Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (60)

Cough (49)

Pneumonia (42)

Hypertension (20)

Fatigue (18)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 21 - 30 records in total 532
    records per page




    COVID-19 Transmission TRANS Within Danish Households: A Nationwide Study from Lockdown to Reopening

    Authors: Frederik Plesner Lyngse; Carsten Thure Kirkeby; Tariq Halasa; Viggo Andreasen; Robert Leo Skov; Frederik Trier Møller; Tyra Grove Krause; Kåre Mølbak; Zi-wen Guo; Chuang-sheng Hu; Shu-juan Guo; Qing-feng Meng; Yan Ren; Wei Wang; Xiao Yang; Jie Zhou; Xiao-dong Zhao; Hua Li; Sheng-ce Tao; Olivier Elemento; Mirella Salvatore; Giorgio Inghirami

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.20191239 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    Background The Covid-19 pandemic is one of the most serious global public health threats in recent times. Understanding transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 is of utmost importance to be able to respond to outbreaks and take action against spread of the disease TRANS. Transmission within the household TRANS is a concern, especially because infection MESHD control is difficult to apply within the household domain. Methods We used comprehensive administrative register data from Denmark, comprising the full population and all COVID-19 tests, to estimate household transmission TRANS risk and attack rate TRANS. Results We studied the testing dynamics for COVID-19 and found that the day after receiving a positive test result within the household, 35% of potential secondary cases TRANS were tested and 13% of these were positive. After a primary case TRANS in 6,782 households, 82% of potential secondary cases TRANS were tested within 14 days, of which 17% tested positive as secondary cases TRANS, implying an attack rate TRANS of 17%. Among primary cases TRANS, those aged TRANS 0-24 were underrepresented when compared with the total population. We found an approximately linearly increasing relationship between attack rate TRANS and age TRANS. We investigated the transmission risk TRANS from primary cases TRANS by age TRANS, and found an increasing risk with age TRANS of primary cases TRANS for adults TRANS, while the risk seems to decrease with age TRANS for children TRANS. Conclusions Although there is an increasing attack rate TRANS and transmission risk TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 with age TRANS, children TRANS are also able to transmit SARS-CoV-2 within the household.

    COVID-19 Transmission TRANS Dynamics and Effectiveness of Public Health Interventions in New York City during the 2020 Spring Pandemic Wave

    Authors: Wan Yang; Jaimie Shaff; Jeffrey Shaman; Kate Maston; Helen Christensen; Aliza Werner-Seidler; Marina Pifano; Teresa Varela; Enio Garcia; Alicia Lawrynowicz; Osvaldo Uez; Irene Pagano; Anastasija Caica; Mikus Gavars; Dmitrijs Perminovs; Jelena Storozenko; Oksana Savicka; Elina Dimina; Uga Dumpis; Janis Klovins

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.08.20190710 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    New York City experienced a large COVID-19 pandemic wave during March - May 2020. We model the transmission TRANS dynamics of COVID-19 in the city during the pandemic and estimate the effectiveness of public health interventions (overall and for each major intervention separately) for the entire population and by age group TRANS. We estimate that the overall effective reproductive number TRANS was 2.99 at the beginning of the pandemic wave and reduced to 0.93 one week after the stay-at-home mandate. Most age groups TRANS experienced similar reductions in transmission TRANS. Interventions reducing contact rates were associated with a 70.7% (95% CI: 65.0 - 76.4%) reduction of transmission TRANS overall and >50% for all age groups TRANS during the pandemic. Face covering was associated with a 6.6% (95% CI: 0.8 - 12.4%) reduction of transmission TRANS overall and up to 20% for 65+ year-olds during the first month of implementation. Accounting for the amount of time masks are in use (i.e. mainly outside homes), these findings indicate universal masking could reduce transmission TRANS by up to 28-32% when lockdown-like measures are lifted, if the high effectiveness estimated for older adults TRANS were achieved for all ages TRANS. These estimates are verified by out-of-fit projections and support the need for implementing multiple interventions simultaneously in order to effectively mitigate the spread of COVID-19.

    Healthcare workers in elderly TRANS care: a source of silent SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS?

    Authors: Mirjam Jeanne Dorine Dautzenberg; Andrea Eikelenboom-Boskamp; Jacqueline Janssen; Miranda Drabbe; Ewoud de Jong; Eefke Weesendorp; Marion Koopmans; Andreas Voss; Matthew Hickman; Ellen Brooks Pollock; Jan Lukas Robertus; Maria Gabrani; Michal Rosen-Zvi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20178731 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Healthcare workers (HCWs), including those with mild symptoms, may be an important source of COVID-19 within elderly TRANS care. Objective: To gain insight into the spread of SARS-CoV-2 among HCWs working in elderly TRANS care settings. Design: Cross-sectional study among HCWs working in elderly TRANS care in the South-East of the Netherlands, testing for SARS-CoV-2, between March 31 and April 17, 2020. Setting: HCWs working in geriatric rehabilitation, somatic and psychogeriatric wards or small-scale living groups and district nursing, with a total of 5245 HCWs within 4 organisations. Participants: 621 HCWs with mild respiratory symptoms. Main Outcomes: Number of HCWs testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in pharyngeal swabs, using real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR targeting the SARS-CoV-2 E-gene, N-gene, and RdRP. HCWs filled out a survey to collect information on symptoms and possible sources of infection MESHD. Results: 133/615 (21.6%) HCWs tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, ranging from 15.6 to 44.4% per elderly TRANS care organisation, and from 0 to 64.3% per separate location of the organizations, respectively. 74.6% of tested HCWs were nursing staff, 1.7% elderly TRANS care physicians, 20.3% other HCWs with patient contact and 3.4% HCWs without patient contact. In the univariate analysis, fever HP fever MESHD, runny or stuffy nose, anosmia HP anosmia MESHD, general malaise, myalgia HP myalgia MESHD, headache HP headache MESHD and ocular pain HP ocular pain MESHD were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity, while gastro-intestinal symptoms and respiratory symptoms, other than runny or stuffy nose were not. Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 positivity were contact with patients or colleagues with suspected or proven COVID-19. Whole genome sequencing of 22 samples in 2 facilities strongly suggests spread within facilities. Conclusions and Relevance: We found a high SARS-CoV-2 prevalence SERO among HCWs in nursing homes and district nursing, supporting the hypothesis of undetected spread within elderly TRANS care facilities. Structural testing of elderly TRANS care HCWs, including track and trace of contacts TRANS, should be performed to control this spread, even when only mild symptoms are present.

    Age TRANS-structured SIR model and resource growth dynamics: A preliminary COVID-19 study

    Authors: S. G. Babajanyan; Kang Hao Cheong; Brenda Collins; Biagio Lucini; Rowland Raymond Kao; Alun L. Lloyd; Simon D.W. Frost; Mike B. Gravenor; Richard Croker; Alex J Walker; Elizabeth J Williamson; Chris Bates; Seb Bacon; Amir Mehrkar; Helen J Curtis; David Evans; Kevin Wing; Peter Inglesby; Rohini Mathur; Henry Drysdale; Angel YS Wong; Helen I McDonald; Jonathan Cockburn; Harriet Forbes; John Parry; Frank Hester; Sam Harper; Liam Smeeth; Ian J Douglas; William G Dixon; Stephen JW Evans; Laurie Tomlinson; Ben Goldacre; Sacha Gnjatic; Noam Harpaz; Silvio Danese; Adeeb Rahman; Nikhil A Kumta; Alessio Aghemo; Francesca Petralia; Harm van Bakel; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Saurabh Mehandru

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20184887 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    In this paper, we discuss three different response strategies to a disease outbreak and their economic implications in an age TRANS-structured population. We have utilized the classical age TRANS structured SIR-model, thus assuming that recovered people will not be infected again. Available resource dynamics is governed by the well-known logistic growth model, in which the reproduction coefficient depends on the disease outbreak spreading dynamics. We further investigate the feedback interaction of the disease spread TRANS dynamics and resource growth dynamics with the premise that the quality of treatment depends on the current economic situation. The very inclusion of mortality rates and economic considerations in the same model may be incongruous under certain positions, but in this model, we take a 'realpolitik' approach by exploring all of these factors together as it is done in reality.

    Effectiveness of digital interventions to improve household and community infection MESHD prevention and control behaviours and to reduce incidence of respiratory and/or gastro-intestinal infections: A rapid systematic review

    Authors: Natalie Gold; Xiao-Yang Hu; Sarah Denford; Ru-Yu Xia; Lauren Towler; Julia Groot; Rachel Gledhill; Merlin Willcox; Ben Ainsworth; Sascha Miller; Michael Moore; Paul Little; Richard Amlôt; Tim Chadborn; Lucy Yardley; Julien Riou; Theresa Stadler; Carmela Troncoso; Effy Vayena; Viktor von Wyl

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20164947 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    Background Digital interventions have potential to efficiently support improved hygiene practices to reduce transmission TRANS of COVID-19. Objective To evaluate the evidence for digital interventions to improve hygiene practices within the community. Methods We reviewed articles published between 01 January 2000 and 26 May 2019 that presented a controlled trial of a digital intervention to improve hygiene behaviours in the community. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL), China National Knowledge Infrastructure and grey literature. Trials in hospitals were excluded, as were trials aiming at prevention of sexually transmitted infections; only target diseases with transmission TRANS mechanisms similar to COVID-19 (e.g. respiratory and gastrointestinal infections MESHD) were included. Trials had to evaluate a uniquely digital component of an intervention. Study designs were limited to randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after trials, and interrupted time series analyses. Outcomes could be either incidence of infections MESHD or change in hygiene behaviours. The Risk of Bias 2 tool was used to assess study quality. Results We found seven studies that met the inclusion criteria. Six studies reported successfully improving self-reported hygiene behaviour or health outcomes, but only one of these six trials confirmed improvements using objective measures (reduced consultations and antibiotic prescriptions), Germ Defence. Settings included kindergartens, workplaces, and service station restrooms. Modes of delivery were diverse: WeChat, website, text messages, audio messages to mobiles, electronic billboards, and electronic personal care records. Four interventions targeted parents TRANS of young children TRANS with educational materials. Two targeted the general population; these also used behaviour change techniques or theory to inform the intervention. Only one trial had low risk of bias, Germ Defence; the most common concerns were lack of information about the randomisation, possible bias in reporting of behavioural outcomes, and lack of an analysis plan and possible selective reporting of results. Conclusion There was only one intervention that was judged to be at low risk of bias, Germ Defence, which reduced incidence and severity of illness, as confirmed by objective measures. Further evaluation is required to determine the effectiveness of the other interventions reviewed.

    Covid-19 Belgium: Extended SEIR-QD model with nursery homes and long-term scenarios-based forecasts from school opening

    Authors: Nicolas Franco; Brian Lambert; Cale Kochenour; Anthony C. Robinson; Nita Bharti; Theresa L White; Melissa Campbell; Bertie Geng; Rupak Datta; Anne L Wyllie; Nathan D Grubaugh; Arnau Casanovas-Massana; M Catherine Muenker; Ryan Handoko; Akiko Iwasaki; - The Yale IMPACT Research Team; Richard A Martinello; Albert I Ko; Dana M Small; Shelli F Farhadian; Angel YS Wong; Helen I McDonald; Jonathan Cockburn; Harriet Forbes; John Parry; Frank Hester; Sam Harper; Liam Smeeth; Ian J Douglas; William G Dixon; Stephen JW Evans; Laurie Tomlinson; Ben Goldacre; Sacha Gnjatic; Noam Harpaz; Silvio Danese; Adeeb Rahman; Nikhil A Kumta; Alessio Aghemo; Francesca Petralia; Harm van Bakel; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Saurabh Mehandru

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20190108 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    We model the evolution of the covid-19 epidemic in Belgium with an age TRANS-structured extended SEIR-QD epidemic model with separated consideration for nursery homes. All parameters of the model are estimated using a MCMC method, except integrated data on social contacts. The model is calibrated on hospitals' data, number of deaths MESHD, nursery homes' tests and serological SERO tests. We present the current situation on September 2020 as well as long-term scenarios-based forecasts with the possibility of a second wave in function of new transmissions TRANS from contacts at school.

    The impact of COVID-19 on the lives and mental health of Australian adolescents

    Authors: Sophie Li; Joanne Beames; Jill Newby; Kate Maston; Helen Christensen; Aliza Werner-Seidler; Marina Pifano; Teresa Varela; Enio Garcia; Alicia Lawrynowicz; Osvaldo Uez; Irene Pagano; Anastasija Caica; Mikus Gavars; Dmitrijs Perminovs; Jelena Storozenko; Oksana Savicka; Elina Dimina; Uga Dumpis; Janis Klovins

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20190124 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: There has been significant disruption to the lives and mental health of adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the exact nature of the effects is not known. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychological and lifestyle impact of the pandemic on Australian adolescents, using an online survey, administered during and after the peak of the outbreak (June-July 2020). Method: Self-report surveys were administered online to a sample of 760 Australian adolescents aged TRANS 12-18 years old. Surveys assessed worry about contracting COVID-19, behavioral change in response to the pandemic, impact on education, peer and family relationships, lifestyle factors including exercise, technology use and sleep, as well as mental health outcomes including psychological distress, loneliness, health anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and wellbeing. Results: Overall, young people expressed significant concern and worry about contracting the virus, and most (>85%) engaged in behaviors to reduce the risk of transmission TRANS. Three quarters of the sample reported a worsening of their mental health since the pandemic began, with negative impacts reported by most respondents on learning, friendships and family relationships. More than 40% of young people reported a decrease in exercise and 70% reported an increase in technology use since the outbreak. There were high levels of uncertainty about the future reported by respondents, and their scores on validated measures indicated higher levels of sleep disturbance HP sleep disturbance MESHD, psychological distress MESHD and health anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, and lower levels of wellbeing, relative to normative samples. Reponses on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale indicated that 48.3% of the sample were experiencing distress consistent with a probable mental illness MESHD, which is much higher than pre-pandemic prevalence SERO rates. Effects on mental health were worse among those who reported a previous diagnosis of depression MESHD and/or anxiety HP anxiety MESHD relative to those without a history of depression MESHD and/or anxiety HP anxiety MESHD. Conclusion: These results indicate high levels of disruption and psychological distress experienced by adolescents during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Adolescents are already vulnerable to the onset of mental illness at this developmental stage, and the current research underscores the need to find rapid and accessible ways to support adolescent mental health during times of crisis. There is a need for longitudinal research to evaluate the enduring effects of the pandemic on adolescents.

    Unequal Lives: A Sociodemographic Analysis of Covid19 Transmission TRANS and Mortality in India

    Authors: Soham Dibyachintan; Priyanka Nandy; Kalyan Das; Sai Vinjanampathy; Mithun K. Mitra; Xavier Corbella; Christina Tsigalou; Olga Tsachouridou; Eleni Sertaridou; Petros Rafailidis; Arja Pasternack; Dimitrios Boumpas; Georgios Germanidis; Olli Ritvos; Symeon Metalidis; Panagiotis Skendros; Paschalis Sideras; Sajid A Khan; Akiko Iwasaki; Caroline H Johnson

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.06.20189506 Date: 2020-09-08 Source: medRxiv

    The hierarchy of social structures shape, in very particular and measurable ways, the differential impact that a disease has on different parts of society. In this study, we use district-level disease data to perform an ecological analysis of Covid19 outcomes in India vis a vis the local socioeconomic gradient. Average doubling times and case fatality ratios have been quantified as measures of transmission TRANS and mortality, respectively, and association analysis performed with twenty variables of socioeconomic vulnerability. Persistent patterns are observed between disease outcome and social inequality, linking poor living conditions to a faster spread, an elderly TRANS populace to a slower spread, and both a college education and the presence of medical facilities to low fatality rates.

    Parents TRANS' and guardians' views and experiences of accessing routine childhood vaccinations during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: A mixed methods study in England

    Authors: Sadie L Bell; Richard Clarke; Pauline Paterson; Sandra Mounier-Jack; Ma Li; Lin Lin; J Carolyn Graff; Lotfi Aleya; Arnold Postlethwaite; Weikuan Gu; Hong Chen; Julia Laviano; Daniela Maymo; Daniel Gotta; Alfredo Martinez; Pablo Bonvehi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.20186569 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To explore parents TRANS' and guardians' views and experiences of accessing National Health Service (NHS) general practices for routine childhood vaccinations during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in England. Design: Mixed methods approach involving an online cross-sectional survey (conducted between 19th April and 11th May 2020) and semi-structured telephone interviews (conducted between 27th April and 27th May 2020). Participants: 1252 parents TRANS and guardians ( aged TRANS 16+ years) who reported living in England with a child TRANS aged TRANS 18 months or under completed the survey. Nineteen survey respondents took part in follow-up interviews. Results: The majority of survey respondents (85.7%) considered it important for their children TRANS to receive routine vaccinations on schedule during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, several barriers to vaccination were identified. These included a lack of clarity around whether vaccination services were operating as usual, particularly amongst respondents from lower income households and those self-reporting as Black, Asian, Chinese, Mixed or Other ethnicity; difficulties in organising vaccination appointments; and fears around contracting COVID-19 while attending general practice. Concerns about catching COVID-19 while accessing general practice were weighed against concerns about children TRANS acquiring a vaccine-preventable disease if they did not receive scheduled routine childhood vaccinations. Many parents TRANS and guardians felt their child TRANS's risk of acquiring a vaccine-preventable disease was low as the implementation of stringent physical distancing measures (from March 23rd 2020) meant they were not mixing with others. Conclusion: To promote routine childhood vaccination uptake during the current COVID-19 outbreak, further waves of COVID-19 infection MESHD, and future pandemics, prompt and sustained national and general practice level communication is needed to raise awareness of vaccination service continuation and the importance of timely vaccination, and invitation-reminder systems for vaccination need to be maintained. To allay concerns about the safety of accessing general practice, practices should communicate the measures being implemented to prevent COVID-19 transmission TRANS.

    MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY TO UNDERSTAND THE SARS-CoV-2 EMERGENCE IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON REGION

    Authors: Mirleide C dos Santos; Edivaldo Costa Sousa Jr.; Jessylene A Ferreira; Sandro P Silva; Michel PC Souza; Jedson F Cardoso; Amanda M Silva; Luana S Barbagelata; Wanderley D Chagas Jr.; James L Ferreira; Edna MA Souza; Patricia LA Vilaca; Jainara CS Alves; Michelle C Abreu; Patricia S Lobo; Fabiolla S Santos; Alessandra AP Lima; Camila M Bragagnolo; Luana S Soares; Patricia SM Almeida; Darleise S Oliveira; Carolina KN Amorim; Iran B Costa; Dielle M Teixeira; Edvaldo T Penha Jr.; Delana AM Bezerra; Jones AM Siqueira; Fernando N Tavares; Felipe B Freitas; Janete TN Rodrigues; Janaina Mazaro; Andreia S Costa; Marcia SP Cavalcante; Marineide Souza Silva; Ilvanete A Silva; Gleissy AL Borges; Lidio G Lima; Hivylla LS Ferreira; Miriam TFP Livorati; Andre L Abreu; Arnaldo C Medeiros; Hugo R Resque; Rita CM Sousa; Giselle MR Viana

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.20184523 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil has demonstrated an important public health impact, as has been observed in the world. In Brazil, the Amazon Region contributed with a large number of cases of COVID-19, especially in the beginning of the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in the country. Thus, we describe the epidemiological profile of COVID-19 and the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 strains circulating in the Amazon Region. We observe an extensive spread of virus in this Brazilian site. The data on sex, age TRANS and symptoms presented by the investigated individuals were similar to what has been observed worldwide. The genomic analysis of the viruses revealed important amino acid changes, including the D614G and the I33T in Spike and ORF6 proteins, respectively. The latter found in strains originating in Brazil. The phylogenetic analyzes demonstrated the circulation of the lineages B.1 and B.1.1, whose circulation in Brazil has already been previous reported. Our data reveals molecular epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in the Amazon Region. These findings also reinforce the importance of continuous genomic surveillance this virus with the aim of providing accurate and updated data to understand and map the transmission TRANS network of this agent in order to subsidize operational decisions in public health.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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