Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (116)

Pneumonia (113)

Hypertension (93)

Cough (88)

Fatigue (43)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 679
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    Impact of tocilizumab administration on mortality in severe COVID-19

    Authors: Andrew Tsai; Oumou Diawara; Ronald G Nahass; Luigi Brunetti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20114959 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic has placed a significant burden on hospitals and healthcare providers. The immune response to this disease MESHD is thought to lead to a cytokine storm, which contributes to the severity of illness. There is an urgent need to confirm whether the use of tocilizumab provides a benefit in individuals with COVID-19. Methods A single-center propensity-score matched cohort study, including all consecutive COVID-19 patients, admitted to the medical center who were either discharged from the medical center or expired between March 1, 2020, and May 5, 2020, was performed. Patients were stratified according to the receipt of tocilizumab for cytokine storm and matched to controls using propensity scores. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 132 patients were included in the matched dataset (tocilizumab=66; standard of care=66). Approximately 73% of the patients were male TRANS. Hypertension MESHD Hypertension HP (55%), diabetes mellitus MESHD diabetes mellitus HP (31%), and chronic pulmonary disease MESHD (15%) were the most common comorbidities present. There were 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the tocilizumab group and 18 deaths MESHD (27.3%) in the standard of care group (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.465 - 2.151; p=1.00). Advanced age TRANS, history of myocardial infarction MESHD myocardial infarction HP, dementia MESHD dementia HP, chronic pulmonary disease, heart MESHD failure, and malignancy were significantly more common in patients who died. Interpretation The current analysis does not support the use of tocilizumab for the management of cytokine storm in patients with COVID-19. Use of this therapeutic agent should be limited to the context of a clinical trial until more evidence is available.

    Mathematical modeling of the transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 '' Evaluating the impact of isolation in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) and lockdown in Spain associated with protective measures on the epidemic of covid-19

    Authors: Hyun Mo Yang; Luis Pedro Lombardi Jr.; Fabio Fernandes Morato Castro; Ariana Campos Yang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165191 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (covid-19), with the fatality rate in elder (60 years old or more) being much higher than young (60 years old or less) patients, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Taking into account this age TRANS-dependent fatality rate, a mathematical model considering young and elder subpopulations was formulated based on the natural history of covid-19 to study the transmission TRANS of the SARS-CoV-2. This model can be applied to study the epidemiological scenario resulting from the adoption of isolation or lockdown in many countries to control the rapid propagation of covid-19. We chose as examples the isolation adopted in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in the early phase but not at the beginning of the epidemic, and the lockdown implemented in Spain when the number of severe covid-19 cases was increasing rapidly. Based on the data collected from Sa o Paulo State and Spain, the model parameters were evaluated and we obtained higher estimation for the basic reproduction number TRANS R0 TRANS (9.24 for Sao Paulo State, and 8 for Spain) compared to the currently accepted estimation of R0 TRANS around 3. The model allowed to explain the flattening of the epidemic curves by isolation in Sao Paulo State and lockdown in Spain when associated with the protective measures (face mask and social distancing) adopted by the population. However, a simplified mathematical model providing lower estimation for R0 TRANS did not explain the flattening of the epidemic curves. The implementation of the isolation in Sa o Paulo State before the rapidly increasing phase of the epidemic enlarged the period of the first wave of the epidemic and delayed its peak, which are the desirable results of isolation to avoid the overloading in the health care system.

    High rate of major drug-drug interactions of lopinavir-ritonavir for COVID-19 treatment

    Authors: Juan Macias; Ana Pinilla; Francisco A Lao-Dominguez; Anais Corma; Enrique Contreras-Macias; Alejandro Gonzalez-Serna; Antonio Gutierrez-Pizarraya; Marta Fernandez-Fuertes; Ramon Morillo-Verdugo; Marta Trigo; Luis M Real; Juan A Pineda

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165027 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    The impact of drug-drug interactions (DDI) between ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV-r) to treat patients with coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and commonly used drugs in clinical practice is not well-known. Thus, we evaluated the rate and severity of DDI between LPV-r for COVID-19 treatment and concomitant medications. This was a cross-sectional study including all individuals diagnosed of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD treated with LPV-r and attended at a single center in Southern Spain (March 1st to April 30th, 2020). The frequency [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] of potential and major DDI were calculated. Overall, 469 patients were diagnosed of COVID-19, 125 (27%) of them were prescribed LPV-r. LPV-r had potential DDI with concomitant medications in 97 (78%, 95% CI: 69%-85%) patients, and in 33 (26%, 95% CI: 19%-35%) individuals showed major DDI. Twelve (36%) patients with major DDI and 14 (15%) individuals without major DDI died (p=0.010). After adjustment, only the Charlson index was independently associated with death MESHD [adjusted OR (95% CI) for Charlson index [≥]5: 85 (10-731), p <0.001]. LPV-r was discontinued due to side effects in 31 (25%) patients. Management by the Infectious Diseases MESHD Unit was associated with a lower likelihood of major DDI [adjusted odds ratio (95% CI): 0.14 (0.04-0.53), p=0.003). In conclusion, a high frequency of DDI between LPV-r for treating COVID-19 and concomitant medications was found, including major DDI. Patients with major DDI showed worse outcomes, but this association was explained by the older age TRANS and comorbidities. Patients managed by the Infectious Diseases MESHD Unit had lower risk of major DDI.

    METFORMIN USE IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED MORTALITY IN A DIVERSE POPULATION WITH COVID-19 AND DIABETES

    Authors: Andrew Crouse; Tiffany Grimes; Peng Li; Matthew Might; Fernando Ovalle; Anath Shalev

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164020 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease MESHD-2019 (COVID-19) is a growing pandemic with an increasing death MESHD toll that has been linked to various comorbidities as well as racial disparity. However, the specific characteristics of these at-risk populations are still not known and approaches to lower mortality are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective electronic health record data analysis of 25,326 subjects tested for COVID-19 between 2/25/20 and 6/22/20 at the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, a tertiary health care center in the racially diverse Southern U.S. The primary outcome was mortality in COVID-19-positive subjects and the association with subject characteristics and comorbidities was analyzed using simple and multiple linear logistic regression. RESULTS: The odds ratio of contracting COVID-19 was disproportionately high in Blacks/African-Americans (OR 2.6; 95%CI 2.19-3.10; p<0.0001) and in subjects with obesity MESHD obesity HP (OR 1.93; 95%CI 1.64-2.28; p<0.0001), hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (OR 2.46; 95%CI 2.07-2.93; p<0.0001), and diabetes (OR 2.11; 95%CI 1.78-2.48; p<0.0001). Diabetes was also associated with a dramatic increase in mortality (OR 3.62; 95%CI 2.11-6.2; p<0.0001) and emerged as an independent risk factor in this diverse population even after correcting for age TRANS, race, sex, obesity MESHD obesity HP and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP. Interestingly, we found that metformin treatment was independently associated with a significant reduction in mortality in subjects with diabetes and COVID-19 (OR 0.33; 95%CI 0.13-0.84; p=0.0210). CONCLUSION: Thus, these results suggest that while diabetes is an independent risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality, this risk is dramatically reduced in subjects taking metformin, raising the possibility that metformin may provide a protective approach in this high risk population.

    Use of a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody SERO (itolizumab) in elderly TRANS patients with moderate COVID-19

    Authors: Mayra Ramos-Suzarte; Yayquier Diaz; Yordanis Martin; Nestor Antonio Calderon; William Santiago; Orlando Vinet; Yulieski La O; Jorge Perez; Augusto Oyarzabal; Yoan Perez; Geidy Lorenzo; Meylan Cepeda; Danay Saavedra; Zayma Mazorra; Daymys Estevez; Patricia Lorenzo-Luaces; Carmen Valenzuela; Armando Caballero; Kalet leon; Tania Crombet; Carlos Jorge Hidalgo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20153833 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Introduction: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a recent outbreak of Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19). In Cuba, the first case of COVID-19 was reported on March 11. Elderly TRANS with multiple comorbidities are particularly susceptible to adverse clinical outcomes in the course of SARS CoV-2 infection MESHD. During the outbreak, a local transmission TRANS event took place in a nursing home in Villa Clara province, Cuba, in which nineteen elderly TRANS residents were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Based on the increased susceptibility to viral-induced cytokine release syndrome MESHD inducing respiratory and systemic complications in this population, the patients were included in an expanded access clinical trial to receive itolizumab, an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody SERO. Results: All the patients had underlying medical conditions. The product was well tolerated. After the first dose, the course of the disease MESHD was favorable and 18 out of 19 (94.7%) patients were discharged clinically recovered with negative RT-PCR at 13 days (median). One dose of itolizumab, circulating IL-6 decreased in the first 24-48 hours in patients with high baseline values, whereas in patients with low levels, this concentration remained over low values. To preliminary assess the effect of itolizumab, a control group was selected among the Cuban COVID-19 patients, which did not receive immunomodulatory therapy. Control subjects were well-matched regarding age TRANS, comorbidities and severity of the disease MESHD. Every three moderately ill patients treated with itolizumab, one admission in intensive care unit (ICU) was prevented. Discussion/Conclusion: Itolizumab was well tolerated. Its effect is associated with a reduction and controlling IL-6 serum SERO levels. Moreover, treated patients had a favorable clinical outcome, considering their poor prognosis. This treatment is associated significantly with a decrease the risk to be admitted in ICU and reduced 10 times the risk of death MESHD. This study corroborates that the timely use of itolizumab, in combination with other antiviral and anticoagulant therapies, is associated with a reduction the COVID-19 disease MESHD worsening and mortality. The humanized antibody SERO itolizumab emerges as a therapeutic alternative for patients with COVID-19 and suggests its possible use in patients with cytokine release syndrome MESHD from other pathologies.

    Disparities in Case Frequency and Mortality of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Among Various States in the United States

    Authors: Rohit S. Loomba; Gaurav Aggarwal; Saurabh Aggarwal; Saul Flores; Enrique G. Villarreal; Juan S. Farias; Carl J. Lavie

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20163931 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To utilize publicly reported, state-level data to identify factors associated with the frequency of cases, tests, and mortality in the US. Materials & Methods: Retrospective study using publicly reported data collected included the number of COVID-19 cases, tests, and mortality from March 14th through April 30th, 2020. Publicly available state-level data was collected which included: demographics comorbidities, state characteristics and environmental factors. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the significantly associated factors with percent mortality, case and testing frequency. All analyses were state-level analyses and not patient-level analyses. Results: A total of 1,090,500 COVID-19 cases were reported during the study period. The calculated case and testing frequency were 3,332 and 19,193 per 1,000,000 patients. There were 63,642 deaths MESHD during this period which resulted in a mortality of 5.8%. Factors including to but not limited to population density (beta coefficient 7.5, p< 0.01), transportation volume (beta coefficient 0.1, p< 0.01), tourism index (beta coefficient -0.1, p=0.02) and older age TRANS (beta coefficient 0.2, p=0.01) are associated with case frequency and percent mortality. Conclusions: There were wide variations in testing and case frequencies of COVID-19 among different states in the US. States with higher population density had a higher case and testing rate. States with larger population of elderly TRANS and higher tourism had a higher mortality.

    Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization: COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Authors: Jean Y. Ko; Melissa L. Danielson; Machell Town; Gordana Derado; Kurt J. Greenland; Pam Daily Kirley; Nisha B. Alden; Kimberly Yousey-Hindes; Evan J. Anderson; Patricia A. Ryan; Sue Kim; Ruth Lynfield; Salina M. Torres; Grant R. Barney; Nancy M. Bennett; Melissa Sutton; H. Keipp Talbot; Mary Hill; Aron J. Hall; Alicia M. Fry; Shikha Garg; Lindsay Kim; - COVID-NET Investigation Group

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20161810 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Identification of risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization is needed to guide prevention and clinical care. Objective: To examine if age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions is independently associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: 70 counties within 12 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) and a population-based sample of non-hospitalized adults TRANS residing in the COVID-NET catchment area from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Participants: U.S. community-dwelling adults TRANS ([≥]18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, March 1- June 23, 2020. Measurements: Adjusted rate ratios (aRR) of hospitalization by age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity and underlying medical conditions ( hypertension MESHD hypertension HP, coronary artery disease MESHD, history of stroke MESHD stroke HP, diabetes, obesity MESHD obesity HP [BMI [≥]30 kg/m2], severe obesity MESHD obesity HP [BMI[≥]40 kg/m2], chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD, asthma MESHD asthma HP, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP). Results: Our sample included 5,416 adults TRANS with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Adults TRANS with (versus without) severe obesity MESHD obesity HP (aRR:4.4; 95%CI: 3.4, 5.7), chronic kidney disease HP kidney disease MESHD (aRR:4.0; 95%CI: 3.0, 5.2), diabetes (aRR:3.2; 95%CI: 2.5, 4.1), obesity MESHD obesity HP (aRR:2.9; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.5), hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (aRR:2.8; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.4), and asthma MESHD asthma HP (aRR:1.4; 95%CI: 1.1, 1.7) had higher rates of hospitalization, after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, and race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for the presence of an individual underlying medical condition, higher hospitalization rates were observed for adults TRANS [≥]65 years, 45-64 years (versus 18-44 years), males TRANS (versus females TRANS), and non-Hispanic black and other race/ethnicities (versus non-Hispanic whites). Limitations: Interim analysis limited to hospitalizations with underlying medical condition data. Conclusion: Our findings elucidate groups with higher hospitalization risk that may benefit from targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.

    Descriptive epidemiology of 16,780 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the United States

    Authors: Shemra Rizzo; Devika Chawla; Kelly Zalocusky; Daniel Keebler; Jenny Chia; Lisa Lindsay; Vincent Yau; Tripthi Kamath; Larry Tsai

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.17.20156265 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Despite the significant morbidity and mortality caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19), our understanding of basic disease MESHD epidemiology remains limited. This study aimed to describe key patient characteristics, comorbidities, treatments, and outcomes of a large U.S.-based cohort of patients hospitalized with COVD-19 using electronic health records (EHR). METHODS: We identified patients in the Optum De-identified COVID-19 EHR database who had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 or a presumptive diagnosis between 20 February 2020 and 6 June 2020. We included hospitalizations that occurred 7 days prior to, or within 21 days after, COVID-19 diagnosis. Among hospitalized patients we describe the following: vital statistics and laboratory results on admission, relevant comorbidities (using diagnostic, procedural, and revenue codes), medications (NDC, HCPC codes), ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, length of stay (LOS), and mortality. RESULTS: We identified 76,819 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 16,780 of whom met inclusion criteria for COVID-related hospitalization. Over half the cohort was over age TRANS 50 (74.5%), overweight MESHD overweight HP or obese (77.2%), or had hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (58.1%). At admission, 30.3% of patients presented with fever MESHD fever HP (>38C) and 32.3% had low oxygen saturation (<90%). Among the 16,099 patients with complete hospital records, we observed that 58.9% had hypoxia MESHD, 23.4% had an ICU stay during hospitalization, 18.1% were ventilated, and 16.2% died. The median LOS was 6 days (IQR: 4, 11). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest descriptive study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the United States. We report summary statistics of key clinical outcomes that provide insights to better understand COVID-19 disease MESHD epidemiology.

    60-day survival of critically ill COVID-19 first comers

    Authors: Corinna N. Lang; V. Zotzmann; B. Schmid; M. Berchtold-Herz; S. Utzolino; P.M. Biever; T. Pottgießer; D. Duerschmied; C. Bode; T. Wengenmayer; D.L. Staudacher

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50651/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Germany reported sufficient intensive care unit (ICU) resources throughout the first wave of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). The treatment of critically ill COVID-19 patients without rationing may improve the outcome. We therefore analyzed resources allocated to critically ill COVID-19 patients and their outcomes. Methods: Retrospectively, we enrolled SARS-CoV2 PCR positive patients with respiratory failure HP from 03/08/2020 to 04/08/2020 and followed until 05/28/2020 in the university hospital of Freiburg, Germany. Results: Thirty-four COVID-19 patients were admitted to the ICU in the defined interval with medium age TRANS of 67±13 (31-86) years. 6/34 (17.6%) were female TRANS. All patients suffered from moderate or severe acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS), 91.2% of the patients were intubated and 23.5% required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Proning was performed in 67.6%, renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 35.3%. 96% required more than 20 nursing hours per day. Mean ICU stay was 21±19 (1-81) days. 60-day survival of critically ill COVID-19 patients was 50.0% (17/34). Causes of death MESHD were multi-organ failure (52.9%), refractory ARDS (17.6%) and intracerebral hemorrhage MESHD (17.6%). Conclusions: Treatment of critically ill COVID-19 patients is protracted and resource intense. In a context without resources shortage, 50% of critically ill COVID-19 survived up to 60 days.

    A Retrospective Study on Efficacy and Safety of Guduchi Ghan Vati for Covid-19 Asymptomatic TRANS Patients

    Authors: Abhimanyu Kumar; Govind Prasad; Sanjay Srivastav; Vinod Kumar Gautam; Neha Sharma

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20160424 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (Covid-19) has been declared global emergency MESHD with immediate safety, preventative and curative measures to control the spread of virus. Confirmed cases TRANS are treated with clinical management as they are diagnosed but so far, there is no effective treatment or vaccine yet for Covid-19. Ayurveda has been recommended by preventative and clinical management guidelines in India and several clinical trials are ongoing. But there is no study to assess impact of Ayurveda on Covid-19. Methods Objective of present study was to evaluate the clinical outcome in Covid-19 confirmed asymptomatic TRANS to mild symptomatic patients who had received Ayurveda and compare with control (who has not received Ayurveda or any support therapy). Patients having Ayurveda intervention (Guduchi Ghan Vati-extract of Tinospora cordifolia) were included from Jodhpur Covid Care Centre and non-recipients were taken from Jaipur Covid Care Centre between May 15 to June 15, 2020. Total 91 patients, who were asymptomatic TRANS at the time of hospital admission and between 18 -75 years of age TRANS, were included in the study to analyse retrospectively. Results In control group, 11.7% developed mild symptoms after average 1.8 days and none in Ayurveda group reported any symptoms. Significant difference was reported between the group of patients taking Guduchi Ghan Vati (n=40) and patients in standard care (n=51) in terms of virologic clearance at day-7 (97.5% vs 15.6% respectively; p=0.000), at day 14 (100% vs 82.3%) days to stay in hospital ( 6.4 vs 12.8 respectively; p< 0.0001) . Conclusion Results of the study suggest that Guduchi Ghan Vati, a common and widely used Ayurveda preparation, could benefit treating asymptomatic TRANS Covid-19 patients. Larger, randomised controlled Trials are required to confirm the findings. Keywords: Ayurveda, Guduchi Ghan

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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