Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (61)

Cough (50)

Pneumonia (43)

Hypertension (20)

Fatigue (18)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 401 - 410 records in total 539
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    The New Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19): What Do We Know So Far?

    Authors: Sammer Tang; Mike Brady; Jo Mildenhall; Ursula Rolfe; Alex Bowles; Kirsty Morgan

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0543.v1 Date: 2020-04-30 Source: Preprints.org

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that causes the new Coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19). The symptoms range from mild to severe with a higher incidence of severe cases seen in patients with risk factors such as older age TRANS and comorbidities. COVID-19 is mainly spread through the inhalation of respiratory droplets from coughing HP or sneezing HP or via contact with droplet-contaminated surfaces. Paramedics should be aware that some aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) may put them at a higher risk of contracting the virus via possible airborne transmission TRANS. The use of remote triage clinical assessment is likely to increase as a result of the pandemic. There is no curative drug treatment for the virus and some medications may exacerbate its effects or make patients more susceptible to it. Paramedics should accept that feeling stressed by the pandemic is a natural response. Official guidelines and advice are evolving continually as the evidence on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 grows. Paramedics should keep up to date with the latest clinical guidance from their employers.

    The Epidemiology, Evolution, Transmission TRANS and Therapeutics of COVID-19 Outbreak: An Update on the Status

    Authors: Karan Singh Labana; Amit Kumar Mittal; Akash Gujral

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0525.v1 Date: 2020-04-30 Source: Preprints.org

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is an etiologic agent of the respiratory disease MESHD in humans that is known as coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID19). The first outbreak of the disease was initially documented in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in late December 2019 where people had experienced SARS pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP-like symptoms with unknown etiology. Since then it has been observed that COVID-19 positive patients have been showing mild to severe upper respiratory illness symptoms MESHD. The type of virus is known to make its transfer from animals to humans and for the concerned virus; researchers have claimed its origin from bat coronavirus at whole-genome level with a 96 % sequence identity. The COVID-19 virus is very contagious and communicable in nature and has been spread throughout the globe since its first outbreak in China. On March 9, 2020, WHO declared it as a Pandemic, and within a month it was already reported to have shown its presence in 213 countries and territories or areas. As of April 29, 2020, this novel virus infected 3,218,183 people and caused 228,029 mortalities worldwide with a variable mortality rate from 3-13 % across the planet and also varied by age TRANS and gender TRANS. Diagnosis of the disease is a key component in understanding and controlling the spread of the virus and several techniques have been devised including RT-PCR, ELISA SERO, and sequencing-based approaches. To cure COVID-19 patients as of now we do not have proven to be a safe and effective treatment. Therapeutic options currently under investigation in various parts of the world. However, there are various effective therapeutic targets to repurpose the present antiviral therapy for developing potential interventions against SARS-CoV-2. Boosting the immune system can also help to prevent and spread of COVID-19 using various medication and exercises. In this review, our goal to summarize and discussed the present scientific advancements to fight against this novel pandemic.

    Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil

    Authors: William Marciel de Souza; Lewis Fletcher Buss; Darlan da Silva Candido; Jean Paul Carrera; Sabrina Li; Alexander Zarebski; Maria Vincenti-Gonzalez; Janey Messina; Flavia Cristina da Silva Sales; Pamela dos Santos Andrade; Carlos A Prete Jr.; Vitor Heloiz Nascimento; Fabio Ghilardi; Rafael Henrique Moraes Pereira; Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos; Leandro Abade; Bernardo Gutierrez; Moritz U. G. Kraemer; Renato Santana Aguiar; Neal Alexander; Philippe Mayaud; Oliver J Brady; Izabel Oliva Marcilio de Souza; Nelson Gouveia; Guangdi Li; Adriana Tami; Silvano Barbosa Oliveira; Victor Bertollo Gomes Porto; Fabiana Ganem; Walquiria Ferreira Almeida; Francieli Fontana Sutile Tardetti Fantinato; Eduardo Marques Macario; Wanderson Kleber Oliveira; Oliver Pybus; Chieh-Hsi Wu; Julio Croda; Ester Cerdeira Sabino; Nuno R. Faria

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.25.20077396 Date: 2020-04-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The first case of COVID-19 was detected in Brazil on February 25, 2020. We report the epidemiological, demographic, and clinical findings for confirmed COVID-19 cases during the first month of the epidemic in Brazil. Methods: Individual-level and aggregated COVID-19 data were analysed to investigate demographic profiles, socioeconomic drivers and age TRANS-sex structure of COVID-19 tested cases. Basic reproduction numbers TRANS ( R0 TRANS) were investigated for Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify symptoms associated with confirmed cases TRANS and risk factors associated with hospitalization. Laboratory diagnosis for eight respiratory viruses were obtained for 2,429 cases. Findings: By March 25, 1,468 confirmed cases TRANS were notified in Brazil, of whom 10% (147 of 1,468) were hospitalised. Of the cases acquired locally (77.8%), two thirds (66.9% of 5,746) were confirmed in private laboratories. Overall, positive association between higher per capita income and COVID-19 diagnosis was identified. The median age TRANS of detected cases was 39 years (IQR 30-53). The median R0 TRANS was 2.9 for Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Cardiovascular disease MESHD/ hypertension HP hypertension MESHD were associated with hospitalization. Co-circulation of six respiratory viruses, including influenza A and B and human rhinovirus was detected in low levels. Interpretation: Socioeconomic disparity determines access to SARS-CoV-2 testing in Brazil. The lower median age TRANS of infection MESHD and hospitalization compared to other countries is expected due to a younger population structure. Enhanced surveillance of respiratory pathogens across socioeconomic statuses is essential to better understand and halt SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS.

    Characteristics and evaluation of the effectiveness of monitoring and control measures for the first 69 Patients with COVID-19 from 18 January 2020 to 2 March in Wuxi, China

    Authors: Ping Shi; Yumeng Gao; Yuan Shen; Enping Chen; Hai Chen; Juan Liu; Yujun Chen; Yong Xiao; Chao Shi; Bing Lu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-25895/v1 Date: 2020-04-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019(COVID-19) outbreak and has caused has caused 82,830 confirmed cases TRANS and 4,633 deaths in China by 26 April 2020. We analyzed data on 69 infections in Wuxi to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and evaluate the control measures.Methods: The demographic characteristics, exposure history, and illness timelines of COVID-19 cases in Wuxi were collected.Results: Among the 69 positive infections with COVID-19, mild and normal types accounted for 75.36% (52/69), adolescents and children TRANS are mainly mild and asymptomatic TRANS. The basic reproductive number TRANS was estimated to be 1.12 (95% CI, 0.71 to 1.69). The mean incubation period TRANS was estimated to be 4.77 days (95% CI, 3.61 to 5.94), with a mean serial interval TRANS of 6.31 days (95%CI, 5.12 to 7.50). We also found that age TRANS (RR=1.57, 95%CI: 1.11-2.21) and fever HP fever MESHD (RR=4.09, 95%CI: 1.10-15.19) were risk factors for COVID-19 disease severity.Conclusions: The incidence of COVID-19 in Wuxi has turned into a lower level, suggesting that the early prevention and control measures have achieved effectiveness. The community transmission TRANS can be effectively prevented through isolation and virus detection of all the people who were exposed together and close contact TRANS with the infected people. Aging and fever HP fever MESHD are risk factors for clinical outcome, which might be useful for preventing severe transition.

    Quantifying early COVID-19 outbreak transmission TRANS in South Africa and exploring vaccine efficacy scenarios

    Authors: Zindoga Mukandavire; Farai Nyabadza; Noble J Malunguza; Diego F Cuadros; Tinevimbo Shiri; Godfrey Musuka

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.23.20077297 Date: 2020-04-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 has emerged and spread at great speed globally and has presented one of the greatest public health challenges in modern times with no proven cure or vac-cine. Africa is still early in this epidemic, therefore the spectrum of disease severity is not yet clear. Methods: We used a mathematical model to fit to the observed cases of COVID-19 in South Africa to estimate the basic reproductive number TRANS and critical vaccination coverages to con-trol the disease for different hypothetical vaccine efficacy scenarios. We also estimated the percentage reduction in effective contacts due to the social distancing measures imple-mented. Results: Early model estimates show that COVID-19 outbreak in South Africa had a basic reproductive number TRANS of 2.95 (95% credible interval [CrI] 2.83-3.33). A vaccine with 70% effi-cacy had the capacity to contain COVID-19 outbreak but at very higher vaccination cover- age TRANS 94.44% (95% Crl 92.44-99.92%) with a vaccine of 100% efficacy requiring 66.10% (95% Crl 64.72-69.95%) coverage. Social distancing measures put in place have so far reduced the number of social contacts by 80.31% (95% Crl 79.76-80.85%). Conclusions: Findings suggest a highly efficacious vaccine would have been required to con-tain COVID-19 in South Africa. Therefore, the current social distancing measures to reduce contacts will remain key in controlling the infection MESHD in the absence of vaccines and other therapeutics.

    Predictors of adherence to public health instructions during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Yehuda Pollak; Haym Dayan; Rachel Shoham; Itai Berger

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20076620 Date: 2020-04-28 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Identifying risk factors for adherence to public health instructions for the COVID-19 pandemic may be crucial for controlling the rate of transmission TRANS and the pandemic's health and economic impacts. Objective: To determine sociodemographic, health-related, risk-related, and instruction-related factors that predict non-adherence to instructions for the COVID-19 pandemic. Design: Cross-sectional survey in Israel collected between March 28 and April 10, 2020. Setting: Population-based study. Participants: A convenience sample completed an online survey. Exposures: Sociodemographic, health-related, risk-related, and instruction-related characteristics of the participants that have been linked to adherence to medical instructions. Main Outcome and Measure: Non-adherence to instructions defined by a mean score of less than 4 on a 1 to 5 adherence scale consisting of 19 instruction items. Results: Among 654 participants (413 [64.8%] female TRANS, age TRANS 40.14 [15.23] years), 28.7% were defined as non-adherents. Non-adherence was associated with male TRANS gender TRANS [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.54, CI 1.03-2.31], not having children TRANS [aOR = 1.73, 1.13-2.65], smoking [aOR = 2.27, CI 1.42-3.62], high levels of ADHD MESHD symptoms [aOR = 1.55, CI 1.07-2.25], high levels of past risk-taking HP behavior [aOR = 1.41, CI 1.10-1.81], as well as by current high psychological distress [aOR = 1.51, CI 1.14-2.01], low perceived risk of COVID-19 [aOR = 1.52, CI 1.22-1.89], low exposure to the instructions [aOR = 1.45, CI 1.14-1.82], and low perceived efficacy of the instructions [aOR = 1.47, CI 1.16-1.85]. Adjusted OR of age TRANS, economic status, physical health status, and exposure to media did not reach the significance level. Conclusions and Relevance People with the above characteristics may have increased risk for non-adherence to public health instructions. There appears to be a need for setting out and communicating instructions to specifically targeted at-risk populations.

    Knowledge, perceptions and preventive practices towards COVID-19 among Jimma University Medical Center visitors, Southwest Ethiopia

    Authors: Yohannes Kebede; Yimenu Yitayih; Zewdie Birhanu; Seblework Mekonen; Argaw Ambelu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-25865/v1 Date: 2020-04-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The novel-coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is currently a pandemic and public health emergency of international concern, as avowed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Ethiopia has become one of the affected countries as of March 15, 2020.Objective: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, perceptions, and practices among Jimma University medical center (JUMC) visitors in Jimma town.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 247 sampled visitors, from 20-24 March, 2020. Consecutive sampling was used to recruit participants. The study tools were adapted from WHO resources. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the status of knowledge, perception and practices. Logistic regression was executed to assess predictors of dominant preventive practices.Results: of the 247 respondents, 205 (83.0%) knew the main clinical symptoms of COVID-19. 72.0% knew that older people who have chronic illnesses are at high risk of developing a severe form of COVID-19. About 95.1% knew that COVID-19 virus spreads via respiratory droplets of infected people MESHD while 77 (31.2%) of the respondents knew about the possibility of asymptomatic TRANS transmission TRANS. Only 15 (6.1%) knew that children TRANS and young adults TRANS have to involve preventive measures. Overall, 41.3% of the visitors had high knowledge.The majority, 170(68.8%), felt self-efficacious to control COVID-19. 207(83.3%) believed that COVID-19 is a stigmatized disease. Frequent hand washing (77.3%) and avoidance of shaking hands (53.8%) the were dominant practices. Knowledge status and self-efficacy (positively), older ages TRANS and unemployment (negatively) predicted hand washing and avoidance of handshaking.Conclusions: The status of knowledge and desirable practices were not sufficient enough to combat this rapidly spreading virus. COVID-19 risk communication and public education efforts should focus on building appropriate level of knowledge while enhancing adoption of recommended self-care practices with special emphasize on high-risk audience segments.  

    Maternal and fetal effects of covid-19 virus on a complicated triplet pregnancy. A case-report

    Authors: Maryam Rabiei; Tahereh Soori; Amene Abiri; Arshia Shizarpour; Zohreh Farsi; Reihaneh Pirjani

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-25864/v1 Date: 2020-04-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:  COVID-19 virus it is going to be pandemic all around the world. There is still limited scientific evidence on the manifestations and potential impact of this virus on pregnancy.Case presentation She was a 38 year-old triplet pregnant with a history of primary infertility HP infertility MESHD and had become pregnant by induction ovulation and a history of hypothyroidism HP hypothyroidism MESHD and also a history of gestational diabetes MESHD. She was hospitalized at 29 weeks and 2 days gestational age TRANS due to elevated liver enzymes MESHD and finally based on a probable diagnosis of gestational cholestasis MESHD cholestasis HP, she was treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. On the first day after hospitalization, a sonography was performed in which biophysical scores and amniotic fluid were found normal in all three fetuses with normal Doppler findings in two fetuses and increased umbilical artery resistance (PI>95%) in one fetus. Four days after hospitalization, she developed fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD and myalgia HP myalgia MESHD and her covid-19 test was positive. After maternal infection MESHD with the virus, exacerbated placental insufficiency MESHD occurred in two of the fetuses so that absent umbilical artery end diastolic flow occurred rapidly in two fetuses and finally, six days later, she underwent cesarean section due to rapid exacerbated placental insufficiency MESHD and declined biophysical score in two of fetuses. Covid-19 test of nasopharyngeal swabs was negative for first and third babies and positive for second baby .The first and third babies died 3 and 13 days after birth respectively duo to collapsed white lung and sepsis HP sepsis MESHD. The second baby was discharged with a good general condition. The mother was discharged three days after cesarean section. She had no fever HP fever MESHD at discharge time and also she was in good general condition.Conclusions: It was a complicated triplet pregnancy, in which, after maternal infection MESHD with the Covid-19 virus, exacerbated placental insufficiency MESHD occurred in two of the fetuses, and another fetus had positive covid-19 virus test after birth. It sounds wise that in pregnancy infected by corona virus, in addition to managing the mother, special attention should also be given to the possibility of acute placental insufficiently MESHD and subsequent fetal hypoxia MESHD and also probability of vertical transmission TRANS.

    COVID-19: One-month impact of the French lockdown on the epidemic burden

    Authors: Jonathan Roux; Clément Massonnaud; Pascal Crépey

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.22.20075705 Date: 2020-04-27 Source: medRxiv

    On March 16 2020, French authorities ordered a large scale lockdown to counter the COVID-19 epidemic wave rising in the country, stopping non-essential economic, educational, and entertainment activities, maintaining mainly food retailers and healthcare institutions. One month later, the number of new hospitalizations and ICU admissions had reached a plateau and were beginning a slow descent. We developed a spatialized, deterministic, age TRANS-structured, and compartmental SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS model able to reproduce the pre-lockdown dynamic of the epidemic in each of the 13 French metropolitan regions. Thanks to this model, we estimate, at regional and national levels, the total number of hospitalizations, ICU admissions, hospital beds requirements (hospitalization and ICU), and hospital deaths which may have been prevented by this massive and unprecedented intervention in France. If no control measures had been set up, between March 19 and April 19 2020, our analysis shows that almost 23% of the French population would have been affected by COVID-19 (14.8 million individuals). Hence, the French lockdown prevented 587,730 hospitalizations and 140,320 ICU admissions at the national level. The total number of ICU beds required to treat patients in critical conditions would have been 104,550, far higher than the maximum French ICU capacity. This first month of lockdown also permitted to avoid 61,739 hospital deaths, corresponding to a 83.5% reduction of the total number of predicted deaths. Our analysis shows that in absence of any control measures, the COVID-19 epidemic would have had a critical morbidity and mortality burden in France, overwhelming in a matter of weeks French hospital capacities.

    Clinical Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD in Haikou: a study of a family cluster

    Authors: Hui Juan Chen; Jie Qiu; Biao Wu; Zhen Ping Wang; Yang Chen; Feng Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-25532/v1 Date: 2020-04-26 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background The outbreak of sever acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2 MESHD) has become a great threat to the world. No study has been done on the mild or asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 in a family cluster.Methods We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and clinical outcomes of five patients in a family cluster.Results We enrolled a family of five patients who was confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. One of them worked in Wuhan and returned to Danzhou, Hainan on January 22,2020. The other four family members TRANS, who did not travel TRANS to Wuhan, became infected with the virus after several days of contact with the family member TRANS. Five family members TRANS ( aged TRANS 33–57 years) presented with fever HP fever MESHD, cough HP cough MESHD or no symptom onset TRANS. Three of them had negative nucleic test on first swab sampling. One of them was not confirmed until the third nucleic acid test. Two of them had radiological ground-glass lung opacities. Two patients presenting with fever HP fever MESHD had lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD or decreased white blood SERO cells. No one had increased C-reactive protein or lactate dehydrogenase levels. After treatment, they were discharged.Conclusions Person-to-person transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed in family setting. Concerns should be raised for the asymptomatic TRANS persons in a family cluster.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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