Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (1114)

Disease (1039)

Death (715)

Coronavirus Infections (648)

Fever (329)


Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (331)

Fever (330)

Hypertension (262)

Cough (256)

Anxiety (135)


Transmission

age categories (2647)

gender (950)

Transmission (410)

fomite (246)

asymptotic cases (212)


Seroprevalence
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    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2-Specific IgG Antibodies SERO Among Adults TRANS Living in Connecticut Between March 1 and June 1, 2020: Post- Infection MESHD Prevalence SERO (PIP) Study

    Authors: Shiwani Mahajan; Rajesh Srinivasan; Carrie A Redlich; Sara K Huston; Kelly M Anastasio; Lisa Cashman; Dan Witters; Jenny Marlar; Shu-Xia Li; Zhenqiu Lin; Domonique Hodge; Manas Chattopadhyay; Mark D Adams; Charles Lee; Lokinendi V Rao; Chris Stewart; Karthik Kuppusamy; Albert I Ko; Harlan M Krumholz

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168203 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: A seroprevalence SERO study can estimate the percentage of people with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in the general population. Most existing reports have used a convenience sample, which may bias their estimates. Objective: To estimate the seroprevalence SERO of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 based on a random sample of adults TRANS living in Connecticut between March 1 and June 1, 2020. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: We sought a representative sample of Connecticut residents who completed a survey between June 4 and June 23, 2020 and underwent serology testing for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies SERO between June 10 and July 6, 2020. Participants: 505 respondents, aged TRANS [≥]18 years, residing in non-congregate settings who completed both the survey and the serology test. Main outcomes and measures: We estimated the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies SERO among the overall population and across pre-specified subgroups. We also assessed the prevalence SERO of symptomatic illness, risk factors for virus exposure, and self-reported adherence to risk mitigation behaviors among this population. Results: Of the 505 respondents (mean age TRANS 50 [{+/-}17] years; 54% women; 76% non-Hispanic White individuals) included, 32% reported having at least 1 symptom suggestive of COVID-19 since March 1, 2020. Overall, 18 respondents had SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO, resulting in the state-level weighted seroprevalence SERO of 3.1 (90% CI 1.4-4.8). Individuals who were asymptomatic TRANS had significantly lower seroprevalence SERO (0.6% [90% CI 0.0-1.5]) compared with the overall state estimate, while those who reported having had [≥]1 and [≥]2 symptoms had a seroprevalence SERO of 8.0% (90% CI 3.1-12.9) and 13.0% (90% CI 3.5-22.5), respectively. All 9 of the respondents who reported previously having a positive coronavirus test were positive for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies SERO. Nearly two-third of respondents reported having avoided public places (74%) and small gatherings of family or friends TRANS (75%), and 97% reported wearing a mask outside their home, at least part of the time. Conclusions and relevance: These estimates indicate that most people in Connecticut do not have detectable levels of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. There is a need for continued adherence to risk mitigation behaviors among Connecticut residents, to prevent resurgence of COVID-19 in this region.

    Epidemiology of Reopening in the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States, Europe and Asia

    Authors: Weiqi Zhang; Alina Oltean; Scott Nichols; Fuad Odeh; Fei Zhong

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168757 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Since the discovery of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19 has become a global healthcare and economic crisis. The United States (US) and Europe exhibited wide impacts from the virus with more than six million cases by the time of our analysis. To inhibit spread, stay-at-home orders and other non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were instituted. Beginning late April 2020, some US states, European, and Asian countries lifted restrictions and started the reopening phases. In this study, the changes of confirmed cases TRANS, hospitalizations, and deaths MESHD were analyzed after reopening for 11 countries and 40 US states using an interrupted time series analysis. Additionally, the distribution of these categories was further analyzed by age TRANS due to the known increased risk in elderly TRANS patients. Reopening had varied effects on COVID-19 cases depending on the region. Recent increases in cases did not fully translate into increased deaths MESHD. Eight countries had increased cases after reopening while only two countries showed the same trend in deaths MESHD. In the US, 30 states had observed increases in cases while only seven observed increased deaths MESHD. In addition, we found that states with later reopening dates were more likely to have significant decreases in cases, hospitalizations, and deaths MESHD. Furthermore, age TRANS distributions through time were analyzed in relation to COVID-19 in the US. Younger age groups TRANS typically had an increased share of cases after reopening.

    COVID-19: Beliefs in misinformation in the Australian community

    Authors: Kristen Pickles; Erin Cvejic; Brooke Nickel; Tessa Copp; Carissa Bonner; Julie Leask; Julie Ayre; Carys Batcup; Samuel Cornell; Thomas Dakin; Rachael Dodd; Jennifer MJ Isautier; Kirsten J McCaffery

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168583 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To investigate prevalence SERO of beliefs in COVID-19 misinformation and examine whether demographic, psychosocial and cognitive factors are associated with these beliefs, and how they change over time. Study design: Prospective national longitudinal community online survey. Setting: Australian general public. Participants: Adults TRANS aged TRANS over 18 years (n=4362 baseline/Wave 1; n=1882 Wave 2; n=1369 Wave 3). Main outcome measure: COVID-19 misinformation beliefs. Results: Stronger agreement with misinformation beliefs was significantly associated with younger age TRANS, male TRANS gender TRANS, lower education, and primarily speaking a language other than English at home (all p<0.01). After controlling for these variables, misinformation beliefs were significantly associated (p<0.001) with lower digital health literacy, lower perceived threat of COVID-19, lower confidence in government, and lower trust in scientific institutions. The belief that the threat of COVID-19 is greatly exaggerated increased between Wave 1-2 (p=0.002), while belief that herd immunity benefits were being covered up decreased (p<0.001). Greatest support from a list of Australian Government identified myths was for those regarding hot temperatures killing the virus (22%) and Ibuprofen exacerbates COVID-19 (13%). Lower institutional trust and greater rejection of official government accounts were associated with greater support for COVID-19 myths after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Conclusion: These findings highlight important gaps in communication effectiveness. Stronger endorsement of misinformation was associated with male TRANS gender TRANS, younger age TRANS, lower education and language other than English spoken at home. Misinformation can undermine public health efforts. Public health authorities must urgently target groups identified in this study when countering misinformation and seek ways to enhance public trust of experts, governments, and institutions.

    General public Knowledge of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) at early stages of the pandemic: results of a random online survey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Authors: Ali Alqahtani; V Krishnaraju; Mona Alqarni; Mohammed Al-Sheikh Hassan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-54864/v1 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    AbstractBackground: A novel coronavirus was identified at the end of 2019 in Wuhan City, China. Later, the World Health Organization (WHO) named the disease MESHD caused by the virus coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and declared a pandemic in March 2020. Saudi and global health agencies have provided various COVID-19 knowledge tools and facts to the general public. Therefore, this study aims to assess COVID-19 knowledge among the general public in Saudi Arabia at the early stages of the pandemic, including knowledge of prevention practices, home quarantine measures, and compliance with governmental restrictions.Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. The study included 1006 participants who responded to a random online COVID-19 public knowledge questionnaire that included five sections: demographic characteristics, general knowledge, prevention practices, home quarantine measures, and knowledge of governmental restrictions. Data were collected from a random sample recruited through the circulation of the questionnaire on social media platforms and were then analysed by descriptive statistical methods. Three levels of knowledge were established: excellent, intermediate, and poor. Differences in the percentages of participants with different knowledge levels by the demographic variables were analysed using the chi-square test.Results: Regarding overall general knowledge of COVID-19, 75%, 24%, and 1% of the participants had excellent, intermediate, and poor knowledge levels, respectively. Knowledge levels were significantly different by nationality and age TRANS (P=0.027 and 0.008, respectively). The majority of participants (98.4%) reported excellent knowledge of prevention practices, with no statistically significant differences among groups (P>0.005). Older age groups TRANS reported higher knowledge of home quarantine measures (86.6% and 86.4% of the 51-60 and older than 60 age groups TRANS, respectively, P=0.001). Approximately 50% of Saudis reported excellent knowledge of the restrictions imposed by the Saudi government to control the spread of COVID-19, while approximately 45% of non-Saudis had an excellent level of knowledge (P= 0.009).Conclusion and recommendations: High levels of knowledge about the virus, including prevention practices, are essential. The provision of COVID-19 facts and knowledge tools should be focused on younger generations to enhance compliance with the governmental restrictions required to stop the spread of COVID-19.

    Paediatric Attendances and Acuity in the Emergency MESHD Department during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Authors: Katy Rose; Kerry Van-Zyl; Rachel Cotton; Susan Wallace; Francesca Cleugh

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168666 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Aim: To investigate the difference in both numbers and acuity of presentations to the Paediatric Emergency MESHD Department (PED) during the peak time period of the current global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Design: This single centre retrospective observational study used routinely collected electronic health data to compare patient presentation characteristics between 21st March and 26th April 2020 compared to the equivalent time period in 2019. Results: There was a 90% decrease in attendances to PED, with a 10.23% reduction re-attendance rate. Children TRANS presenting were younger during the pandemic, with a median age TRANS difference of 2 years. They were more likely to present in an ambulance (9.63%), be admitted to hospital (5.75%) and be assigned the highest two Manchester triage categories (6.26%). There was a non-significant trend towards longer lengths of stay. The top 10 presenting complaints remained constant (although the order changed) between time periods. There was no difference in mortality or admission to PICU. Implications: Our data demonstrates that there has been a significant decrease in numbers of children TRANS seeking emergency MESHD department care. It suggests that presenting patients were proportionally sicker during the pandemic; however, we would argue that this is more in keeping with appropriate acuity for PED presentations, as there were no differences in PICU admission rate or mortality. We explore some of the possible reasons behind the decrease in presentations and the implications for service planning ahead of the winter months.

    Measurement lessons of a repeated cross-sectional household food insecurity survey during the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico

    Authors: Pablo Gaitan-Rossi; Mireya Vilar-Compte; Graciela Teruel; Rafael Perez-Escamilla

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20167650 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To validate the telephone modality of the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) included in three waves of a phone survey to estimate the monthly household food insecurity (HFI) prevalence SERO during the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico. Design We examined the reliability and internal validity of the ELCSA scale in three repeated waves of a cross-sectional surveys with Rasch models. We estimated the monthly prevalence SERO of food insecurity in the general population and in households with and without children TRANS, and compared them with a national 2018 survey. We tested concurrent validity by testing associations of HFI with socioeconomic status and anxiety HP. Setting ENCOVID-19 is a monthly telephone cross-sectional survey collecting information on the well-being of Mexican households during the pandemic lockdown. Surveys used probabilistic samples and we used data from April (n=833), May (n=850), and June 2020 (n=1,674). Participants Mexicans 18 years or older who had a mobile telephone. Results ELCSA had adequate model fit and HFI was associated, within each wave, with more poverty and anxiety HP. The COVID-19 lockdown was associated with an important reduction in food security; decreasing stepwise from 38.9% in 2018 to 24.9% in June 2020 in households with children TRANS. Conclusions Telephone surveys are a feasible strategy to monitor food insecurity with ELCSA.

    An improved methodology for estimating the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Virag Patel; Catherine McCarthy; Rachel A Taylor; Ruth Moir; Louise A Kelly; Emma L Snary

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168187 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Since the identification of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China in December 2019, there have been more than 17 million cases of the disease MESHD in 216 countries worldwide. Comparisons of prevalence SERO estimates between different communities can inform policy decisions regarding safe travel TRANS between countries, help to assess when to implement (or remove) disease MESHD control measures and identify the risk of over-burdening healthcare providers. Estimating the true prevalence SERO can, however, be challenging because officially reported figures are likely to be significant underestimates of the true burden of COVID-19 within a community. Previous methods for estimating the prevalence SERO fail to incorporate differences between populations (such as younger populations having higher rates of asymptomatic TRANS cases) and so comparisons between, for example, countries, can be misleading. Here, we present an improved methodology for estimating COVID-19 prevalence SERO. We take the reported number of cases and deaths MESHD (together with population size) as raw prevalence SERO for the population. We then apply an age TRANS-adjustment to this which allows the age TRANS-distribution of that population to influence the case-fatality rate and the proportion of asymptomatic TRANS cases. Finally, we calculate the likely underreporting factor for the population and use this to adjust our prevalence SERO estimate further. We use our method to estimate the prevalence SERO for 166 countries (or the states of the United States of America, hereafter referred to as US state) where sufficient data were available. Our estimates show that as of the 30th July 2020, the top three countries with the highest estimated prevalence SERO are Brazil (1.26%, 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.37), Kyrgyzstan (1.10%, 95% CI: 0.82 - 1.19) and Suriname (0.58%, 95% CI: 0.44 - 0.63). Brazil is predicted to have the largest proportion of all the current global cases (30.41%, 95%CI: 27.52 - 30.84), followed by the USA (14.52%, 95%CI: 14.26 - 16.34) and India (11.23%, 95%CI: 11.11 - 11.24). Amongst the US states, the highest prevalence SERO is predicted to be in Louisiana (1.07%, 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.12), Florida (0.90%, 95% CI: 0.86 - 0.94) and Mississippi (0.77%, 95% CI: 0.74 - 0.81) whereas amongst European countries, the highest prevalence SERO is predicted to be in Montenegro (0.47%, 95% CI: 0.42 - 0.50), Kosovo (0.35%, 95% CI: 0.29 - 0.37) and Moldova (0.28%, 95% CI: 0.23 - 0.30). Our results suggest that Kyrgyzstan (0.04 tests per predicted case), Brazil (0.04 tests per predicted case) and Suriname (0.29 tests per predicted case) have the highest underreporting out of the countries in the top 25 prevalence SERO. In comparison, Israel (34.19 tests per predicted case), Bahrain (19.82 per predicted case) and Palestine (9.81 tests per predicted case) have the least underreporting. The results of this study may be used to understand the risk between different geographical areas and highlight regions where the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 is increasing most rapidly. The method described is quick and easy to implement. Prevalence SERO estimates should be updated on a regular basis to allow for rapid fluctuations in disease MESHD patterns.

    Insights into the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: Lessons learned from a high-risk country

    Authors: Md. Hasanul Banna Siam; Md Mahbub Hasan; Enayetur Raheem; Md. Hasinur rahaman Khan; Mahbubul H Siddiqee; Mohammad Sorowar Hossain

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168674 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background South Asian countries including Bangladesh have been struggling to control the COVID-19 pandemic despite imposing months of lockdown and other public health measures (as of June 30, 2020). In-depth epidemiological information from these countries is lacking. From the perspective of Bangladesh, this study aims to understand the epidemiological features and gaps in public health preparedness. Method This study used publicly available data (8 March-30 June 2020) from the respective health departments of Bangladesh and Johns Hopkins University Coronavirus Resource Centre. Descriptive statistics was used to report the incidence, case fatality rates (CFR), and trend analysis. Spatial distribution maps were created using ArcGIS Desktop. Infection MESHD dynamics were analyzed via SIR models. Findings In 66 days of nationwide lockdown and other public health efforts, a total of 47,153 cases and 650 deaths MESHD were reported. However, the incidence was increased by around 50% within a week after relaxing the lockdown. Males TRANS were disproportionately affected in terms of infections MESHD (71%) and deaths MESHD (77%) than females TRANS. The CFR for males TRANS was higher than females TRANS (1.38% vs 1.01%). Over 50% of infected cases were reported among young adults TRANS (20-40-year age group TRANS). Geospatial analysis between 7 June 2020 and 20 June 2020 showed that the incidences increased 4 to 10-fold in 12 administrative districts while it decreased in the epicenter. As compared to the EU and USA, trends of the cumulative incidence were slower in South Asia with lower mortality. Conclusion Our findings on gaps in public health preparedness and epidemiological characteristics would contribute to facilitating better public health decisions for managing current and future pandemics like COVID-19 in the settings of developing countries.

    An Examination of School Reopening Strategies during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic

    Authors: Alfonso Landeros; Xiang Ji; Kenneth L. Lange; Timothy C. Stutz; Jason Xu; Mary E. Sehl; Janet S. Sinsheimer

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20169086 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to the closure of nearly all K-12 schools in the United States of America in March 2020. Although reopening K-12 schools for in-person schooling is desirable for many reasons, officials also understand that risk reduction strategies and detection of cases must be in place to allow children TRANS to safely return to school. Furthermore, the consequences of reclosing recently reopened schools are substantial and impact teachers, parents TRANS, and ultimately the educational experience in children TRANS. Using a stratified Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Removed model, we explore the influences of reduced class density, transmission TRANS mitigation (such as the use of masks, desk shields, frequent surface cleaning, or outdoor instruction), and viral detection on cumulative prevalence SERO. Our model predicts that a combination of all three approaches will substantially reduce SARS-CoV-2 prevalence SERO. The model also shows that reduction of class density and the implementation of rapid viral testing, even with imperfect detection, have greater impact than moderate measures for transmission TRANS mitigation.

    First-in-Human Trial of a SARS CoV 2 Recombinant Spike Protein Nanoparticle Vaccine

    Authors: Cheryl Keech; Gary Albert; Patricia Reed; Susan Neal; Joyce S. Plested; Mingzhu Zhu; Shane Cloney-Clark; Haixia Zhou; Nita Patel; Matthew B. Frieman; Robert E. Haupt; James Logue; Marisa McGrath; Stuart Weston; Pedro A. Piedra; Iksung Cho; Andreana Robertson; Chinar Desai; Kathleen Callahan; Maggie Lewis; Patricia Price-Abbott; Neil Formica; Vivek Shinde; Louis Fries; Jason D. Linkliter; Paul Griffin; Bethanie Wilkinson; Gale Smith; Gregory M. Glenn

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168435 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background NVX-CoV2373 is a recombinant nanoparticle vaccine composed of trimeric full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins. We present the Day 35 primary analysis of our trial of NVX-CoV2373 with or without the saponin-based Matrix-M1 adjuvant in healthy adults TRANS. Methods This is a randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial in 131 healthy adults TRANS. Trial vaccination comprised two intramuscular injections, 21 days apart. Primary outcomes were reactogenicity, safety labs, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-spike protein response. Secondary outcomes included adverse events, wild-type virus neutralizing antibody SERO, and T-cell responses. Results Participants received NVX-CoV2373 with or without Matrix-M1 (n=106) or placebo (n=25). There were no serious adverse events. Reactogenicity was mainly mild in severity and of short duration (mean [≥] 2 days), with second vaccinations inducing greater local and systemic reactogenicity. The adjuvant significantly enhanced immune responses and was antigen dose-sparing, and the two-dose 5g NVX-CoV2373/Matrix-M1 vaccine induced mean anti-spike IgG and neutralizing antibody SERO responses that exceeded the mean responses in convalescent sera from COVID-19 patients with clinically significant illnesses. The vaccine also induced antigen-specific T cells with a largely T helper 1 (Th1) phenotype. Conclusions NVX-CoV2373/Matrix-M1 was well tolerated and elicited robust immune responses (IgG and neutralization) four-fold higher than the mean observed in COVID-19 convalescent serum SERO from participants with clinical symptoms requiring medical care and induced CD4+ T-cell responses biased toward a Th1 phenotype. These findings suggest that the vaccine may confer protection and support transition to efficacy evaluations to test this hypothesis. (Funded by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368988).

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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