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MeSH Disease


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    Validation and implementation of a direct RT-qPCR method for rapid screening of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD by using non-invasive saliva samples

    Authors: Pedro Brotons; Amaresh Perez-Arguello; Cristian Launes; Francesc Torrents; Jesica Saucedo; Joana Claverol; Juan Jose Garcia-Garcia; Gil Rodas; Vicky Fumado; Iolanda Jordan; Eduard Gratacos; Quique Bassat; Carmen Munoz-Almagro; Robert Lange; Karsten Schnatbaum; Frank F Bier; Matteo Siano; Maria Bandini; Simone Furini; Francesca Mari; - GEN-COVID Multicenter Study; Alessandra Renieri; Mario U Mondelli; Elisa Frullanti

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.19.20234245 Date: 2020-11-27 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To validate and implement an optimized screening method for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA combining use of self-collected raw saliva samples, single-step heat-treated virus inactivation and RNA extraction, and direct RT-qPCR. Design Study conducted in three successive phases including: i) method analytical validation against standard RT-qPCR in saliva samples; ii), method diagnostic validation against standard RT-qPCR in nasopharyngeal samples; and iii), method implementation through pilot screening in a reference hospital. Setting Sant Joan de Deu University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Participants Phase 2, a prospective cohort of asymptomatic TRANS teenagers and young adult TRANS players and staff in a youth sports academy followed up during 9 to 12 weeks; Phase 3, asymptomatic TRANS health workers, students, aid volunteers, and other staff of the setting. Main outcome measures Method diagnostic sensitivity SERO and specificity. Method performance SERO in a pilot screening. Results Diagnostic validation included 173 participants. At week 0, all saliva and nasopharyngeal samples were negative. In the following weeks, standard RT-qPCR yielded 23 positive results in nasopharyngeal samples. Paired saliva specimens yielded 22 positive and one inconclusive result. Method diagnostic sensitivity SERO and specificity values were 95.7% (95% CI, 79.0-99.2%) and 100.0% (95% CI, 98.6-100.0 %), respectively. A total of 2,709 participants engaged in the pilot screening, with a high rate of participation (83.4% among health workers). Only 17 (0.6%) of saliva samples self-collected by participants in an unsupervised manner were invalid. Saliva was positive in 24 (0.9%) out of 2,692 valid specimens and inconclusive in 27 (1.0%). All 24 saliva-positive and 4 saliva-inconclusive participants were positive by standard RT-PCR in nasopharyngeal samples. Use of a high throughput system allowed fast screening workflow (up to 384 samples in <2 hours). Conclusion Direct RT-qPCT on self-collected raw saliva is a simple, rapid, and accurate method with potential to be scaled up for enhanced SARS-CoV-2 community-wide screening.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the craft and manual worker population of Qatar

    Authors: Mohamed H. Al-Thani; Elmoubasher Farag; Roberto Bertollini; Hamad Eid Al Romaihi; Sami Abdeen; Ashraf Abdelkarim; Faisal Daraan; Ahmed Ismail; Nahid Mostafa; Mohamed Sahl; Jinan Suliman; Elias Tayar; Hasan Ali Kasem; Meynard J. A. Agsalog; Bassam K. Akkarathodiyil; Ayat A. Alkhalaf; Mohamed Morhaf M. H. Alakshar; Abdulsalam Ali A. H. Al-Qahtani; Monther H. A. Al-Shedifat; Anas Ansari; Ahmad Ali Ataalla; Sandeep Chougule; Abhilash K. K. V. Gopinathan; Feroz J. Poolakundan; Sanjay U. Ranbhise; Saed M. A. Saefan; Mohamed M. Thaivalappil; Abubacker S. Thoyalil; Inayath M. Umar; Zaina Al Kanaani; Abdullatif Al Khal; Einas Al Kuwari; Adeel A. Butt; Peter Coyle; Andrew Jeremijenko; Anvar Hassan Kaleeckal; Ali Nizar Latif; Riyazuddin Mohammad Shaik; Hanan F. Abdul Rahim; Hadi M. Yassine; Gheyath K. Nasrallah; Mohamed G. Al Kuwari; Odette Chaghoury; Hiam Chemaitelly; Laith J Abu-Raddad

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.24.20237719 Date: 2020-11-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Qatar experienced a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic that disproportionately affected the craft and manual worker (CMW) population who comprise 60% of the total population. This study aimed to assess the proportions of ever and/or current infection in this population. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted during July 26-September 09, 2020 to assess both anti-SARS-CoV-2 positivity through serological testing SERO and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity through PCR testing. Associations with antibody SERO and PCR positivity were identified through regression analyses. Results: Study included 2,641 participants, 69.3% of whom were <40 years of age TRANS. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 positivity was estimated at 55.3% (95% CI: 53.3-57.3%) and was significantly associated with nationality, geographic location, educational attainment, occupation, presence of symptoms in the two weeks preceding the survey, and previous infection diagnosis. PCR positivity was assessed at 11.3% (95% CI: 9.9-12.8%) and was significantly associated with geographic location, contact with an infected person, and reporting two or more symptoms. Infection positivity ( antibody SERO and/or PCR positive) was assessed at 60.6% (95% CI: 9.9-12.8%). The proportion of antibody SERO-positive CMWs that had a prior SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was 9.3% (95% CI: 7.9-11.0%). Only seven infections were ever severe and one was ever critical - an infection severity rate of 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-1.0%). Conclusions: Six in every 10 CMWs have been infected, suggestive of reaching the herd immunity threshold. Infection severity was low with only one in every 200 infections progressing to be severe or critical. Only one in every 10 infections had been previously diagnosed suggestive of mostly asymptomatic TRANS or minimally mild infections.


    Authors: ANUJ PARKASH; PARUL SINGLA; MEENU BHATIA; Monjuri Kataki; Dina Raja; Divyashree Medhi; Ridip Dutta; Achu Chena; Divya Daimary; Aakangkhita Choudhurydo; Lahari Saikia; Annabelle Mai; Caroline Colijn; Judith Breuer; Matthew Buckland; Kimberly Gilmour; David Goldblatt; - The Co-Stars Study Team; Huong T Kratochvil; - QCRG Structural Biology Consortium; Anthony Aimon; James M Bennett; Jose Brandao Neto; Aina E Cohen; Alexandre Dias; Alice Douangamath; Louise Dunnett; Oleg Fedorov; Matteo P Ferla; Martin Fuchs; Tyler J Gorrie-Stone; James M Holton; Michael G Johnson; Tobias Krojer; George Meigs; Ailsa J Powell; Johannes Gregor Matthias Rack; Victor L Rangel; Silvia Russi; Rachael E Skyner; Clyde A Smith; Alexei S Soares; Jennifer L Wierman; Kang Zhu; Natalia Jura; Alan Ashworth; John Irwin; Michael C Thompson; Jason E Gestwicki; Frank von Delft; Brian K Shoichet; James S Fraser; Ivan Ahel

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.20.20234500 Date: 2020-11-23 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT: Background: The current COVID19 MESHD pandemic began in December 2019 and rapidly expanded to become a global pandemic. The COVID19 MESHD presents multitude of clinical disorders, ranges from asymptomatic TRANS infection to severe HP disease, which can accompanied by multisystem failure MESHD leading to death. The immune response to SARSCoV2 is understood to involve all the components of the system that together causes viral elimination and recovery from the infection. However, such immune responses implicated in the disease has varied presentation ranging from mild to a severe form, which appears to hinge on the loss of the immune regulation between protective and altered responses. In this study, we want to unravel this association of immune responses to various clinical variables, which might have a major role to play, while generating the immune response. The objective was to test this hypothesis in our settings and comparing the results of serologic tests SERO from a group of COVID 19 patients and will analyzed the disease severity in comparison Methods: Testing for SARS COV2 IgG Antibody SERO was done with chemiluminescent assay on the Ortho Clinical Diagnostics (OCD) Vitros 5600 platform. Results: A total of 106 COVID 19 patients were included in this study, of whom 61 were male TRANS and 45 were female TRANS. Their mean age TRANS was 43.7 years and the median interval between initial symptom onset TRANS and sample collection was 12.33 days. Eighty patients (82%) had mild or moderate symptoms and twenty six patients (18%) had severe symptoms. The antibody SERO titers were positive in 99 patients (93%) and were found negative in 7 patients (7%). When comparing patients with mild/moderate symptoms and patients with severe/ critical diseases MESHD, no statistically significant difference was observed between their gender TRANS ratios (P = 0.373) and age TRANS composition (P = 0.224). Conclusions: The data presented in this research study did not find any statistical significance between SARSCoV2 IgG antibody SERO levels with COVID 19 disease severity, duration of symptoms, age TRANS, gender TRANS, and length of convalescence.

    Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO are associated with protection against reinfection

    Authors: Sheila F Lumley; Nicole E Stoesser; Philippa C Matthews; Alison Howarth; Stephanie B Hatch; Brian D Marsden; Stuart Cox; Tim James; Fiona Warren; Liam J Peck; Thomas G Ritter; Zoe de Toledo; Laura Warren; David Axten; Richard J Cornall; E Yvonne Jones; David I Stuart; Gavin Screaton; Daniel Ebner; Sarah Hoosdally; Meera Chand; - Oxford University Hospitals Staff Testing Group; Derrick W Crook; Christopher P Conlon; Koen B Pouwels; A Sarah Walker; Tim EA Peto; Susan Hopkins; Tim M Walker; Katie Jeffery; David W Eyre; Talat Mokhtari-Azad; Reza Najafipour; Reza Malekzadeh; Kimia Kahrizi; Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri; Hossein Najmabadi

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.18.20234369 Date: 2020-11-19 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundIt is critical to understand whether infection with Severe HP Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) protects from subsequent reinfection. MethodsWe investigated the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive results in seropositive and seronegative healthcare workers (HCWs) attending asymptomatic TRANS and symptomatic staff testing at Oxford University Hospitals, UK. Baseline antibody SERO status was determined using anti-spike and/or anti-nucleocapsid IgG assays and staff followed for up to 30 weeks. We used Poisson regression to estimate the relative incidence of PCR-positive results and new symptomatic infection by antibody SERO status, accounting for age TRANS, gender TRANS and changes in incidence over time. ResultsA total of 12219 HCWs participated and had anti-spike IgG measured, 11052 were followed up after negative and 1246 after positive antibody SERO results including 79 who seroconverted during follow up. 89 PCR-confirmed symptomatic infections occurred in seronegative individuals (0.46 cases per 10,000 days at risk) and no symptomatic infections in those with anti-spike antibodies SERO. Additionally, 76 (0.40/10,000 days at risk) anti-spike IgG seronegative individuals had PCR-positive tests in asymptomatic TRANS screening, compared to 3 (0.21/10,000 days at risk) seropositive individuals. Overall, positive baseline anti-spike antibodies SERO were associated with lower rates of PCR-positivity (with or without symptoms) (adjusted rate ratio 0.24 [95%CI 0.08-0.76, p=0.015]). Rate ratios were similar using anti-nucleocapsid IgG alone or combined with anti-spike IgG to determine baseline status. ConclusionsPrior SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD that generated antibody SERO responses offered protection from reinfection for most people in the six months following infection. Further work is required to determine the long-term duration and correlates of post-infection immunity.

    Community prevalence SERO of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO and correlates of protective immunity in five localities in an Indian metropolitan city

    Authors: Aurnab Ghose; Sankar Bhattacharya; Arun S Karthikeyan; Abhay Machindra Kudale; Joy M Monteiro; Aparna Joshi; Guruprasad R Medigeshi; Gagandeep Kang; Vineeta Bal; Satyajit Rath; L S Shashidhara; Jacob John; Susmita Chaudhuri; Aarti Nagarkar; Rahul Batra; Stuart J D Neil; Michael H Malim; Katie J Doores; Sam T Douthwaite; Gaia Nebbia; Jonathan D Edgeworth; Ali R Awan; - The COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) consortium

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.17.20228155 Date: 2020-11-18 Source: medRxiv

    BackgroundCurrent testing guidelines for COVID-19 MESHD substantially underestimates the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in dense urban populations. Granular estimates of infection are important for understanding population-level immunity. We examined seroprevalence SERO of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in Pune city in India and its implication for protective immunity. MethodsSeroprevalence was estimated during July 20-August 5, 2020 from 1659 randomly selected individuals recruited from five administrative Pune sub-wards (combined population 366,984). Prevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies SERO were estimated and along with correlates of virus neutralisation. FindingsSeropositivity was extensive (51{middle dot}3%; 95%CI 39{middle dot}9-62{middle dot}4) but varied widely in the five localities tested, ranging from 35{middle dot}8% to 66{middle dot}4%. Seropositivity was higher in crowded living conditions in the slums (OR 1{middle dot}91), and was lower in those 65 years or older (OR 0{middle dot}59). The infection-fatality ratio was estimated at 0.28%. Post survey, COVID-19 MESHD incidence was lower in areas noted to have higher seroprevalence SERO. Substantial virus-neutralising activity was observed in seropositive individuals, but with considerable heterogeneity in the immune response and possible age TRANS-dependent diversity in the antibody SERO repertoire. InterpretationDespite crowded living conditions having facilitated widespread transmission TRANS, the variability in seroprevalence SERO in localities that are in geographical proximity indicates a heterogenous spread of infection. Declining infection rates in areas with high seropositivity suggest population-level protection and is supported by substantial neutralising activity in asymptomatically TRANS infected individuals. The heterogeneity in antibody SERO levels and neutralisation capacity indicates the existence of immunological sub-groups of functional interest. FundingPersistent Foundation, Pune, India RESEARCH IN CONTEXTO_ST_ABSEvidence before this studyC_ST_ABSWe searched the literature (upto 2 Nov 2020), using the terms " seroprevalence SERO", "serosurveillance", "seroepidemiology", "immune response", "seroconversion" and "SARS-CoV-2," without any article type restrictions, and selected only population- or community-level seroprevalence SERO studies for collecting background information. The survey of literature indicated that community serosurveys for SARS-CoV-2 in LICs and LMICs have been limited and have largely reported correlations of seroprevalence SERO with demographic factors. There are no reports of protective immunity-associated characteristics in community surveillance settings from LMIC/LICs. In fact, such studies from the global North are also limited. The existing evidence thus lacks granular details critical to understand community-level heterogeneities, and provides limited epidemiological data without meaningful immunobiological correlates. Added value of this studyThis is the first systematic study (at the time of submission) from a LMIC reporting community SARS-CoV-2 sero-surveillance of high granularity alongside estimation of correlates of immune protection. We estimated seroprevalence SERO as well as serological correlates of protection in a cross-sectional cohort of 1659 asymptomatic TRANS participants from five small urban localities in the metropolitan city of Pune, India. IgG seroprevalence SERO was determined against the receptor-binding-domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, to aid correlation with immune protection since RBD is the predominant target for neutralising antibodies SERO. Large subsets of the sera were also tested for surrogate neutralisation as well as live SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralisation, data not so far reported in community sero-surveillance studies. We identified substantial locality-specific variations in seropositivity levels and infection fatality rates (IFRs), highlighting heterogeneities of infection behaviour even in dense, urban populations often lost in more global analyses. Notably, the incidence of new infections after the sero-sampling period revealed a strong negative association with seropositivity, indicating potential modification of transmission TRANS by community immunity. While RBD-specific antibody SERO levels expectedly showed broad correlation with neutralisation capacities, 30% of individuals showed significant departures from this correlation, again underlining significant immune response heterogeneities. Implications of all the available evidenceHigh seroprevalence SERO in the dense urban localities of the study site, despite a protracted and stringent lockdown, provides a realistic account on transmission TRANS dynamics crucial for public health policies in LMICs. Micro-geographic variability within locales, dominated by sub-optimal living conditions, needs to be acknowledged and used to develop measures designed for people in such socio-economic contexts. The heterogeneity of correlation between RBD seropositivity and neutralising capacity, as well as the complex association with age TRANS encountered in this study open up a plethora HP of research questions into epitope dominance and affinity variations in anti-viral antibodies SERO in asymptomatic TRANS infection.

    Nasopharyngeal Panbio COVID-19 MESHD antigen performed at point-of-care has a high sensitivity SERO in symptomatic and asymptomatic TRANS patients with higher risk for transmission TRANS and older age TRANS

    Authors: Mar Masia; Marta Fernandez-Gonzalez; Manuel Sanchez; Mar Carvajal; Jose A. Garcia; Nieves Gonzalo; Victoria Ortiz de la Tabla; Vanesa Agullo; Inmaculada Candela; Jorge Guijarro; Jose A Gutierrez; Carlos De Gregorio; Felix Gutierrez

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.16.20230003 Date: 2020-11-17 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Performance SERO of point-of-care tests in clinical practice remains undetermined. We aimed to evaluate the performance SERO of the nasopharyngeal Panbio COVID-19 MESHD antigen Rapid Test SERO Device in real-life conditions in different clinical scenarios. Method: Prospective study conducted in three primary care centers (PCC) and an emergency department. The antigen test was performed at point-of-care in nasopharyngeal and nasal swabs, and in saliva. Positive and negative percent agreement (PPA, NPA) were calculated with the RT-PCR assay as reference standard. Results: Of 913 patients included, 296 (32.3%) were asymptomatic TRANS and 690 (75.6%) came from the PCC. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 913, nasal swabs from 659, and saliva from 611 patients. RT-PCR was positive in 196 (21.5%) nasopharyngeal samples (NPS). Overall PPA (95% CI) in NPS was 60.5% (53.3-67.4), and it was lower in nasal swabs (44.7%) and saliva (23.1%). Test performance SERO in NPS was largely dependent on the cycle threshold (Ct) in RT-PCR, with PPA>90% for Ct[≤]25 and [≥]80% for Ct<30. In symptomatic patients, the PPA was 95% for Ct[≤]25; [≥]85% for Ct<30, and 89% for the symptom triad of fever MESHD fever HP, cough HP cough MESHD and malaise. Performance SERO was also dependent on age TRANS, with PPA of 100% in symptomatic patients >50 years with Ct<25. In asymptomatic TRANS patients, the PPA was 86% for Ct<25. In all cases, NPA was 100%. Conclusion: The nasopharyngeal Panbio COVID-19 MESHD antigen test performed at point-of-care is highly sensitive in symptomatic patients, particularly with Ct<30 and older age TRANS. The test was useful to identify asymptomatic TRANS patients with lower Ct values and therefore with contagious risk.

    Dysregulated immunity in SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD pregnant women

    Authors: Morgan L. Sherer; Jun Lei; Patrick Creisher; Minyoung Jang; Ramya Reddy; Kristin Voegtline; Sarah Olson; Kirsten Littlefield; Han-Sol Park; Rebecca L. Ursin; Abhinaya Ganesan; Theresa Boyer; Diane M. Brown; Samantha Walch; Annukka A.R. Antar; Yukari C Manabe; Kimberly Jones-Beatty; William Christopher Golden; Andrew J. Satin; Jeanne S. Sheffield; Andrew Pekosz; Sabra Klein; Irina Burd

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.13.20231373 Date: 2020-11-16 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Importance: The effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD on immune responses during pregnancy have not been systematically evaluated. Objective: To assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD during pregnancy on inflammatory and humoral responses in maternal and fetal samples and compare antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2 among pregnant and non-pregnant women. Design: Immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed using samples from pregnant and non-pregnant women who had either tested positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2. We measured, proinflammatory and placental cytokine mRNAs, neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) receptor expression, and tetanus MESHD antibody SERO transfer in maternal and cord blood SERO samples. Additionally, we measured anti-spike (S) IgG, anti-S-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG, and neutralizing antibody SERO (nAb) responses to SARS-CoV-2 in serum SERO or plasma SERO collected from non-pregnant women, pregnant women, and cord blood SERO. Setting: Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) Participants: Pregnant women were recruited through JHH outpatient obstetric clinics and the JHH Labor & Delivery unit. Non-pregnant women were recruited after receiving outpatient SARS-CoV-2 testing within Johns Hopkins Health System, USA. Adult TRANS non-pregnant women with positive RT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2, within the age TRANS range of 18-48 years, were included in the study. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 Main Outcomes and Measures: Participant demographic characteristics, antibody SERO titers, cytokine mRNA expression, and FcRn receptor expression. Results: SARS-COV-2 positive pregnant women expressed more IL1{beta}, but not IL6, in blood SERO samples collected within 14 days versus > 14 days after a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 test, with similar patterns observed in the fetal side of placentas, particularly among asymptomatic TRANS pregnant women. Pregnant women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD also had reduced anti-S-RBD IgG titers and were less likely to have detectable nAb as compared with non-pregnant women. Although SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD did not disrupt FcRn expression in the placenta, maternal transfer of nAb was inhibited by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD during pregnancy. Conclusions and Relevance: SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD during pregnancy was characterized by placental inflammation MESHD and reduced antiviral antibody SERO responses, which may impact the efficacy of COVID-19 MESHD therapeutics in pregnancy. The long-term implications of placental inflammation MESHD for neonatal health also requires greater consideration.

    The Use of Saliva as a Diagnostic Specimen for SARS CoV-2 Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Pediatric Patients

    Authors: Meghan Delaney; Bobbe Thomas; Christal J Ralph; Kyah Draper; Mahdi Moshgriz; Joyce Granados; Michael Evangelista; Mark McGuire; Roberta L DeBiasi; Joelle Simpson; Joseph Campos; Kassiani Mellou; Dimitrios Papamichail; Eleni Aretouli; Dimitrios Chatzidimitriou; Fani Chatzopoulou; Eleni Bairaktari; Ioanna Tzoulaki; Evangelos Evangelou; Evangelos C Rizos; Evangelia Ntzani; Konstantinos Vakalis; Konstantinos K Tsilidis

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.11.20223800 Date: 2020-11-13 Source: medRxiv

    Background Children TRANS are an important population to test for COVID-19 MESHD infection, particularly because they may shed the virus without displaying symptoms. Testing children TRANS for COVID-19 MESHD via sensitive molecular methods is important, although collecting nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens can be challenging. A less invasive mode of specimen collection that yields test results comparable to those from NP specimens would be beneficial to simplify sample collection. Methods To demonstrate that saliva is a suitable specimen for collection from children TRANS, the clinical usability/acceptability and the analytic performance SERO of saliva were compared to NP specimens suspended in viral transport medium. Four different FDA EUA-approved real-time RT-PCR assays and one EUA approved saliva collection device were investigated. Results The study population included 526 patients between the ages TRANS of 3 and 61 years, 461 (88%) were <18 years, 425 were asymptomatic TRANS (81.1%), 92 were symptomatic (17.6%). Saliva mixed with saliva stabilizing buffer was found to yield comparable sensitivity SERO to NP specimens when tested on the AllPlex SARS-CoV-2 molecular test (Seegene Inc). The analytic sensitivity SERO of the AllPlex assay during testing of spiked saliva mixed with SpectrumDNA saliva stabilizer was found to be 250 genomic copies/mL. Conclusions Of the four FDA EUA-approved SARS-CoV-2 PCR assays studied, we found the AllPlex assay to be best suited for testing saliva specimens collected from children TRANS 5 years of age TRANS or older. The sensitivity SERO of viral detection was equivalent to NP specimens when saliva specimens were mixed with the saliva stabilizer.

    The Change in Seroprevalence SERO in the US plus Puerto Rico between May and September of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody SERO in the Asymptomatic TRANS Population

    Authors: Robert Stout; Steven Rigatti; Khalil Momeni; Hamed Delam; Tadesse Sheleme; Ayoub Rashidi; Fariba Hemmati; Shahab Falahi; Morteza Arab-Zozani

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.10.20215145 Date: 2020-11-13 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: Determine the seroprevalence SERO and 3 month temporal change of SARS-COV-2 in the US and Puerto Rico in an asymptomatic TRANS well population. Results: The prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in the asymptomatic TRANS population has doubled during the May to September time period, going from 3.0% to 6.6%. Positive serology to SARS-COV-2 was similar in males TRANS and females TRANS but varies by age TRANS. The greatest increase was in the youngest population. Based on the September prevalence SERO it is estimated that there are 11.1 million (bootstrap 95% CI: 10.8 - 11.5 million) asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in the US, which is 1.95 times the cumulative number of cases in the US reported to the CDC as of September 1, 2020. . Conclusions: The number of new SARS-COV-2 cases more than doubled in this 3 months period. The seroprevalence SERO by age group TRANS is high in the youngest (<20, 7.8%) and low in the oldest (> 70, 2.0%). Over the three month study period the rate of increase in prevalence SERO for SARS-COV-2 serology varies by state with a range from 0.84 (State of New York) to more than 12 (Tennessee). This study identifies states were public health mitigation has blunted the spread and also areas where additional levels of intensified public education, surveillance and targeted intervention may be warranted.

    A time-resolved proteomic and diagnostic map characterizes COVID-19 MESHD disease progression and predicts outcome

    Authors: Vadim Demichev; Pinkus Tober-Lau; Tatiana Nazarenko; Charlotte Thibeault; Harry Whitwell; Oliver Lemke; Annika Röhl; Anja Freiwald; Lukasz Szyrwiel; Daniela Ludwig; Clara Correia-Melo; Elisa Theresa Helbig; Paula Stubbemann; Nana-Maria Grüning; Oleg Blyuss; Spyros Vernardis; Matthew White; Christoph B. Messner; Michael Joannidis; Thomas Sonnweber; Sebastian J. Klein; Alex Pizzini; Yvonne Wohlfarter; Sabina Sahanic; Richard Hilbe; Benedikt Schaefer; Sonja Wagner; Mirja Mittermaier; Felix Machleidt; Carmen Garcia; Christoph Ruwwe-Glösenkamp; Tilman Lingscheid; Laure Bosquillon de Jarcy; Miriam S. Stegemann; Moritz Pfeiffer; Linda Jürgens; Sophy Denker; Daniel Zickler; Philipp Enghard; Aleksej Zelezniak; Archie Campbell; Caroline Hayward; David J. Porteous; Riccardo Marioni; Alexander Uhrig; Holger Müller-Redetzky; Heinz Zoller; Judith Löffler-Ragg; Markus A. Keller; Ivan Tancevski; John F. Timms; Alexey Zaikin; Stefan Hippenstiel; Michael Ramharter; Martin Witzenrath; Norbert Suttorp; Kathryn Lilley; Michael Mülleder; Leif Erik Sander; - PA-COVID-19 Study group; Markus Ralser; Florian Kurth

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.09.20228015 Date: 2020-11-12 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 MESHD is highly variable in its clinical presentation, ranging from asymptomatic TRANS infection to severe HP organ damage and death. There is an urgent need for predictive markers that can guide clinical decision-making, inform about the effect of experimental therapies, and point to novel therapeutic targets. Here, we characterize the time-dependent progression of COVID-19 MESHD through different stages of the disease, by measuring 86 accredited diagnostic parameters and plasma SERO proteomes at 687 sampling points, in a cohort of 139 patients during hospitalization. We report that the time-resolved patient molecular phenotypes reflect an initial spike in the systemic inflammatory response, which is gradually alleviated and followed by a protein signature indicative of tissue repair, metabolic reconstitution and immunomodulation. Further, we show that the early host response is predictive for the disease trajectory and gives rise to proteomic and diagnostic marker signatures that classify the need for supplemental oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation, and that predict the time to recovery TRANS of mildly ill patients. In severely ill patients, the molecular phenotype of the early host response predicts survival, in two independent cohorts and weeks before outcome. We also identify age TRANS-specific molecular response to COVID-19 MESHD, which involves increased inflammation MESHD and lipoprotein dysregulation MESHD in older patients. Our study provides a deep and time resolved molecular characterization of COVID-19 MESHD disease progression, and reports biomarkers for risk-adapted treatment strategies and molecular disease monitoring. Our study demonstrates accurate prognosis of COVID-19 MESHD outcome from proteomic signatures recorded weeks earlier.

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