Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (60)

Cough (49)

Pneumonia (42)

Hypertension (20)

Fatigue (18)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 11 - 20 records in total 532
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    COVID-19 Pandemic and the South African Podiatrist

    Authors: Bernhard Zipfel; Nadia Dembskey

    id:10.20944/preprints202009.0425.v1 Date: 2020-09-18 Source: Preprints.org

    The Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is clearly taking a firmer grip on South Africa and more podiatrists will face the potential transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2. Government response was swift with the implementation of a travel TRANS ban, strict national lockdown as well as social distancing and hygiene protocols in line with international health regulations. Co-morbidities such as tuberculosis MESHD and HIV MESHD/ AIDS MESHD, endemic to South Africa, are considered a dangerous combination with COVID-19, making many South Africans vulnerable to contracting the COVID-19. Patients with diabetes MESHD as well as the aged TRANS are vulnerable, both in terms of potential combined complications and challenges in continuity in foot care. The demands of the pandemic may outstrip the ability of the health systems to cope. Should this time arrive, all healthcare practitioners, including podiatrists, would have to step in and take on a role beyond their scope of practice in order to ensure that the healthcare system does not get overwhelmed. It is important for podiatrists to keep abreast with the developments around the COVID-19, in order that they may institute appropriate clinical practice which will ensure maximum protection for themselves, staff and patients as well as providing quality foot health care.

    High-resolution Spatio-temporal Model for County-level COVID-19 Activity in the U.S

    Authors: Shixiang Zhu; Alexander Bukharin; Liyan Xie; Mauricio Santillana; Shihao Yang; Yao Xie

    id:2009.07356v1 Date: 2020-09-15 Source: arXiv

    We present an interpretable high-resolution spatio-temporal model to estimate COVID-19 deaths together with confirmed cases TRANS one-week ahead of the current time, at the county-level and weekly aggregated, in the United States. A notable feature of our spatio-temporal model is that it considers the (a) temporal auto- and pairwise correlation of the two local time series ( confirmed cases TRANS and death of the COVID-19), (b) dynamics between locations (propagation between counties), and (c) covariates such as local within-community mobility and social demographic factors. The within-community mobility and demographic factors, such as total population and the proportion of the elderly TRANS, are included as important predictors since they are hypothesized to be important in determining the dynamics of COVID-19. To reduce the model's high-dimensionality, we impose sparsity structures as constraints and emphasize the impact of the top ten metropolitan areas in the nation, which we refer (and treat within our models) as hubs in spreading the disease TRANS. Our retrospective out-of-sample county-level predictions were able to forecast the subsequently observed COVID-19 activity accurately. The proposed multi-variate predictive models were designed to be highly interpretable, with clear identification and quantification of the most important factors that determine the dynamics of COVID-19. Ongoing work involves incorporating more covariates, such as education and income, to improve prediction accuracy and model interpretability.

    High-resolution Spatio-temporal Model for County-level COVID-19 Activity in the U.S

    Authors: Shixiang Zhu; Alexander Bukharin; Liyan Xie; Mauricio Santillana; Shihao Yang; Yao Xie

    id:2009.07356v2 Date: 2020-09-15 Source: arXiv

    We present an interpretable high-resolution spatio-temporal model to estimate COVID-19 deaths together with confirmed cases TRANS one-week ahead of the current time, at the county-level and weekly aggregated, in the United States. A notable feature of our spatio-temporal model is that it considers the (a) temporal auto- and pairwise correlation of the two local time series ( confirmed cases TRANS and death of the COVID-19), (b) dynamics between locations (propagation between counties), and (c) covariates such as local within-community mobility and social demographic factors. The within-community mobility and demographic factors, such as total population and the proportion of the elderly TRANS, are included as important predictors since they are hypothesized to be important in determining the dynamics of COVID-19. To reduce the model's high-dimensionality, we impose sparsity structures as constraints and emphasize the impact of the top ten metropolitan areas in the nation, which we refer (and treat within our models) as hubs in spreading the disease TRANS. Our retrospective out-of-sample county-level predictions were able to forecast the subsequently observed COVID-19 activity accurately. The proposed multi-variate predictive models were designed to be highly interpretable, with clear identification and quantification of the most important factors that determine the dynamics of COVID-19. Ongoing work involves incorporating more covariates, such as education and income, to improve prediction accuracy and model interpretability.

    Individual behaviours and COVID-19 lockdown exit strategy: a mid-term multidimensional bio-economic modelling approach

    Authors: Ahmed Ferchiou; Remy Bornet; Guillaume Lhermie; Didier Raboisson

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-77728/v1 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    As of mid-2020, eradicating COVID-19 seems not to be an option, at least in the short term. The challenge for policy makers consists of implementing a suitable approach to contain the outbreak and limit extra deaths without exhausting healthcare forces while mitigating the impact on the country's economy and on individuals’ well-being. To better describe the trade-off between the economic, societal and public health dimensions, we developed an integrated bioeconomic optimization approach. We built a discrete age TRANS-structured model considering three main populations (youth, adults TRANS and seniors) and 8 socio-professional characteristics for the adults TRANS. Fifteen lockdown exit strategies were simulated for several options: abrupt or progressive (4 or 8 weeks) lockdown lift followed by total definitive transitory final unlocking. Three values of transmission TRANS rate (Tr) were considered to represent individuals’ barrier gesture compliance. Optimization under constraint to find the best combination of scenarios and options was performed on the minimal total cost for production losses due to contracted activities and hospitalization in the short and mid-term, with 3 criteria: mortality, person-days locked and hospital saturation. The results clearly show little difference between the scenarios based on the economic impact or the 3 criteria. This means that policy makers should focus on individuals’ behaviours (represented by the Tr value) more than on trying to optimize the lockdown strategy (defining who is unlocked and who is locked). For a given Tr, the choices of scenarios permit the management of the hospital saturation level with regard to both its intensity and its duration, which remains a key point for public health. The results highlight the need for behavioural or experimental economics to address COVID-19 issues through a better understanding of individual behaviour motivations and the identification of ways to improve biosecurity compliance.

    The Immune-Buffer COVID-19 Exit Strategy that Protects the Elderly TRANS

    Authors: Vered Rom-Kedar; Omer Yaniv; Roy Malka; Ehud Shapiro; Nimai Chandra Mandal; Panchanan Kundu; Subhadip Bhunia; Soham Sarangi; Vladimir Volynkin; Hermann Zellner; Rengul Cetin-Atalay; Maria Martin; Volkan Atalay; Makoto Miyara; Guy Gorochov; Amelie Guihot; Christophe Combadiere; Duraipandian Thavaselvam; Devendra Kumar Dubey; Paul Lin; Hila Shaim; Sean G Yates; David Marin; Indreshpal Kaur; Sheetal Rao; Duncan Mak; Angelique Lin; Qi Miao; Jinzhuang Dou; Ken Chen; Richard Champlin; Elizabeth J Shpall; Katayoun Rezvani

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.12.20193094 Date: 2020-09-14 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 is a viral respiratory illness MESHD, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus with frequent symptoms of fever HP fever MESHD and shortness of breath MESHD. COVID-19 has a high mortality rate among elders. The virus has spread world-wide, leading to shut-down of many countries around the globe with the aim of stopping the spread of the disease TRANS. To date, there are uncertainties regarding the main factors in the disease spread TRANS, so sever social distancing measures and broad testing are required in order to protect the population at risk. With the increasing spread of the virus, there is growing fraction of the general population that may be immune to COVID-19, following infection. This immunised cohort can be uncovered via large-scale screening for the SARS-CoV-2 (Corona) virus and/or its antibodies SERO. We propose that this immune cohort be deployed as a buffer between the general population and the population most at risk from the disease. Here we show that under a broad range of realistic scenarios deploying such an immunized buffer between the general population and the population at risk may lead to a dramatic reduction in the number of deaths from the disease. This provides an impetus for: screening for the SARS-CoV-2 virus and/or its antibodies SERO on the largest scale possible, and organizing at the family, community, national and international levels to protect vulnerable populations by deploying immunized buffers between them and the general population wherever possible.

    Resurgence of SARS-CoV-2 in England: detection by community antigen surveillance

    Authors: Steven Riley; Kylie E. C. Ainslie; Oliver Eales; Caroline E Walters; Haowei Wang; Christina J Atchison; Claudio Fronterre; Peter J Diggle; Deborah Ashby; Christl A. Donnelly; Graham Cooke; Wendy Barclay; Helen Ward; Ara Darzi; Paul Elliott; Carlos E. Milla; Angela J. Rogers; Paul L. Bollyky; Marcus VG Lacerda; Pedro M Moraes-Vieira; Helder I Nakaya; Qiao Wang; Hongbin Ji; Youhua Xie; Yihua Sun; Lu Lu; Yunjiao Zhou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192492 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background Based on cases and deaths MESHD, transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in England peaked in late March and early April 2020 and then declined until the end of June. Since the start of July, cases have increased, while deaths have continued to decrease. Methods We report results from 594,000 swabs tested for SARS-CoV-2 virus obtained from a representative sample of people in England over four rounds collected regardless of symptoms, starting in May 2020 and finishing at the beginning of September 2020. Swabs for the most recent two rounds were taken between 24th July and 11th August and for round 4 between 22nd August and 7th September. We estimate weighted overall prevalence SERO, doubling times between and within rounds and associated reproduction numbers TRANS. We obtained unweighted prevalence SERO estimates by sub- groups: age TRANS, sex, region, ethnicity, key worker status, household size, for which we also estimated odds of infection MESHD. We identified clusters of swab-positive participants who were closer, on average, to other swab-positive participants than would be expected. Findings Over all four rounds of the study, we found that 72% (67%, 76%) of swab-positive individuals were asymptomatic TRANS at the time of swab and in the week prior. The epidemic declined between rounds 1 and 2, and rounds 2 and 3. However, the epidemic was increasing between rounds 3 and 4, with a doubling time of 17 (13, 23) days corresponding to an R value TRANS of 1.3 (1.2, 1.4). When analysing round 3 alone, we found that the epidemic had started to grow again with 93% probability. Using only the most recent round 4 data, we estimated a doubling time of 7.7 (5.5, 12.7) days, corresponding to an R value TRANS of 1.7 (1.4, 2.0). Cycle threshold values were lower (viral loads were higher) for rounds 1 and 4 than they were for rounds 2 and 3. In round 4, we observed the highest prevalence SERO in participants aged TRANS 18 to 24 years at 0.25% (0.16%, 0.41%), increasing from 0.08% (0.04%, 0.18%) in round 3. We observed the lowest prevalence SERO in those aged TRANS 65 and older at 0.04% (0.02%, 0.06%) which was stable compared with round 3. Participants of Asian ethnicity had elevated odds of infection MESHD. We identified clusters in and around London, transient clusters in the Midlands, and an expanding area of clustering in the North West and more recently in Yorkshire and the Humber. Interpretation Although low levels of transmission TRANS persisted in England through to mid-summer 2020, the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 is now increasing. We found evidence of accelerating transmission TRANS at the end of August and beginning of September. Representative community antigen sampling can increase situational awareness and help improve public health decision making even at low prevalence SERO.

    Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors and Predictive Value of COVID-19 Pneumonia HP: A Retrospective Study of 173 Patients in Wuhan, China

    Authors: Yang Zhang; Jun Xue; Mi Yan; Jing Chen; Hai Liu; Shao-Bo Wang; Jian-Xing Luo; Fang Yang; Jian-Yuan Tang; Xiao-Yu Hu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-76134/v1 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: COVID-19 is a globally emerging infectious disease MESHD. As the global epidemic continues to spread, the risk of COVID-19 transmission TRANS and diffusion in the world will also remain. Currently, several studies describing its clinical characteristics have focused on the initial outbreak, but rarely to the later stage. Here we described clinical characteristics, risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD from Wuhan. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD admitted to Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 13 to March 8, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for disease severity and in-hospital outcome and establish predictive models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the predictive value of above models.Results: 106 (61.3%) of the patients were female TRANS. The mean age TRANS of study populations was 62.0 years, of whom 73 (42.2%) had underlying comorbidities mainly including hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (24.9%). The most common symptoms on admission were fever HP fever MESHD (67.6%) and cough HP (60.1%), digestive symptoms (22.0%) was also very common. Older age TRANS (OR: 3.420; 95%Cl: 1.415-8.266; P=0.006), diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD (OR: 0.143; 95%Cl: 0.033-0.611; P=0.009) and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD (OR: 4.769; 95%Cl: 2.019-11.266; P=0.000) were associated with severe illness on admission; the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of predictive model were 0.860 (95%CI: 0.802-0.918; P=0.000). Older age TRANS (OR: 0.309; 95%Cl: 0.142-0.674; P=0.003), leucopenia (OR: 0.165; 95%Cl: 0.034-0.793; P=0.025), increased lactic dehydrogenase (OR: 0.257; 95%Cl: 0.100-0.659; P=0.005) and interleukins-6 levels (OR: 0.294; 95%Cl: 0.099-0.872; P=0.027) were associated with poor in-hospital outcome; AUC of predictive model were 0.752 (95%CI: 0.681-0.824; P=0.000).Conclusion: Older patients with diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD and lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD need early identification and timely intervention to prevent the progression to severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. However, older patients with leucopenia, increased lactic dehydrogenase and interleukins-6 levels are at a high risk for poor in-hospital outcome.Trial registration: ChiCTR2000029549

    Retrospective study of COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO among tissue donors at the onset of the outbreak before implementation of strict lockdown measures in France

    Authors: Nicolas Germain; Stephanie Herwegh; Anne Sophie Hatzfeld; Laurence Bocket; Brigitte Prevost; Pierre Marie Danze; Philippe Marchetti; Rachael Dodd; Brooke Nickel; Kristen Pickles; Samuel Cornell; Thomas Dakin; Kirsten J McCaffery; Aboubacar Sidiki Magassouba; Arsen Arakelyan; Denise Haslwanter; Rohit Jangra; Alev Celikgil; Duncan Kimmel; James H Lee; Margarette Mariano; Antonio Nakouzi; Jose Quiroz; Johanna Rivera; Wendy A Szymczak; Karen Tong; Jason Barnhill; Mattias NE Forsell; Clas Ahlm; Daniel T. Stein; Liise-anne Pirofski; Doctor Y Goldstein; Scott J. Garforth; Steven C. Almo; Johanna P. Daily; Michael B. Prystowsky; James D. Faix; Amy S. Fox; Louis M. Weiss; Jonathan R. Lai; Kartik Chandran

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192518 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered organ and tissue donations as well as transplantation practices. SARS-CoV-2 serological tests SERO could help in the selection of donors. We assessed COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO in a population of tissue donors, at the onset of the outbreak in France, before systematic screening of donors for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Methods: 235 tissue donors at the Lille Tissue bank between November 1, 2019 and March 16, 2020 were included. Archived serum SERO samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO using two FDA-approved kits. Results: Most donors were at higher risks for severe COVID-19 illness including age TRANS over 65 years (142/235) and/or presence of co-morbidities (141/235). According to the COVID-19 risk assessment of transmission TRANS, 183 out of 235 tissue donors presented with a low risk level and 52 donors with an intermediate risk level of donor derived infection MESHD. Four out of the 235 (1.7%) tested specimens were positive for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO: 2 donors with anti-N protein IgG and 2 other donors with anti-S protein total Ig. None of them had both type of antibodies SERO. Conclusion: Regarding the seroprevalence SERO among tissue donors, we concluded that the transmission TRANS probability to recipient via tissue products was very low at the beginning of the outbreak.

    Model-informed COVID-19 vaccine prioritization strategies by age TRANS and serostatus

    Authors: Kate M Bubar; Stephen M Kissler; Marc Lipsitch; Sarah Cobey; Yonatan Grad; Daniel B Larremore

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.08.20190629 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: medRxiv

    When a vaccine for COVID-19 becomes available, limited initial supply will raise the question of how to prioritize the available doses and thus underscores the need for transparent, evidence-based strategies that relate knowledge of, and uncertainty in, disease transmission, risk TRANS, vaccine efficacy, and existing population immunity. Here, we employ a model-informed approach to vaccine prioritization that evaluates the impact of prioritization strategies on cumulative incidence and mortality and accounts for population factors such as age TRANS, contact structure, and seroprevalence SERO, and vaccine factors including imperfect and age TRANS-varying efficacy. This framework can be used to evaluate and compare existing strategies, and it can also be used to derive an optimal prioritization strategy to minimize mortality or incidence. We find that a transmission TRANS-blocking vaccine should be prioritized to adults TRANS ages TRANS 20-49y to minimize cumulative incidence and to adults TRANS over 60y to minimize mortality. Direct vaccination of adults TRANS over 60y minimizes mortality for vaccines that do not block transmission TRANS. We also estimate the potential benefit of using individual-level serological tests SERO to redirect doses to only seronegative individuals, improving the marginal impact of each dose. We argue that this serology-informed vaccination approach may improve the efficiency of vaccination efforts while partially addressing existing inequities in COVID-19 burden and impact.

    Adherence to COVID-19 pandemic prescribed recommendations, source of information and lockdown psychological impact of Nigeria social media users

    Authors: Obasanjo Afolabi Bolarinwa; Olalekan Seun Olagunju; Tesleem Babalola; Hamad Rashid Al-Mudahka; Wadha Ahmed Al-Baker; Shaikha Sami Abushaikha; Mujeeb Chettiyam Kandy; John Gibb; Sue VandeWoude; Robyn Esterbauer; Samantha K Davis; Helen E Kent; Francesca L Mordant; Timothy E Schlub; David L Gordon; David S Khoury; Kanta Subbarao; Deborah Cromer; Tom P Gordon; Amy W Chung; Miles P Davenport; Stephen J Kent

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.20188482 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 is a highly infectious viral disease that has spread TRANS to over one hundred and eight countries, including Nigeria. Countries across the globe have been implementing preventive measures towards curbing the spread and impact of the virus. Thus, the present study was aimed at assessing compliance to prescribe preventive recommendations, the psychological effect of lockdown, and the source of information among Nigeria social media users. Methods: This research implemented an online cross-sectional survey using an unidentified online Google based questionnaire to elicit required information from potential respondents via social media channels such as WhatsApp, Twitter, Instagram, Telegram and Facebook. On these forums, an external link with google based questionnaire was shared with Nigerians social media users to participate from 1st to 31st April 2020 and we had 1,131 respondents who participated in the survey. Results: Age TRANS and respondent's scientific or non-scientific backgrounds were the socio-demographic variables associated with respondents having psychological challenges as P<0.05. However, none of the socio-demographic variables of the respondents were associated with compliance with the recommendations as P>0.05. Also, most (63.4%) of the respondents were stressed by the feelings associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, as the expected majority (80.1%) sources information about the epidemics through social media platforms. Conclusion: Given numerous uncertainties surrounding the global COVID-19 pandemics, there is a need to continuously increase awareness through various media and ensure that people are highly complying with the preventive measures being put in place by relevant authorities. Also, palliative measures should be put in place to reduce the psychological impact of the pandemic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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