Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (61)

Cough (50)

Pneumonia (43)

Hypertension (20)

Fatigue (18)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 31 - 40 records in total 539
    records per page




    Covid-19 Belgium: Extended SEIR-QD model with nursery homes and long-term scenarios-based forecasts from school opening

    Authors: Nicolas Franco; Brian Lambert; Cale Kochenour; Anthony C. Robinson; Nita Bharti; Theresa L White; Melissa Campbell; Bertie Geng; Rupak Datta; Anne L Wyllie; Nathan D Grubaugh; Arnau Casanovas-Massana; M Catherine Muenker; Ryan Handoko; Akiko Iwasaki; - The Yale IMPACT Research Team; Richard A Martinello; Albert I Ko; Dana M Small; Shelli F Farhadian; Angel YS Wong; Helen I McDonald; Jonathan Cockburn; Harriet Forbes; John Parry; Frank Hester; Sam Harper; Liam Smeeth; Ian J Douglas; William G Dixon; Stephen JW Evans; Laurie Tomlinson; Ben Goldacre; Sacha Gnjatic; Noam Harpaz; Silvio Danese; Adeeb Rahman; Nikhil A Kumta; Alessio Aghemo; Francesca Petralia; Harm van Bakel; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Saurabh Mehandru

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20190108 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    We model the evolution of the covid-19 epidemic in Belgium with an age TRANS-structured extended SEIR-QD epidemic model with separated consideration for nursery homes. All parameters of the model are estimated using a MCMC method, except integrated data on social contacts. The model is calibrated on hospitals' data, number of deaths MESHD, nursery homes' tests and serological SERO tests. We present the current situation on September 2020 as well as long-term scenarios-based forecasts with the possibility of a second wave in function of new transmissions TRANS from contacts at school.

    The impact of COVID-19 on the lives and mental health of Australian adolescents

    Authors: Sophie Li; Joanne Beames; Jill Newby; Kate Maston; Helen Christensen; Aliza Werner-Seidler; Marina Pifano; Teresa Varela; Enio Garcia; Alicia Lawrynowicz; Osvaldo Uez; Irene Pagano; Anastasija Caica; Mikus Gavars; Dmitrijs Perminovs; Jelena Storozenko; Oksana Savicka; Elina Dimina; Uga Dumpis; Janis Klovins

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20190124 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: There has been significant disruption to the lives and mental health of adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the exact nature of the effects is not known. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychological and lifestyle impact of the pandemic on Australian adolescents, using an online survey, administered during and after the peak of the outbreak (June-July 2020). Method: Self-report surveys were administered online to a sample of 760 Australian adolescents aged TRANS 12-18 years old. Surveys assessed worry about contracting COVID-19, behavioral change in response to the pandemic, impact on education, peer and family relationships, lifestyle factors including exercise, technology use and sleep, as well as mental health outcomes including psychological distress, loneliness, health anxiety HP anxiety MESHD and wellbeing. Results: Overall, young people expressed significant concern and worry about contracting the virus, and most (>85%) engaged in behaviors to reduce the risk of transmission TRANS. Three quarters of the sample reported a worsening of their mental health since the pandemic began, with negative impacts reported by most respondents on learning, friendships and family relationships. More than 40% of young people reported a decrease in exercise and 70% reported an increase in technology use since the outbreak. There were high levels of uncertainty about the future reported by respondents, and their scores on validated measures indicated higher levels of sleep disturbance HP sleep disturbance MESHD, psychological distress MESHD and health anxiety HP anxiety MESHD, and lower levels of wellbeing, relative to normative samples. Reponses on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale indicated that 48.3% of the sample were experiencing distress consistent with a probable mental illness MESHD, which is much higher than pre-pandemic prevalence SERO rates. Effects on mental health were worse among those who reported a previous diagnosis of depression MESHD and/or anxiety HP anxiety MESHD relative to those without a history of depression MESHD and/or anxiety HP anxiety MESHD. Conclusion: These results indicate high levels of disruption and psychological distress experienced by adolescents during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Adolescents are already vulnerable to the onset of mental illness at this developmental stage, and the current research underscores the need to find rapid and accessible ways to support adolescent mental health during times of crisis. There is a need for longitudinal research to evaluate the enduring effects of the pandemic on adolescents.

    Unequal Lives: A Sociodemographic Analysis of Covid19 Transmission TRANS and Mortality in India

    Authors: Soham Dibyachintan; Priyanka Nandy; Kalyan Das; Sai Vinjanampathy; Mithun K. Mitra; Xavier Corbella; Christina Tsigalou; Olga Tsachouridou; Eleni Sertaridou; Petros Rafailidis; Arja Pasternack; Dimitrios Boumpas; Georgios Germanidis; Olli Ritvos; Symeon Metalidis; Panagiotis Skendros; Paschalis Sideras; Sajid A Khan; Akiko Iwasaki; Caroline H Johnson

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.06.20189506 Date: 2020-09-08 Source: medRxiv

    The hierarchy of social structures shape, in very particular and measurable ways, the differential impact that a disease has on different parts of society. In this study, we use district-level disease data to perform an ecological analysis of Covid19 outcomes in India vis a vis the local socioeconomic gradient. Average doubling times and case fatality ratios have been quantified as measures of transmission TRANS and mortality, respectively, and association analysis performed with twenty variables of socioeconomic vulnerability. Persistent patterns are observed between disease outcome and social inequality, linking poor living conditions to a faster spread, an elderly TRANS populace to a slower spread, and both a college education and the presence of medical facilities to low fatality rates.

    Parents TRANS' and guardians' views and experiences of accessing routine childhood vaccinations during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: A mixed methods study in England

    Authors: Sadie L Bell; Richard Clarke; Pauline Paterson; Sandra Mounier-Jack; Ma Li; Lin Lin; J Carolyn Graff; Lotfi Aleya; Arnold Postlethwaite; Weikuan Gu; Hong Chen; Julia Laviano; Daniela Maymo; Daniel Gotta; Alfredo Martinez; Pablo Bonvehi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.20186569 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To explore parents TRANS' and guardians' views and experiences of accessing National Health Service (NHS) general practices for routine childhood vaccinations during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in England. Design: Mixed methods approach involving an online cross-sectional survey (conducted between 19th April and 11th May 2020) and semi-structured telephone interviews (conducted between 27th April and 27th May 2020). Participants: 1252 parents TRANS and guardians ( aged TRANS 16+ years) who reported living in England with a child TRANS aged TRANS 18 months or under completed the survey. Nineteen survey respondents took part in follow-up interviews. Results: The majority of survey respondents (85.7%) considered it important for their children TRANS to receive routine vaccinations on schedule during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, several barriers to vaccination were identified. These included a lack of clarity around whether vaccination services were operating as usual, particularly amongst respondents from lower income households and those self-reporting as Black, Asian, Chinese, Mixed or Other ethnicity; difficulties in organising vaccination appointments; and fears around contracting COVID-19 while attending general practice. Concerns about catching COVID-19 while accessing general practice were weighed against concerns about children TRANS acquiring a vaccine-preventable disease if they did not receive scheduled routine childhood vaccinations. Many parents TRANS and guardians felt their child TRANS's risk of acquiring a vaccine-preventable disease was low as the implementation of stringent physical distancing measures (from March 23rd 2020) meant they were not mixing with others. Conclusion: To promote routine childhood vaccination uptake during the current COVID-19 outbreak, further waves of COVID-19 infection MESHD, and future pandemics, prompt and sustained national and general practice level communication is needed to raise awareness of vaccination service continuation and the importance of timely vaccination, and invitation-reminder systems for vaccination need to be maintained. To allay concerns about the safety of accessing general practice, practices should communicate the measures being implemented to prevent COVID-19 transmission TRANS.

    MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY TO UNDERSTAND THE SARS-CoV-2 EMERGENCE IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON REGION

    Authors: Mirleide C dos Santos; Edivaldo Costa Sousa Jr.; Jessylene A Ferreira; Sandro P Silva; Michel PC Souza; Jedson F Cardoso; Amanda M Silva; Luana S Barbagelata; Wanderley D Chagas Jr.; James L Ferreira; Edna MA Souza; Patricia LA Vilaca; Jainara CS Alves; Michelle C Abreu; Patricia S Lobo; Fabiolla S Santos; Alessandra AP Lima; Camila M Bragagnolo; Luana S Soares; Patricia SM Almeida; Darleise S Oliveira; Carolina KN Amorim; Iran B Costa; Dielle M Teixeira; Edvaldo T Penha Jr.; Delana AM Bezerra; Jones AM Siqueira; Fernando N Tavares; Felipe B Freitas; Janete TN Rodrigues; Janaina Mazaro; Andreia S Costa; Marcia SP Cavalcante; Marineide Souza Silva; Ilvanete A Silva; Gleissy AL Borges; Lidio G Lima; Hivylla LS Ferreira; Miriam TFP Livorati; Andre L Abreu; Arnaldo C Medeiros; Hugo R Resque; Rita CM Sousa; Giselle MR Viana

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.20184523 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil has demonstrated an important public health impact, as has been observed in the world. In Brazil, the Amazon Region contributed with a large number of cases of COVID-19, especially in the beginning of the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in the country. Thus, we describe the epidemiological profile of COVID-19 and the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 strains circulating in the Amazon Region. We observe an extensive spread of virus in this Brazilian site. The data on sex, age TRANS and symptoms presented by the investigated individuals were similar to what has been observed worldwide. The genomic analysis of the viruses revealed important amino acid changes, including the D614G and the I33T in Spike and ORF6 proteins, respectively. The latter found in strains originating in Brazil. The phylogenetic analyzes demonstrated the circulation of the lineages B.1 and B.1.1, whose circulation in Brazil has already been previous reported. Our data reveals molecular epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in the Amazon Region. These findings also reinforce the importance of continuous genomic surveillance this virus with the aim of providing accurate and updated data to understand and map the transmission TRANS network of this agent in order to subsidize operational decisions in public health.

    Covid-19 Belgium: Extended SEIR-QD model with nursery homes and long-term scenarios-based forecasts from school opening

    Authors: Nicolas Franco

    id:2009.03450v1 Date: 2020-09-07 Source: arXiv

    We model the evolution of the covid-19 epidemic in Belgium with an age TRANS-structured extended SEIR-QD epidemic model with separated consideration for nursery homes. All parameters of the model are estimated using a MCMC method, except integrated data on social contacts. The model is calibrated on hospitals' data, number of deaths MESHD, nursery homes' tests and serological SERO tests. We present the current situation on September 2020 as well as long-term scenarios-based forecasts with the possibility of a second wave in function of new transmissions TRANS from contacts at school.

    Long, thin transmission chains TRANS of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 MESHD) may go undetected for several weeks at low to moderate reproductive numbers TRANS: Implications for containment and elimination strategy

    Authors: Gerry F Killeen; Deanna C Clemmer; Justin B Cox; Yetunde I Kayode; Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez; Harry E Taylor; Timothy P Endy; Joel R Wilmore; Gary Winslow; Sarah Tschudin-Sutter; Simon Fuchs; Julia Anna Bielicki; Hans Pargger; Martin Siegemund; Christian H. Nickel; Roland Bingisser; Michael Osthoff; Stefano Bassetti; Rita Schneider-Sliwa; Manuel Battegay; Hans H. Hirsch; Adrian Egli

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.20187948 Date: 2020-09-05 Source: medRxiv

    Especially at low to moderate reproductive numbers TRANS, the generally mild, non-specific symptomology of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) allows long MESHD, thin transmission chains TRANS to go undetected by passive surveillance over several weeks. This phenomenon has important implications: (1) Surveillance becomes less sensitive and reliable as an indicator of freedom from infection at the low reproductive numbers TRANS required to achieve elimination end points, passive surveillance systems may need to document an absence of new cases for at least a month to establish certainty of elimination. (2) Reproductive numbers TRANS should be kept as low as possible throughout such follow up periods without confirmed cases TRANS, to ensure such long, thin, undetected transmission chains TRANS all collapse before restrictions are eased and reproduction numbers TRANS are allowed to rebound. (3) While contact tracing TRANS systems may be highly effective when applied to large clusters in foci of elevated transmission TRANS where wide, rapidly expanding transmission chains TRANS are detected within two viral generations, large fractions of community transmission TRANS occurring through thinner, more extended transmission chains TRANS at lower reproductive numbers TRANS are often be too long to trace TRANS retrospectively and will be underrepresented in surveillance data. (4) Wherever surveillance systems are weak and/or younger age groups TRANS with lower rates of overt symptoms dominate transmission TRANS, containment effectiveness of contact tracing TRANS and isolation may be more severely limited, even at the higher reproduction numbers TRANS associated with larger outbreaks. While, contact tracing TRANS and isolation will remain vital for at least partially containing larger outbreaks, containment and elimination of SARS-CoV-2 will have to rely primarily upon the more burdensome and presumptive population-wide prevention measures that have proven so effective thus far against community transmission TRANS. Furthermore, these will have to be sustained at a much more stringent level and for longer periods after the last detected case than was necessary for SARS-CoV-1.

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis with hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19: initial results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

    Authors: Berta Grau-Pujol; Daniel Camprubí; Helena Marti-Soler; Marc Fernández-Pardos; Clara Carreras-Abad; Maria Velasco de Andrés; Elisabet Ferrer; Magdalena Muelas-Fernandez; Sophie Jullien; Giuseppe Barilaro; Sara Ajanovic; Isabel Vera; Laura Moreno; Eva Gonzalez-Redondo; Núria Cortes-Serra; Montserrat Roldán; Ana Artes de Arcos; Isabel Mur; Pere Domingo; Felipe Garcia; Caterina Guinovart; Jose Muñoz

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-72132/v1 Date: 2020-09-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundPre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy to break COVID-19 transmission TRANS. Although hydroxychloroquine was evaluated for treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis, it is not evaluated for COVID-19 PrEP yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of PrEP with hydroxychloroquine against placebo in healthcare workers at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD during an epidemic period.MethodsWe conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial in three hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. From 350 adult TRANS healthcare workers screened, we included 269 participants with no active or past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (determined by a negative nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 PCR and a negative serology against SARS-CoV-2). Participants allocated in the intervention arm (PrEP) received 400mg of hydroxychloroquine daily the first four consecutive days and subsequently, 400mg weekly during the study period. Participants in the control group followed the same treatment schedule with placebo tablets. Results52.8% of participants were in the hydroxychloroquine arm and 47.2% in the placebo arm. Both groups showed similar proportion of participants experiencing at least one adverse event (AE) (p=0.548). No serious AE were reported. Almost all AE (96.4%) were mild. Only mild gastrointestinal symptoms MESHD were significantly higher in the hydroxychloroquine arm compared to the placebo arm (28.3% vs 16.9%, p=0.044). Given the national epidemic incidence decay, only one participant in each group was COVID-19 diagnosed. Consequently, our study design deemed underpowered to evaluate any benefit regarding PrEP efficacy.ConclusionsFirst month follow-up analysis displayed that PrEP with hydroxychloroquine at low doses is safe.Trial registrationThis trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04331834) on April 2nd 2020.  

    Evaluation of attitude among infertile MESHD couples about continuing assisted reproductive technologies therapy during novel coronavirus outbreak

    Authors: Sepideh Peivandi; Alireza Razavi; Shervin Shafiei; Marzieh Zamaniyan,; Asma Orafaie; Hamed Jafarpour; FERNANDA A. BAIAO; PAULA MACAIRA; SILVIO HAMACHER; FERNANDO A. BOZZA; Daniel Figeys; Alex E. MacKenzie; Robert Delatolla; Emma Young; Andrew Bentley; Kirsty Challen; Chris Fitzsimmons; Tim Harris; Fiona Lecky; Andrew Lee; Ian Maconochie; Darren Walter; Dilek Telci; Fikrettin Sahin; Koray Yalcin; Ercument Ovali

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20186320 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Study question: Does the fear of the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic reduce the desire of infertile MESHD couples to continue treatment? Summary answer: Most of the participants in this study wanted to continue treatment. What is known already: The effect of the prevalence SERO of infectious diseases including the Zika virus on the attitude of infertile MESHD couples has been studied in very few studies. However, the effect of the outbreak of COVID-19 on the attitude of infertile MESHD couples has not been investigated. Study design, size, duration: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study on forty-six infertile MESHD couples (n=92) who referred to our infertility HP infertility MESHD clinic from 4 March 2020 through 20 June 2020. Participants/materials, settings, methods: This study is based on potential infertile MESHD couples for treatment with assisted reproductive technology (ART) who referred to our infertility HP infertility MESHD clinic, Sari, Iran (median age TRANS of 35.5 years). All individuals with primary infertility MESHD infertility HP, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) and candidates for ART, were included in the study. People who did not agree to participate in the study were excluded. Subjects were surveyed using a researcher-made questionnaire. This questionnaire has four sections as follows: The first part included demographic information and clinical characteristics, the second part included medical records, the third part included questions related to assessing the level of awareness regarding coronavirus infection MESHD, and the fourth part included questions related to the attitude towards continuing infertility HP infertility MESHD treatment. The validity of this questionnaire was assessed by three infertility HP infertility MESHD specialists and was confirmed with Cronbachs alpha of 0.78. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Main results and the role of chance: There is no significant relationship between COVID-19 symptoms and the level of awareness (P-value <0.05). Thirty-two patients (33.33%) had decreased motivation to continue treatment during COVID-19 pandemic. Fear of transmission TRANS to the fetus (28.13%) had the highest frequency among the causes of decreased motivation to continue treatment (P-value = 0.011). Confidence in support of the treatment team (56.67%) was the most common reason for lack of motivation in people without decreased motivation (P-value <0.001). The majority of patients had a very high or high tendency (65.22%) to continue or start treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic (P-value <0.001). Most people had an average fear of getting the disease (39.13%) (value <0.001). Examining the relationship between the presence of COVID-19 symptoms and attitude level variables showed that there is only a significant relationship between the greater desire to have a child TRANS and the continuation or initiation of treatment with the presence of COVID-19 symptoms (P-value = 0.032). Limitations, reasons for caution: We were not able to fully assess patients' deep feelings and cultural beliefs, due to the use of questionnaires and the lack of interviews. Wider implications of the findings: Our results showed for the first time that patients' knowledge about COVID-19 and trust in the treatment staff played an effective role in selecting and continuing infertility HP infertility MESHD treatment. To clarify this issue, studies with the larger statistical community in the form of interviews are needed. Study funding/completing interest(s): The study received financial support from the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (Grant number: 7903). None of the funders had any role in the study design, collection, analysis, or interpretation of data, writing of the paper, or publication decisions. The authors have nothing to declare. Trial registration number: N/A

    Face-masking, an acceptable protective measure against COVID-19: Findings of Ugandan high-risk groups

    Authors: Dickson Aruhomukama; Gerald Mboowa; David Musoke; Douglas Bulafu; Laura Sutton; Amanda Loban; Simon Waterhouse; Richard Simmonds; Carl Marincowitz; Jose Schutter; Sarah Connelly; Elena Sheldon; Jamie Hall; Emma Young; Andrew Bentley; Kirsty Challen; Chris Fitzsimmons; Tim Harris; Fiona Lecky; Andrew Lee; Ian Maconochie; Darren Walter; Dilek Telci; Fikrettin Sahin; Koray Yalcin; Ercument Ovali

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.29.20184325 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Face-masking could reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission TRANS. We assessed: knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and practices towards COVID-19 and face-mask use among 644 high risk-individuals in Kampala, Uganda. In data analysis, descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, with a 95% confidence interval were considered. Adjusted-odds ratios were used to determine the magnitude of associations. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically-significant. Majority: 99.7% and 87.3% of the participants respectively had heard and believed that face-masks were protective against COVID-19, while 67.9% reported having received information on face-mask use. Males TRANS, food market vendors, those with no formal education, and those aged TRANS 24-33, 44-53 and 54-63 years were 0.58, 0.47, 0.25, 1.9, 2.12, and 3.39 times less likely to have received information about face-mask use respectively. Majority, 67.8% owned locally-made, non-medical face-masks, while 77.0% of face-mask owners believed that they knew the right procedure of wearing them. Those who had received information on face-mask use were 2.85 and 1.83 times more likely to own face-masks and to perceive them as protective. Food market vendors were 3.92 times more likely to re-use their face-masks. Our findings suggest that Ugandan high-risk groups have good knowledge, optimistic attitudes and perceptions, and relatively appropriate practices towards COVID-19.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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