Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Infections (220)

Disease (191)

Death (103)

Coronavirus Infections (77)

Fever (49)


Human Phenotype

Fever (50)

Cough (42)

Pneumonia (38)

Fatigue (17)

Hypertension (17)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 408
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    Covid-19 mortality rates in Northamptonshire UK: initial sub-regional comparisons and provisional SEIR model of disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread

    Authors: Nick Petford; Jackie Campbell

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165399 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    We analysed mortality rates in a non-metropolitan UK subregion (Northamptonshire) to understand SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD fatalities at sub 1000000 population levels. A numerical (SEIR) model was then developed to predict the spread of Covid-19 in Northamptonshire. A combined approach using statistically-weighted data to fit the start of the epidemic to the mortality record. Parameter estimates were then derived for the transmission TRANS rate and basic reproduction number TRANS. Age TRANS standardised mortality rates are highest in Northampton (urban) and lowest in semi-rural districts. Northamptonshire has a statistically higher Covid-19 mortality rate than for the East Midlands and England as a whole. Model outputs suggest the number of infected individuals exceed official estimates, meaning less than 40 percent of the population may require immunisation. Combining published (sub-regional) mortality rate data with deterministic models on disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread has the potential to help public health practitioners develop bespoke mitigations, guided by local population demographics.

    Household transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis of secondary attack rate TRANS

    Authors: Zachary J. Madewell; Yang Yang; Ira M. Longini Jr.; M. Elizabeth Halloran; Natalie E. Dean

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164590 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spread by direct, indirect, or close contact TRANS with infected people via infected respiratory droplets or saliva. Crowded indoor environments with sustained close contact TRANS and conversations are a particularly high-risk setting. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis through July 29, 2020 of SARS-CoV-2 household secondary attack rate TRANS ( SAR TRANS), disaggregating by several covariates (contact type, symptom status, adult TRANS/ child TRANS contacts, contact sex, relationship to index case, index case sex, number of contacts in household TRANS, coronavirus). Findings: We identified 40 relevant published studies that report household secondary transmission TRANS. The estimated overall household SAR TRANS was 18.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.4%-22.2%), which is higher than previously observed SARs for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. We observed that household SARs were significantly higher from symptomatic index cases than asymptomatic TRANS index cases, to adult TRANS contacts than children TRANS contacts, to spouses than other family contacts, and in households TRANS with one contact than households TRANS with three or more contacts. Interpretation: To prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, people are being asked to stay at home worldwide. With suspected or confirmed infections TRANS infections MESHD referred to isolate at home, household transmission TRANS will continue to be a significant source of transmission TRANS.

    Mathematical modeling of the transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 '' Evaluating the impact of isolation in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) and lockdown in Spain associated with protective measures on the epidemic of covid-19

    Authors: Hyun Mo Yang; Luis Pedro Lombardi Jr.; Fabio Fernandes Morato Castro; Ariana Campos Yang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20165191 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (covid-19), with the fatality rate in elder (60 years old or more) being much higher than young (60 years old or less) patients, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Taking into account this age TRANS-dependent fatality rate, a mathematical model considering young and elder subpopulations was formulated based on the natural history of covid-19 to study the transmission TRANS of the SARS-CoV-2. This model can be applied to study the epidemiological scenario resulting from the adoption of isolation or lockdown in many countries to control the rapid propagation of covid-19. We chose as examples the isolation adopted in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in the early phase but not at the beginning of the epidemic, and the lockdown implemented in Spain when the number of severe covid-19 cases was increasing rapidly. Based on the data collected from Sa o Paulo State and Spain, the model parameters were evaluated and we obtained higher estimation for the basic reproduction number TRANS R0 TRANS (9.24 for Sao Paulo State, and 8 for Spain) compared to the currently accepted estimation of R0 TRANS around 3. The model allowed to explain the flattening of the epidemic curves by isolation in Sao Paulo State and lockdown in Spain when associated with the protective measures (face mask and social distancing) adopted by the population. However, a simplified mathematical model providing lower estimation for R0 TRANS did not explain the flattening of the epidemic curves. The implementation of the isolation in Sa o Paulo State before the rapidly increasing phase of the epidemic enlarged the period of the first wave of the epidemic and delayed its peak, which are the desirable results of isolation to avoid the overloading in the health care system.

    Rapid real-time tracking of non-pharmaceutical interventions and their association SARS-CoV-2 positivity: The COVID-19 Pandemic Pulse Study

    Authors: Steven J. Clipman; Amy P. Wesolowski; Dustin G. Gibson; Smisha Agarwal; Anastasia S. Lambrou; Gregory D. Kirk; Alain B. Labrique; Shruti H. Mehta; Sunil S. Solomon

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164665 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Current mitigation strategies for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rely on population-wide adoption of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Collecting demographically and geographically resolved data on NPIs and their association with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD history can provide critical information related to reopening geographies. Methods: We sampled 1,030 individuals in Maryland from June 17 - June 28, 2020 to capture socio-demographically and geographically resolved information about NPI adoption, access to SARS-CoV-2 testing, and examine associations with self-reported SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Results: Median age TRANS of the sample was 43 years and 45% were men; Whites and Blacks/African Americans represented 60% and 23%, respectively. Overall, 96% of the sample reported traveling TRANS outside their home for non-employment related services: most commonly cited reasons were essential services (92%) and visiting friends TRANS/family (66%). Use of public transport was reported by 18% of respondents. 68% reported always social distancing indoors and 53% always wearing masks indoors; indoor social distancing was significantly less common among younger vs. older individuals, and race/ethnicity and income were significantly associated with mask use (p<0.05 for all). 55 participants (5.3%) self-reported ever testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 with strong dose-response relationships between movement frequency and SARS-CoV-2 positivity that were significantly attenuated by social distancing. In multivariable analysis, history of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was negatively associated with the practice of social distancing (adjusted Odd Ratio [aOR]: 0.10; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.03 - 0.33); the only travel TRANS associated with higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was use of public transport (aOR for 7 or more times vs. never: 4.29) and visiting a place of worship (aOR for 3 or more times vs. never: 16.0) after adjusting for social distancing. Conclusions: Using a rapid cost-efficient approach, we highlight the role of movement and social distancing on SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk TRANS. Continued monitoring of NPI uptake, access to testing, and the subsequent impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS will be critical for pandemic control and decisions about reopening geographies.

    Phylogenomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes from western India reveals unique linked mutations

    Authors: Dhiraj Paul; Kunal Jani; Janesh Kumar; Radha Chauhan; Vasudevan Seshadri; Girdhari Lal; Rajesh Karyakarte; Suvarna Joshi; Murlidhar Tambe; Sourav Sen; Santosh Karade; Kavita Bala Anand; Shelinder Pal Singh Shergill; Rajiv Mohan Gupta; Manoj Kumar Bhat; Arvind Sahu; Yogesh S Shouche

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.228460 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: bioRxiv

    India has become the third worst-hit nation by the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, we investigated the molecular, phylogenomic, and evolutionary dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in western India, the most affected region of the country. A total of 90 genomes were sequenced. Four nucleotide variants, namely C241T, C3037T, C14408T (Pro4715Leu), and A23403G (Asp614Gly), located at 5UTR, Orf1a, Orf1b, and Spike protein regions of the genome, respectively, were predominant and ubiquitous (90%). Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes revealed four distinct clusters, formed owing to different variants. The major cluster (cluster 4) is distinguished by mutations C313T, C5700A, G28881A are unique patterns and observed in 45% of samples. We thus report a newly emerging pattern of linked mutations. The predominance of these linked mutations suggests that they are likely a part of the viral fitness landscape. A novel and distinct pattern of mutations in the viral strains of each of the districts was observed. The Satara district viral strains showed mutations primarily at the 3' end of the genome, while Nashik district viral strains displayed mutations at the 5' end of the genome. Characterization of Pune strains showed that a novel variant has overtaken the other strains. Examination of the frequency of three mutations i.e., C313T, C5700A, G28881A in symptomatic versus asymptomatic TRANS patients indicated an increased occurrence in symptomatic cases, which is more prominent in females TRANS. The age TRANS-wise specific pattern of mutation is observed. Mutations C18877T, G20326A, G24794T, G25563T, G26152T, and C26735T are found in more than 30% study samples in the age group TRANS of 10-25. Intriguingly, these mutations are not detected in the higher age TRANS range 61-80. These findings portray the prevalence SERO of unique linked mutations in SARS-CoV-2 in western India and their prevalence SERO in symptomatic patients. ImportanceElucidation of the SARS-CoV-2 mutational landscape within a specific geographical location, and its relationship with age TRANS and symptoms, is essential to understand its local transmission TRANS dynamics and control. Here we present the first comprehensive study on genome and mutation pattern analysis of SARS-CoV-2 from the western part of India, the worst affected region by the pandemic. Our analysis revealed three unique linked mutations, which are prevalent in most of the sequences studied. These may serve as a molecular marker to track the spread of this viral variant to different places.

    Regional now- and forecasting for data reported with delay: A case study in COVID-19 infections MESHD

    Authors: Giacomo De Nicola; Marc Schneble; Göran Kauermann; Ursula Berger

    id:2007.16058v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: arXiv

    Governments around the world continue to act to contain and mitigate the spread of COVID-19. The rapidly evolving situation compels officials and executives to continuously adapt policies and social distancing measures depending on the current state of the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD. In this context, it is crucial for policymakers to have a firm grasp on what the current state of the pandemic is as well as to have an idea of how the infective situation is going to unfold in the next days. However, as in many other situations of compulsorily-notifiable diseases MESHD and beyond, cases are reported with delay to a central register, with this delay deferring an up-to-date view of the state of things. We provide a stable tool for monitoring current infection MESHD levels as well as predicting infection MESHD numbers in the immediate future at the regional level. We accomplish this through nowcasting of cases that have not yet been reported as well as through forecasting of future infections MESHD. The two steps are also combined in forenowcasting. We apply our model to German data, for which our focus lies in explaining and predicting infectious behaviour by district, age group TRANS and gender TRANS.

    Transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 following exposure in school settings: experience from two Helsinki area exposure incidents.

    Authors: Timothee Dub; Elina Erra; Lotta Hagberg; Emmi Sarvikivi; Camilla Virta; Asko Jarvinen; Pamela Osterlund; Niina Ikonen; Anu Haveri; Merit Melin; Timo J Lukkarinen; Hanna Nohynek

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20156018 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The role of children TRANS in SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS is unclear. We investigated two COVID-19 school exposure incidents in the Helsinki area. Methods: We conducted two retrospective cohort studies after schools exposures, with a household transmission TRANS extension. We defined a case as an exposed person with either a positive RT-PCR, or positive microneutralisation testing (MNT) as confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein IgG antibodies SERO detection via fluorescent microsphere immunoassay SERO (FMIA). We recruited close school contacts and families of school cases, calculated attack rates TRANS (AR) on school level and families, and identified transmission chains TRANS. Findings: In incident A, the index was a pupil. Participation rate was 74% (89/121), and no cases were identified. In incident B, the index was a member of school personnel. Participation rate was 81% (51/63). AR was 16% (8/51): 6 pupils and 1 member of school personnel were MNT and FMIA positive; 1 pupil had a positive RT-PCR, but negative serology samples. We visited all school cases' families (n=8). The AR among close household contacts TRANS was 42% (9/20 in 3/8 families) but other plausible sources were always reported. At three months post-exposure, 6/8 school cases were re-sampled and still MNT positive. Interpretation: When the index was a child TRANS, no school transmission TRANS was identified, while the occurrence of an adult TRANS case led to a 16% AR. Further cases were evidenced in 3 families, but other transmission chains TRANS were plausible. It is likely that transmission TRANS from children TRANS to adults TRANS is limited. Funding: The Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare funded this study.

    Use of a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody SERO (itolizumab) in elderly TRANS patients with moderate COVID-19

    Authors: Mayra Ramos-Suzarte; Yayquier Diaz; Yordanis Martin; Nestor Antonio Calderon; William Santiago; Orlando Vinet; Yulieski La O; Jorge Perez; Augusto Oyarzabal; Yoan Perez; Geidy Lorenzo; Meylan Cepeda; Danay Saavedra; Zayma Mazorra; Daymys Estevez; Patricia Lorenzo-Luaces; Carmen Valenzuela; Armando Caballero; Kalet leon; Tania Crombet; Carlos Jorge Hidalgo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20153833 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Introduction: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a recent outbreak of Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19). In Cuba, the first case of COVID-19 was reported on March 11. Elderly TRANS with multiple comorbidities are particularly susceptible to adverse clinical outcomes in the course of SARS CoV-2 infection MESHD. During the outbreak, a local transmission TRANS event took place in a nursing home in Villa Clara province, Cuba, in which nineteen elderly TRANS residents were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Based on the increased susceptibility to viral-induced cytokine release syndrome MESHD inducing respiratory and systemic complications in this population, the patients were included in an expanded access clinical trial to receive itolizumab, an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody SERO. Results: All the patients had underlying medical conditions. The product was well tolerated. After the first dose, the course of the disease MESHD was favorable and 18 out of 19 (94.7%) patients were discharged clinically recovered with negative RT-PCR at 13 days (median). One dose of itolizumab, circulating IL-6 decreased in the first 24-48 hours in patients with high baseline values, whereas in patients with low levels, this concentration remained over low values. To preliminary assess the effect of itolizumab, a control group was selected among the Cuban COVID-19 patients, which did not receive immunomodulatory therapy. Control subjects were well-matched regarding age TRANS, comorbidities and severity of the disease MESHD. Every three moderately ill patients treated with itolizumab, one admission in intensive care unit (ICU) was prevented. Discussion/Conclusion: Itolizumab was well tolerated. Its effect is associated with a reduction and controlling IL-6 serum SERO levels. Moreover, treated patients had a favorable clinical outcome, considering their poor prognosis. This treatment is associated significantly with a decrease the risk to be admitted in ICU and reduced 10 times the risk of death MESHD. This study corroborates that the timely use of itolizumab, in combination with other antiviral and anticoagulant therapies, is associated with a reduction the COVID-19 disease MESHD worsening and mortality. The humanized antibody SERO itolizumab emerges as a therapeutic alternative for patients with COVID-19 and suggests its possible use in patients with cytokine release syndrome MESHD from other pathologies.

    Incidence and outcomes of healthcare-associated COVID-19 infections MESHD: significance of delayed diagnosis and correlation with staff absence

    Authors: Kirstin Khonyongwa; Surabhi K Taori; Ana Soares; Nergish Desai; Malur Sudhanva; William Bernal; Silke Schelenz; Lisa A Curran

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20148262 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The sudden increase in COVID-19 admissions in hospitals during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic of 2020 has led to onward transmissions TRANS among vulnerable inpatients. Aims: This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence SERO and clinical outcomes of Healthcare-associated COVID-19 infections MESHD (HA-COVID-19) during the 2020 epidemic and study factors which may promote or correlate with its incidence and transmission TRANS in a London Teaching Hospital Trust. Methods: Electronic laboratory, patient and staff self-reported sickness records were interrogated for the period 1st March to 18th April 2020. HA-COVID-19 was defined as symptom onset TRANS >14d of admission. Test performance SERO of a single combined throat and nose swab (CTNS) for patient placement and the effect of delayed RNA positivity (DRP, defined as >48h delay) on patient outcomes was evaluated. The incidence of staff self-reported COVID-19 sickness absence, hospital bed occupancy, community incidence and DRP was compared HA-COVID-19. The incidence of other significant hospital-acquired bacterial infections MESHD (OHAI) was compared to previous years. Results: 58 HA-COVID-19 (7.1%) cases were identified. As compared to community-acquired cases, significant differences were observed in age TRANS (p=0.018), ethnicity (p<0.001) and comorbidity burden (p<0.001) but not in 30d mortality. CTNS negative predictive value SERO was 60.3%. DRP was associated with greater mortality (p=0.034) and 34.5% HA-COVID-19 cases could be traced TRANS to delayed diagnosis in CA-COVID-19. Incidence of HA-COVID-19 correlated positively with DRP (R=0.7108) and staff sickness absence (R=0.7815). OHAI rates were similar to previous 2 years. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and isolation of COVID-19 would help reduce transmission TRANS. A single CTNS has limited value in segregating patients into positive and negative pathways.

    Long-term Existence of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 Patients: Host Immunity, Viral Virulence, and Transmissibility TRANS

    Authors: Meilin Jin; Xingyu Wang; Haini Jiang; Lijuan Hua; Weiwei Yu; dan ding; ke wang; Xiaopan Li; Kun Huang; Zhong zou; Shuyun Xu

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0719.v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: Preprints.org

    COVID-19 patients can recover with a median SARS-CoV-2 clearance of 20 days post initial symptoms (PIS). However, we observed some COVID-19 patients with existing SARS-CoV-2 for more than 50 days PIS. This study aimed to investigate the cause of viral clearance delay and the infectivity in these patients. Demographic data and clinical characteristics of 22 long-term COVID-19 patients were collected. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, peripheral lymphocyte count, and functionality were assessed. SARS-CoV-2-specific and neutralization antibodies SERO were detected, followed by virus isolation and genome sequencing. The median age TRANS of the studied cohort was 59.83±12.94 years. All patients were clinically cured after long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD ranging from 53 to 112 days PIS. Peripheral lymphocytes counts were normal. Interferon gamma (IFN-ƴ)-generated CD4+ and CD8+ cells were normal as 24.68±9.60% and 66.41±14.87%. However, the number of IFN-ƴ-generated NK cells diminished (58.03±11.78%). All patients presented detectable IgG, which positively correlated with mild neutralizing activity (ID50=157.2, P=0.05). SARS-CoV-2 was not isolated, and a cytopathic effect was lacking. Only three synonymous variants were identified in spike protein coding regions. In conclusion, decreased IFN-γ production by NK cells and low neutralizing antibodies SERO might favor SARS-CoV-2 long-term existence. Further, low viral load and weak viral pathogenicity was observed in COVID-19 patients with long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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