Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (60)

Cough (49)

Pneumonia (42)

Hypertension (20)

Fatigue (18)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 391 - 400 records in total 532
    records per page




    Nonpharmaceutical interventions for pandemic COVID-19: A cross-sectional investigation of US general public beliefs, attitudes, and actions

    Authors: Bella Nichole Kantor; Jonathan Kantor

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.26.20078618 Date: 2020-05-01 Source: medRxiv

    Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) represent the primary mitigation strategy for pandemic COVID-19. Despite this, many government agencies and members of the general public may be resistant to NPI adoption. We sought to understand public attitudes and beliefs regarding various NPIs and self-reported adoption of NPIs, and explore associations between NPI performance SERO and the baseline characteristics of respondents. We performed a cross-sectional age TRANS-, sex-, and race- stratified survey of the general US population. Of the 1,005 respondents, 37% (95% CI 34.0, 39.9) felt that NPIs were inconvenient, while only 0.9% (95% CI 0.3, 1.5) of respondents believed that NPIs would not reduce their personal risk of illness. Respondents were most uncertain regarding the efficacy of mask and eye protection use, with 30.6% and 22.1%, respectively, unsure whether their use would slow disease spread TRANS. On univariate logistic regression analyses, NPI adherence was associated with a belief that NPIs would reduce personal risk of developing COVID-19 (OR 3.06, 95% CI [1.25, 7.48], p=0.014) and with a belief that the NPIs were not difficult to perform (OR 1.79, 95% CI [1.38, 2.31], p<0.0001). Respondents were compliant with straightforward, familiar, and heavily-encouraged NPI recommendations such as hand-washing; more onerous approaches, such as avoiding face touching, disinfecting surfaces, and wearing masks or goggles, were performed less frequently. NPI non-adherence is associated with both outcome expectations (belief that NPIs are effective) and process expectations (belief that NPIs are not overly inconvenient); these findings have important implications for designing public health outreach efforts, where the feasibility, as well as the effectiveness, of NPIs should be stressed.

    A snapshot on COVID-19: A review

    Authors: Mahfuz Al Mamun; Kaiissar Mannoor; Tahmina Shirin; Meerjady Sabrina Flora; Firdausi Qadri; Lili Ren; Jianwei Wang

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0526.v1 Date: 2020-04-30 Source: Preprints.org

    The emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 virus in China in December 2019 has turned into a global pandemic through continued spread beyond borders. This review was aimed to extract up-to-date information on the evolution, transmission TRANS, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COVID-19 to fight against this common enemy. PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were the sources of literature; whereas CDC, WHO and Worldometer provided updated information. Bats served as the reservoirs of this virus while pangolin is believed as an intermediate host to transmit the virus to humans. Direct human-to-human and indirect transmissions TRANS were involved. Major clinical manifestations included fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, sputum production and shortness of breath MESHD. Chest radiographs mostly showed bilateral ground-glass opacities. Aged TRANS patients and patients with comorbidities had higher case fatality ratios. Critical cases were vulnerable to develop pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, multi-organ failure MESHD and deaths MESHD. Overall situation in China has improved substantially. The European region and region of the Americas were the worst hit out of six WHO global regions. PCR based methods are used for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Severe/critical cases essentially require supportive or intensive cares. Avoiding exposure to COVID-19 is the best way to prevent the disease. Thus, this review provides a snapshot on COVID-19.

    Chest CT For Early Detection And Management Of Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19): A Report Of 314 Patients Admitted To Emergency Department With Suspected Pneumonia HP

    Authors: Gaia Cartocci; Maria Chiara Colaiacomo; Silvia Lanciotti; Chiara Andreoli; Maria Luisa De Cicco; Giulia Brachetti; Silvia Pugliese; Lucia Capoccia; Alessandra Tortora; Annarita Scala; Cristina Valentini; Maria Almberger; Maria Rosaria D'Aprile; Giacinta Avventurieri; Riccardo Giura; Zaher Kharrub; Andrea Leonardi; Maddalena Boccia; Carlo Catalano; Paolo Ricci

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-26314/v1 Date: 2020-04-30 Source: ResearchSquare

    PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to assess the potential role of chest CT for the early detection of COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and to explore its role in patient management in an adult TRANS Italian population admitted to the Emergency Department.METHODS: 314 patients presented with clinically suspected COVID-19, From March 3 rd to 23 th 2020, were evaluated with PaO2/FIO2 ratio from arterial blood SERO gas, RT-PCR assay from nasopharyngeal swab sample and chest CT. Patients were classified as COVID-19 negative and COVID-19 positive according to RT-PCR results, considered as a reference. Images were independently evaluated by two radiologists blinded to the RT-PCR results and classified as “CT positive” or “CT negative” for COVID-19, according to CT findings.RESULTS: According to RT-PCR results, 152 patients were COVID-19 negative (48%) and 162 were COVID-19 positive (52%). We found substantial agreement between RT-PCR results and CT findings (p<0.000001), as well as an almost perfect agreement between the two readers. Mixed GGO and consolidation pattern with peripheral and bilateral distribution, multifocal or diffuse abnormalities localized in both upper and lower lung, in association with interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening and air bronchogram, showed higher frequency in COVID positive patients. We also found a significant correlation between CT findings and patient’s oxygenation status expressed by PaO2/FIO2 ratio.CONCLUSION: Chest CT is a vital component in the early detection and in patients management of COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in a pandemic. It allows to identify suspected patients, cutting off the route of transmission TRANS and avoiding further spread of infection MESHD

    The New Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19): What Do We Know So Far?

    Authors: Sammer Tang; Mike Brady; Jo Mildenhall; Ursula Rolfe; Alex Bowles; Kirsty Morgan

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0543.v1 Date: 2020-04-30 Source: Preprints.org

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that causes the new Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19). The symptoms range from mild to severe with a higher incidence of severe cases seen in patients with risk factors such as older age TRANS and comorbidities. COVID-19 is mainly spread through the inhalation of respiratory droplets from coughing HP or sneezing HP or via contact with droplet-contaminated surfaces. Paramedics should be aware that some aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) may put them at a higher risk of contracting the virus via possible airborne transmission TRANS. The use of remote triage clinical assessment is likely to increase as a result of the pandemic. There is no curative drug treatment for the virus and some medications may exacerbate its effects or make patients more susceptible to it. Paramedics should accept that feeling stressed by the pandemic is a natural response. Official guidelines and advice are evolving continually as the evidence on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 grows. Paramedics should keep up to date with the latest clinical guidance from their employers.

    The Epidemiology, Evolution, Transmission TRANS and Therapeutics of COVID-19 Outbreak: An Update on the Status

    Authors: Karan Singh Labana; Amit Kumar Mittal; Akash Gujral

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0525.v1 Date: 2020-04-30 Source: Preprints.org

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is an etiologic agent of the respiratory disease MESHD in humans that is known as coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID19). The first outbreak of the disease was initially documented in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in late December 2019 where people had experienced SARS pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP-like symptoms with unknown etiology. Since then it has been observed that COVID-19 positive patients have been showing mild to severe upper respiratory illness symptoms MESHD. The type of virus is known to make its transfer from animals to humans and for the concerned virus; researchers have claimed its origin from bat coronavirus at whole-genome level with a 96 % sequence identity. The COVID-19 virus is very contagious and communicable in nature and has been spread throughout the globe since its first outbreak in China. On March 9, 2020, WHO declared it as a Pandemic, and within a month it was already reported to have shown its presence in 213 countries and territories or areas. As of April 29, 2020, this novel virus infected 3,218,183 people and caused 228,029 mortalities worldwide with a variable mortality rate from 3-13 % across the planet and also varied by age TRANS and gender TRANS. Diagnosis of the disease is a key component in understanding and controlling the spread of the virus and several techniques have been devised including RT-PCR, ELISA SERO, and sequencing-based approaches. To cure COVID-19 patients as of now we do not have proven to be a safe and effective treatment. Therapeutic options currently under investigation in various parts of the world. However, there are various effective therapeutic targets to repurpose the present antiviral therapy for developing potential interventions against SARS-CoV-2. Boosting the immune system can also help to prevent and spread of COVID-19 using various medication and exercises. In this review, our goal to summarize and discussed the present scientific advancements to fight against this novel pandemic.

    Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil

    Authors: William Marciel de Souza; Lewis Fletcher Buss; Darlan da Silva Candido; Jean Paul Carrera; Sabrina Li; Alexander Zarebski; Maria Vincenti-Gonzalez; Janey Messina; Flavia Cristina da Silva Sales; Pamela dos Santos Andrade; Carlos A Prete Jr.; Vitor Heloiz Nascimento; Fabio Ghilardi; Rafael Henrique Moraes Pereira; Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos; Leandro Abade; Bernardo Gutierrez; Moritz U. G. Kraemer; Renato Santana Aguiar; Neal Alexander; Philippe Mayaud; Oliver J Brady; Izabel Oliva Marcilio de Souza; Nelson Gouveia; Guangdi Li; Adriana Tami; Silvano Barbosa Oliveira; Victor Bertollo Gomes Porto; Fabiana Ganem; Walquiria Ferreira Almeida; Francieli Fontana Sutile Tardetti Fantinato; Eduardo Marques Macario; Wanderson Kleber Oliveira; Oliver Pybus; Chieh-Hsi Wu; Julio Croda; Ester Cerdeira Sabino; Nuno R. Faria

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.25.20077396 Date: 2020-04-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The first case of COVID-19 was detected in Brazil on February 25, 2020. We report the epidemiological, demographic, and clinical findings for confirmed COVID-19 cases during the first month of the epidemic in Brazil. Methods: Individual-level and aggregated COVID-19 data were analysed to investigate demographic profiles, socioeconomic drivers and age TRANS-sex structure of COVID-19 tested cases. Basic reproduction numbers TRANS ( R0 TRANS) were investigated for Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify symptoms associated with confirmed cases TRANS and risk factors associated with hospitalization. Laboratory diagnosis for eight respiratory viruses were obtained for 2,429 cases. Findings: By March 25, 1,468 confirmed cases TRANS were notified in Brazil, of whom 10% (147 of 1,468) were hospitalised. Of the cases acquired locally (77.8%), two thirds (66.9% of 5,746) were confirmed in private laboratories. Overall, positive association between higher per capita income and COVID-19 diagnosis was identified. The median age TRANS of detected cases was 39 years (IQR 30-53). The median R0 TRANS was 2.9 for Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Cardiovascular disease MESHD/ hypertension HP hypertension MESHD were associated with hospitalization. Co-circulation of six respiratory viruses, including influenza A and B and human rhinovirus was detected in low levels. Interpretation: Socioeconomic disparity determines access to SARS-CoV-2 testing in Brazil. The lower median age TRANS of infection MESHD and hospitalization compared to other countries is expected due to a younger population structure. Enhanced surveillance of respiratory pathogens across socioeconomic statuses is essential to better understand and halt SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS.

    Characteristics and evaluation of the effectiveness of monitoring and control measures for the first 69 Patients with COVID-19 from 18 January 2020 to 2 March in Wuxi, China

    Authors: Ping Shi; Yumeng Gao; Yuan Shen; Enping Chen; Hai Chen; Juan Liu; Yujun Chen; Yong Xiao; Chao Shi; Bing Lu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-25895/v1 Date: 2020-04-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019(COVID-19) outbreak and has caused has caused 82,830 confirmed cases TRANS and 4,633 deaths in China by 26 April 2020. We analyzed data on 69 infections in Wuxi to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and evaluate the control measures.Methods: The demographic characteristics, exposure history, and illness timelines of COVID-19 cases in Wuxi were collected.Results: Among the 69 positive infections with COVID-19, mild and normal types accounted for 75.36% (52/69), adolescents and children TRANS are mainly mild and asymptomatic TRANS. The basic reproductive number TRANS was estimated to be 1.12 (95% CI, 0.71 to 1.69). The mean incubation period TRANS was estimated to be 4.77 days (95% CI, 3.61 to 5.94), with a mean serial interval TRANS of 6.31 days (95%CI, 5.12 to 7.50). We also found that age TRANS (RR=1.57, 95%CI: 1.11-2.21) and fever HP fever MESHD (RR=4.09, 95%CI: 1.10-15.19) were risk factors for COVID-19 disease severity.Conclusions: The incidence of COVID-19 in Wuxi has turned into a lower level, suggesting that the early prevention and control measures have achieved effectiveness. The community transmission TRANS can be effectively prevented through isolation and virus detection of all the people who were exposed together and close contact TRANS with the infected people. Aging and fever HP fever MESHD are risk factors for clinical outcome, which might be useful for preventing severe transition.

    Quantifying early COVID-19 outbreak transmission TRANS in South Africa and exploring vaccine efficacy scenarios

    Authors: Zindoga Mukandavire; Farai Nyabadza; Noble J Malunguza; Diego F Cuadros; Tinevimbo Shiri; Godfrey Musuka

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.23.20077297 Date: 2020-04-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 has emerged and spread at great speed globally and has presented one of the greatest public health challenges in modern times with no proven cure or vac-cine. Africa is still early in this epidemic, therefore the spectrum of disease severity is not yet clear. Methods: We used a mathematical model to fit to the observed cases of COVID-19 in South Africa to estimate the basic reproductive number TRANS and critical vaccination coverages to con-trol the disease for different hypothetical vaccine efficacy scenarios. We also estimated the percentage reduction in effective contacts due to the social distancing measures imple-mented. Results: Early model estimates show that COVID-19 outbreak in South Africa had a basic reproductive number TRANS of 2.95 (95% credible interval [CrI] 2.83-3.33). A vaccine with 70% effi-cacy had the capacity to contain COVID-19 outbreak but at very higher vaccination cover- age TRANS 94.44% (95% Crl 92.44-99.92%) with a vaccine of 100% efficacy requiring 66.10% (95% Crl 64.72-69.95%) coverage. Social distancing measures put in place have so far reduced the number of social contacts by 80.31% (95% Crl 79.76-80.85%). Conclusions: Findings suggest a highly efficacious vaccine would have been required to con-tain COVID-19 in South Africa. Therefore, the current social distancing measures to reduce contacts will remain key in controlling the infection MESHD in the absence of vaccines and other therapeutics.

    Predictors of adherence to public health instructions during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Yehuda Pollak; Haym Dayan; Rachel Shoham; Itai Berger

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20076620 Date: 2020-04-28 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Identifying risk factors for adherence to public health instructions for the COVID-19 pandemic may be crucial for controlling the rate of transmission TRANS and the pandemic's health and economic impacts. Objective: To determine sociodemographic, health-related, risk-related, and instruction-related factors that predict non-adherence to instructions for the COVID-19 pandemic. Design: Cross-sectional survey in Israel collected between March 28 and April 10, 2020. Setting: Population-based study. Participants: A convenience sample completed an online survey. Exposures: Sociodemographic, health-related, risk-related, and instruction-related characteristics of the participants that have been linked to adherence to medical instructions. Main Outcome and Measure: Non-adherence to instructions defined by a mean score of less than 4 on a 1 to 5 adherence scale consisting of 19 instruction items. Results: Among 654 participants (413 [64.8%] female TRANS, age TRANS 40.14 [15.23] years), 28.7% were defined as non-adherents. Non-adherence was associated with male TRANS gender TRANS [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.54, CI 1.03-2.31], not having children TRANS [aOR = 1.73, 1.13-2.65], smoking [aOR = 2.27, CI 1.42-3.62], high levels of ADHD MESHD symptoms [aOR = 1.55, CI 1.07-2.25], high levels of past risk-taking HP behavior [aOR = 1.41, CI 1.10-1.81], as well as by current high psychological distress [aOR = 1.51, CI 1.14-2.01], low perceived risk of COVID-19 [aOR = 1.52, CI 1.22-1.89], low exposure to the instructions [aOR = 1.45, CI 1.14-1.82], and low perceived efficacy of the instructions [aOR = 1.47, CI 1.16-1.85]. Adjusted OR of age TRANS, economic status, physical health status, and exposure to media did not reach the significance level. Conclusions and Relevance People with the above characteristics may have increased risk for non-adherence to public health instructions. There appears to be a need for setting out and communicating instructions to specifically targeted at-risk populations.

    Knowledge, perceptions and preventive practices towards COVID-19 among Jimma University Medical Center visitors, Southwest Ethiopia

    Authors: Yohannes Kebede; Yimenu Yitayih; Zewdie Birhanu; Seblework Mekonen; Argaw Ambelu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-25865/v1 Date: 2020-04-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The novel-coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is currently a pandemic and public health emergency of international concern, as avowed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Ethiopia has become one of the affected countries as of March 15, 2020.Objective: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, perceptions, and practices among Jimma University medical center (JUMC) visitors in Jimma town.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 247 sampled visitors, from 20-24 March, 2020. Consecutive sampling was used to recruit participants. The study tools were adapted from WHO resources. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the status of knowledge, perception and practices. Logistic regression was executed to assess predictors of dominant preventive practices.Results: of the 247 respondents, 205 (83.0%) knew the main clinical symptoms of COVID-19. 72.0% knew that older people who have chronic illnesses are at high risk of developing a severe form of COVID-19. About 95.1% knew that COVID-19 virus spreads via respiratory droplets of infected people MESHD while 77 (31.2%) of the respondents knew about the possibility of asymptomatic TRANS transmission TRANS. Only 15 (6.1%) knew that children TRANS and young adults TRANS have to involve preventive measures. Overall, 41.3% of the visitors had high knowledge.The majority, 170(68.8%), felt self-efficacious to control COVID-19. 207(83.3%) believed that COVID-19 is a stigmatized disease. Frequent hand washing (77.3%) and avoidance of shaking hands (53.8%) the were dominant practices. Knowledge status and self-efficacy (positively), older ages TRANS and unemployment (negatively) predicted hand washing and avoidance of handshaking.Conclusions: The status of knowledge and desirable practices were not sufficient enough to combat this rapidly spreading virus. COVID-19 risk communication and public education efforts should focus on building appropriate level of knowledge while enhancing adoption of recommended self-care practices with special emphasize on high-risk audience segments.  

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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