANS decreased the odds of loneliness (aOR 0.69 [95% CI 0.59-0.81] 65-79 years and 0.50 [95% CI 0.39-0.65] 80+ years compared to <65 years). Living alone was associated with loneliness, with a greater association in men (aOR 4.26 [95% CI 3.15-5.76]) than women (aOR 2.65 [95% CI 2.26-3.11]). Other factors associated with loneliness included: fair or poor health (aOR 1.93 [95% CI 1.54-2.41]), being a caregiver (aOR 1.18 [95% CI 1.02-1.37]), receiving care (aOR 1.47 [95% CI 1.19-1.81]), high concern for the pandemic (aOR 1.55 [95% CI 1.31-1.84]), not experiencing positive effects of pandemic distancing measures (aOR 1.94 [95% CI 1.62-2.32]), and changes to daily routine (aOR 2.81 [95% CI 1.96-4.03]). Conclusions: While many older adults TRANS reported feeling lonely during COVID-19 MESHD, several characteristics - such as being female TRANS and living alone - increased the odds of loneliness. These characteristics may help identify priorities for targeting interventions to reduce loneliness.

    How closely is COVID-19 MESHD related to HCoV, SARS, and MERS? : Clinical comparison of coronavirus infections MESHD and identification of risk factors influencing the COVID-19 MESHD severity using common data model (CDM)

    Authors: Yeon Hee Kim; YeHee Ko; Soo Young Kim; Kwangsoo Kim

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.23.20237487 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: medRxiv

    South Korea was one of the epicenters for both the 2015 MERS and 2019 COVID-19 MESHD outbreaks. However, there has been a lack of published literature, especially using the EMR records, that provides a comparative summary of the prognostic factors present in the coronavirus-derived diseases patients. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to compare and evaluate the distinct clinical traits between the patients of different coronaviruses, including the lesser pathogenic HCoV strains, SARS-CoV MESHD, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. We also conducted observed the risk factors by the COVID severity to investigate the extent of resemblance in clinical features between the disease groups and to identify unique factor that may influence the prognosis of the COVID-19 MESHD patients. Here, we utilize the common data model (CDM), which is the database that houses the EMR records transformed into the common format to be used by the multiple institutions. For the comparative analyses between the disease groups, we used independent t-test, Scheffe post-hoc test, and Games-howell post-hoc test and for the continuous variables, chi-square test and Fisher exact test. Based on the analyses, we selected the variables with p-values less than 0.05 to predict COVID-19 MESHD severity by nominal logistic regression with adjustments to age TRANS and gender TRANS. From the study, we observed diabetes MESHD, cardio and cerebrovascular diseases MESHD, cancer MESHD, pulmonary disease MESHD, gastrointestinal disease MESHD, and renal disease MESHD in all patient groups. Of all, the proportions of cancer MESHD patients were highest in all groups with no statistical significance. Most interestingly, we observed a high degree of clinical similarity between the COVID-19 MESHD and SARS patients with more than 50% of measured clinical variables to show statistical similarities between two groups. Our research reflects the great significance within the bioinformatics field that we were able to effectively utilize the integrated CDM to reflect real-world challenges in the context of coronavirus. We expect the results from our study to provide clinical insights that can serve as predicator of risk factors from the future coronavirus outbreak as well as the prospective guidelines for the clinical treatments.

    Community factors and excess mortality in first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD.

    Authors: Bethan Davies; Brandon L Parkes; James Bennett; Daniela Fecht; Marta Blangiardo; Majid Ezzati; Paul Elliott; Cameron Martino; Rachel Diner; Gibraan Rahman; Daniel McDonald; George Armstrong; Sho Kodera; Sonya Donato; Gertrude Ecklu-Mensah; Neil Gottel; Mariana Salas Garcia; Leslie Chiang; Rodolfo A. Salido; Justin P. Shaffer; MacKenzie Bryant; Karenina Sanders; Greg Humphrey; Gail Ackermann; Niina Haiminen; Kristen L. Beck; Ho-Cheol Kim; Anna Paola Carrieri; Laxmi Parida; Yoshiki Vazquez-Baeza; Francesca J. Torriani; Rob Knight; Jack Gilbert; Daniel Sweeney; Sarah M. Allard; Jennifer E Huffman; Christopher J O'Donnell; Philip S Tsao; Jean C Beckham; Saiju Pyarajan; Sumitra Muralidhar; Grant D Huang; Rachel Ramoni; Adriana M Hung; Kyong-Mi Chang; Yan V Sun; Jacob Joseph; Andrew R Leach; Todd L Edwards; Kelly Cho; J Michael Gaziano; Adam S Butterworth; Juan P Casas

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.19.20234849 Date: 2020-11-22 Source: medRxiv

    Risk factors for increased risk of death MESHD from Coronavirus Disease MESHD 19 ( COVID-19 MESHD) have been identified1,2 but less is known on characteristics that make communities resilient or vulnerable to the mortality impacts of the pandemic. We applied a two-stage Bayesian spatial model to quantify inequalities in excess mortality at the community level during the first wave of the pandemic in England. We used geocoded data on all deaths in people aged TRANS 40 years and older during March-May 2020 compared with 2015-2019 in 6,791 local communities. Here we show that communities with an increased risk of excess mortality had a high density of care homes, and/or high proportion of residents on income support, living in overcrowded homes and/or high percent of people with a non-White ethnicity (including Black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups). Conversely, after accounting for other community characteristics, we found no association between population density or air pollution and excess mortality. Overall, the social and environmental variables accounted for around 15% of the variation in mortality at community level. Effective and timely public health and healthcare measures that target the communities at greatest risk are urgently needed if England and other industrialised countries are to avoid further widening of inequalities in mortality patterns during the second wave.


    Authors: Takuya Okuno; Daisuke Takada; Shin Jung-ho; Tetsuji Morishita; Hisashi Itoshima; Susumu Kunisawa; Yuichi Imanaka; Asier Manas; Amelia Guadalupe-Grau; Marcela Gonzalez-Gross; Ignacio Ara; Jose Antonio Casajus; German Vicente-Rodriguez; Mercedes Sota-Busselo; Alberto Delgado-Iribarren; Julio Garcia; Rafael Canton; Patricia Munoz; Dolores Folgueira; Manuel Cuenca-Estrella; Jesus Oteo-Iglesias; - Spanish Panbio COVID-19 validation group

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.18.20233882 Date: 2020-11-20 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundInternationally, the Coronavirus Disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic has caused unprecedented challenges for surgical staff to minimise the exposure to COVID-19 MESHD or save medical resources without harmful outcomes for patients, in accordance with the statement of each surgical society. However, no research has empirically validated declines MESHD in Japanese surgical volume or compared decrease rates of surgeries during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD. Material and MethodsWe extracted 672,772 available cases of patients aged TRANS > 15 years who were discharged between July 1, 2018, and June 30, 2020. After categorisation of surgery, we calculated descriptive statistics to compare the year-over-year trend and conducted interrupted time series analysis to validate the decline. ResultsThe year-over-year trend of all eight surgical categories decreased from April 2020 and reached a minimum in May 2020 (May: abdominal, 68.4%; thoracic, 85.8%; genitourinary, 78.6%; cardiovascular, 90.8%; neurosurgical, 69.1%; orthopaedic, 62.4%; ophthalmologic, 52.0%; ear/nose/throat, 27.3%). Interrupted time series analysis showed no significant trends in oncological and critical benign surgeries. ConclusionWe demonstrated and validated a trend of reduction in surgical volume in Japan using administrative data applying interrupted time series analyses. Low priority surgeries, as categorised by the statement of each society, showed obvious and statistically significant declines in case volume during the COVID-19 pandemic MESHD.

    Global seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Niklas Bobrovitz; Rahul Krishan Arora; Christian Cao; Emily Boucher; Michael Liu; Hannah Rahim; Claire Donnici; Natasha Ilincic; Nathan Duarte; Jordan Van Wyk; Tingting Yan; Lucas Penny; Mitchell Segal; Judy Chen; Mairead Whelan; Austin Atmaja; Simona Rocco; Abel Joseph; David Clifton; Tyler Williamson; Cedric P Yansouni; Timothy Evans Grant; Jonathan Chevrier; Jesse Papenburg; Matthew P Cheng

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.17.20233460 Date: 2020-11-18 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundStudies reporting estimates of the seroprevalence SERO of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD ( SARS-CoV-2) antibodies SERO have rapidly emerged. We aimed to synthesize seroprevalence SERO data to better estimate the burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, identify high-risk groups, and inform public health decision making. MethodsIn this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched publication databases, preprint servers, and grey literature sources for seroepidemiological study reports, from January 1, 2020 to August 28, 2020. We included studies that reported a sample size, study date, location, and seroprevalence SERO estimate. Estimates were corrected for imperfect test accuracy with Bayesian measurement error models. We conducted meta-analysis to identify demographic differences in the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, and meta-regression to identify study-level factors associated with seroprevalence SERO. We compared region-specific seroprevalence SERO data to confirmed cumulative incidence. PROSPERO: CRD42020183634. FindingsWe identified 338 seroprevalence SERO studies including 2.3 million participants in 50 countries. Seroprevalence SERO was low in the general population (median 3.2%, IQR 1.0-6.4%) and slightly higher in at-risk populations (median 5.4%, IQR 1.5-18.4%). Median seroprevalence SERO varied by WHO Global Burden of Disease region (p < 0.01), from 1.0% in Southeast Asia, East Asia and Oceania to 18.8% in South Asia. National studies had lower seroprevalence SERO estimates than local (p = 0.02) studies. Compared to White persons, Black persons ( prevalence SERO ratio [RR] 2.34, 95% CI 1.60-3.43) and Asian persons (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.22-2.01) were more likely to be seropositive. Seroprevalence SERO was higher among people ages TRANS 18-64 compared to 65 and over (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04-1.52). Health care workers had a 1.74x (95% CI: 1.18-2.58) higher risk compared to the general population. There was no difference in seroprevalence SERO between sexes. There were 123 studies (36%) at low or moderate risk of bias. Seroprevalence SERO estimates from national studies were median 11.9 (IQR 8.0 - 16.6) times higher than the corresponding SARS-CoV-2 cumulative incidence. InterpretationMost of the population remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Public health measures must be improved to protect disproportionately affected groups, including non-White people and adults TRANS. Measures taken in SE Asia, E Asia and Oceania, and Latin America and Caribbean may have been more effective in controlling virus transmission TRANS than measures taken in other regions. FundingPublic Health Agency of Canada through the COVID-19 MESHD Immunity Task Force.

    Clinical Profile of First 1000 COVID-19 MESHD Cases Admitted at Tertiary Care Hospitals and the Correlates of their Mortality: An Indian Experience

    Authors: Sandeep Budhiraja; Aakriti Soni; Vinitaa Jha; Abhaya Indrayan; Arun Dewan; Omender Singh; Yogendra Singh; Indermohan Chugh; Vijay Arora; Rajesh Pandey; Abdul Ansari; Sujeet Jha; Shingo Fukuma; Meng Zhou; Wen-Qing Li; Nan Wu; Hao Chen; Jiangfan Chen; Fan Lu; Jianzhong Su; Jia Qu

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.16.20232223 Date: 2020-11-18 Source: medRxiv

    ObjectiveTo describe the clinical profile and factors leading to increased mortality in coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) patients admitted to a group of hospitals in India. DesignA records-based study of the first 1000 patients with a positive result on real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay for SARS-CoV-2 admitted to our facilities. Various factors such as demographics, presenting symptoms, co-morbidities, ICU admission, oxygen requirement and ventilator therapy were studied. ResultsOf the 1000 patients, 24 patients were excluded due to lack of sufficient data. Of the remaining 976 in the early phase of the epidemic, males TRANS were admitted twice as much as females TRANS (67.1% and 32.9%, respectively). Mortality in this initial phase was 10.6% and slightly higher for males TRANS and steeply higher for older patients. More than 8% reported no symptoms and the most common presenting symptoms were fever HP (78.3%), productive cough HP (37.2%), and dyspnea HP (30.64%). More than one-half (53.6%) had no co-morbidity. The major co-morbidities were hypertension HP (23.7%), diabetes without (15.4%), and with complications (9.6%). The co-morbidities were associated with higher ICU admissions, greater use of ventilators as well as higher mortality. A total of 29.9% were admitted to the ICU, with a mortality rate of 32.2%. Mortality was steeply higher in those requiring ventilator support (55.4%) versus those who never required ventilation (1.4%). The total duration of hospital stay was just a day longer in patients admitted to the ICU than those who remained in wards. ConclusionMale patients above the age TRANS of 60 and with co-morbidities faced the highest rates of mortality. They should be admitted to the hospital in early stage of the disease and given aggressive treatment to help reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 MESHD.

    Assessment of functional capacity with cardiopulmonary exercise testing in non-severe COVID-19 MESHD patients at three months follow-up

    Authors: Piero Clavario; Vincenzo De Marzo; Roberta Lotti; Cristina Barbara; Annalisa Porcile; Carmelo Russo; Federica Beccaria; Marco Bonavia; Luigi Carlo Bottaro; Marta Caltabellotta; Flavia Chioni; Monica Santangelo; Arto Hautala; Pietro Ameri; Marco Canepa; Italo Porto; Kimberly Jones-Beatty; William Christopher Golden; Andrew J. Satin; Jeanne S. Sheffield; Andrew Pekosz; Sabra Klein; Irina Burd

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.15.20231985 Date: 2020-11-16 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Long-term effects of Coronavirus Disease MESHD of 2019 ( COVID-19 MESHD) and their sustainability in a large number of patients are of the utmost relevance. We aimed to determine: 1)functional capacity of non-severe COVID-19 MESHD survivors by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET); 2)those characteristics associated with worse CPET performance SERO. Methods We prospectively enrolled the first 150 consecutive subjects with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 MESHD infection discharged alive from March to April 2020 at Azienda Sanitaria Locale MESHD ( ASL MESHD)3, Genoa, Italy. At 3-month from hospital discharge, complete clinical evaluation, trans-thoracic echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), pulmonary function test (PFT), and dominant leg extension (DLE) maximal strength evaluation were performed. Results Excluding severe and incomplete/missing cases, 110 patients were analyzed. Median percent predicted peak oxygen uptake (%pVO2) was 90.9(79.2-109.0)%. Thirty-eight(34.5%) patients had %pVO2 below, whereas 72(65.5%) above the 85% predicted value (indicating normality). Median PFT parameters were within normal limits. Eight(21.1%) patients had a mainly respiratory, 9(23.7%) a mainly cardiac, 3(7.9%) a mixed-cardiopulmonary, and 18(47.4%) a non-cardiopulmonary limitation of exercise. Eighty-one(73.6%) patients experimented at least one symptom, without relationship with %pVO2 (p>0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed age TRANS ({beta}=0.46, p=0.020), percent weight loss HP weight loss MESHD ({beta}=-0.77, p=0.029), active smoke status ({beta}=-7.07, p=0.019), length of hospital stay ({beta}=-0.20, p=0.042), and DLE maximal strength ({beta}=1.65, p=0.039) independently associated with %pVO2. Conclusions Half of non-severe COVID-19 MESHD survivors show functional capacity limitation mainly explained by muscular impairment, albeit cardiopulmonary causes are possible. These findings call for future research to identify patients at higher risk of long-term effects, that may benefit from careful surveillance and targeted rehabilitation.

    Awareness, knowledge and trust in the Greek authorities towards COVID-19 MESHD pandemic: results from the Epirus Health Study cohort

    Authors: Afroditi Kanellopoulou; Fotios Koskeridis; Georgios Markozannes; Emmanouil Bouras; Chrysa Soutziou; Konstantinos Chaliasos; Michail T Doumas; Dimitrios E Sigounas; Vasilios T Tzovaras; Agapios Panos; Yiolanda Stergiou; Kassiani Mellou; Dimitrios Papamichail; Eleni Aretouli; Dimitrios Chatzidimitriou; Fani Chatzopoulou; Eleni Bairaktari; Ioanna Tzoulaki; Evangelos Evangelou; Evangelos C Rizos; Evangelia Ntzani; Konstantinos Vakalis; Konstantinos K Tsilidis

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.10.20229146 Date: 2020-11-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background: To assess the level of knowledge and trust in the policy decisions taken regarding the coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) pandemic among Epirus Health Study (EHS) participants. Methods: The EHS is an ongoing and deeply-phenotyped prospective cohort study that has recruited 667 participants in northwest Greece until August 31st, 2020. Level of knowledge on coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) transmission TRANS and COVID-19 MESHD severity was labeled as poor, moderate or good. Variables assessing knowledge and beliefs towards the pandemic were summarized overall and by gender TRANS, age group TRANS (25-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60+ years) and period of report (before the lifting of lockdown measures in Greece: March 30th to May 3rd, and two post-lockdown time periods: May 4th to June 31st, July 1st to August 31st). An exposure-wide association analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations between 153 explanatory variables and participants' knowledge. Correction for multiple comparisons was applied using a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold of 5%. Results: A total of 563 participants (49 years mean age TRANS; 60% women) had available information on the standard EHS questionnaire, the clinical and biochemical measurements, and the COVID-19 MESHD-related questionnaire. Percentages of poor, moderate and good knowledge status regarding COVID-19 MESHD were 4.5%, 10.0% and 85.6%, respectively. The majority of participants showed absolute or moderate trust in the Greek health authorities for the management of the epidemic (90.1%), as well as in the Greek Government (84.7%) and the official national sources of information (87.4%). Trust in the authorities was weaker in younger participants and those who joined the study after the lifting of lockdown measures (p-value <= 0.001). None of the factors examined was associated with participants' level of knowledge after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions: High level of knowledge about the COVID-19 MESHD pandemic and trust in the Greek authorities was observed, possibly due to the plethora HP of good quality publicly available information and the timely management of the pandemic at its early stages in Greece. Information campaigns for the COVID-19 MESHD pandemic should be encouraged even after the lifting of lockdown measures to increase public awareness.

    Metabolomic/lipidomic profiling of COVID-19 MESHD and individual response to tocilizumab

    Authors: Gaia Meoni; Veronica Ghini; Laura Maggi; Alessia Vignoli; Alessio Mazzoni; Lorenzo Salvati; Manuela Capone; Anna Vanni; Leonardo Tenori; Paolo Fontanari; Federico Lavorini; Adriano Peris; Alessandro Bartoloni; Francesco Liotta; Lorenzo Cosmi; Claudio Luchinat; Francesco Annunziato; Paola Turano; angalee nadesalingham; Marie-Christine Ouellet; Marc-André Roy; Marie-Christine Saint-Jacques; Claudia Savard

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.10.20228361 Date: 2020-11-13 Source: medRxiv

    The current pandemic emergence of novel coronavirus disease MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) poses a relevant threat to global health. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations, ranging from absence of symptoms to severe forms that need intensive care treatment. Here, plasma SERO-EDTA samples of 30 patients compared with age TRANS- and sex-matched controls were analyzed via untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics and lipidomics. With the same approach, the effect of tocilizumab administration was evaluated in a subset of patients. Despite the heterogeneity of the clinical symptoms, COVID-19 MESHD patients are characterized by common plasma SERO metabolomic and lipidomic signatures (91.7% and 87.5% accuracy, respectively, when compared to controls). Tocilizumab treatment resulted in at least partial reversion of the metabolic alterations due to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. In conclusion, NMR-based metabolomic and lipidomic profiling provides novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanism of human response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and to monitor treatment outcomes.

    Alzheimer's MESHD and Parkinson's diseases MESHD predict different COVID-19 MESHD outcomes, a UK Biobank study

    Authors: Yizhou Yu; Marco Travaglio; Rebeka Popovic; Nuno Santos Leal; L. Miguel Martins; Arijit Chakravarty; Kayleigh J Mason; Helen McAteer; Freya Meynall; Bolaji Coker; Alexandra Vincent; Dominic Urmston; Amber Vesty; Jade Kelly; Camille Lancelot; Lucy Moorhead; Herve Bachelez; Ian N Bruce; Francesca Capon; Claudia Romina Contreras; Andrew P Cope; Claudia De La Cruz; Paola Di Meglio; Paolo Gisondi; Kimme Hyrich; Denis Jullien; Jo Lambert; Hoseah Waweru; Helena Marzo-Ortega; Iain McInnes; Luigi Naldi; Sam Norton; Lluis Puig; Phyllis Spuls; Raj Sengupta; Tiago Torres; RIchard B Warren; John Weinman; Christopher EM Griffiths; Jonathan N Barker; Matthew A Brown; James B Galloway; Catherine H Smith

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.05.20226605 Date: 2020-11-07 Source: medRxiv

    In December 2019, a coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began infecting humans causing a novel disease, coronavirus disease MESHD 19 ( COVID-19 MESHD). This was first described in the Wuhan province of the People's Republic of China. SARS-CoV-2 spread throughout the world causing a global pandemic. To date, thousands of cases of COVID-19 MESHD were reported in the United Kingdom, and over 45,000 patients have died. Some progress has been achieved in managing this disease, but the biological determinants of health, besides age TRANS, that affect COVID-19 MESHD infectivity and mortality are under scrutiny. Recent studies show that several medical conditions, including diabetes MESHD and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, increase the risk of COVID-19 MESHD infection and death. The increased vulnerability of the elderly TRANS and those with comorbidities, together with the prevalence SERO of neurodegenerative diseases MESHD with advanced age TRANS, led us to investigate the links between neurodegeneration HP neurodegeneration MESHD and COVID-19 MESHD. We analysed the primary health records of 13,338 UK individuals tested for COVID-19 MESHD between March and July 2020. We show that a pre-existing diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease MESHD predicts the highest risk of COVID-19 MESHD infection and mortality among the elderly TRANS. In contrast, Parkinson's disease MESHD patients were found to be at increased risk of infection TRANS but not mortality from COVID-19 MESHD. We conclude that there are disease-specific differences in COVID-19 MESHD susceptibility among patients affected by neurodegenerative disorders MESHD.

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