Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (61)

Cough (50)

Pneumonia (43)

Hypertension (20)

Fatigue (18)


    displaying 41 - 50 records in total 539
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    Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic and Pattern of Patient Care in Otorhinolaryngology Practice in a Tertiary Referral Centre

    Authors: Dr Kalpana Sharma; Dr Abhilasha Goswami; Dr Sarun S M

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    Aims-To study the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on patient load in a tertiary care centre and the innovations and methods used to improve the safety of the healthcare workers, to provide adequate treatment in the department of Otorhinolaryngology.Materials and methods-This study was conducted in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, at a tertiary care hospital centre in North-East India. This study included data collected from the patient registers maintained in our department, and included data over a 4-month period, from April, 2020 to July, 2020. Age TRANS, gender TRANS, place of residence, clinical diagnosis and the operative procedure performed were included in the data profile for analysis. The above-mentioned registers were also reviewed to retrieve details about the rate of admission during the study period in the previous year. Data was collected and represented, in both descriptive and tabular forms, after proper statistical analysis.Results-We found out that there is a drastic reduction in number of patients attending in our department of Otorhinolaryngology during this COVID-19 pandemic. Certain innovative methods for protecting healthcare workers from viral transmission TRANS were put into our practice based on the peer reviewed articles, from June,2020 and the rate of elective procedures and in-patient admissions were thus increased.Conclusion- Knowledge of new innovative methods in Otorhinolaryngology will help overcome the difficulties faced during the current COVID-19 pandemic.

    SARS-CoV-2 Viral RNA Load Dynamics in the Nasopharynx of Infected Children TRANS

    Authors: Kai-qian Kam; Koh Cheng Thoon; Matthias Maiwald; Chia Yin Chong; Han Yang Soong; Liat Hui Loo; Woon Hui Natalie Tan; Jiahui Li; Karen Donceras Nadua; Chee Fu Yung; Norbert Kaiser; Hannes Ganzer; Mathias Strohle; Andreas Walser; Dorothee von Laer; Lothar Hennighausen; Changqing Lin; Qinghua Hu; Tie Song; Ruifu Yang; Xiaoyu Zhang; Kai Sun; Pieter S. Hiemstra; Bruce A. Ponder; Mika J Makela; Kristiina Malmstrom; Robert C. Rintoul; Paul A. Reyfman; Fabian J. Theis; Corry-A Brandsma; Ian Adcock; Wim Timens; Cheng J. Xu; Maarten van den Berge; Roland F. Schwarz; Gerard H. Koppelman; Martijn C. Nawijn; Alen Faiz

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.31.20185488 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    It is important to understand the temporal trend of pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) viral load to estimate the transmission TRANS potential of children TRANS in schools and communities. We determined differences in SARS-CoV-2 viral load dynamics between nasopharyngeal samples of infected asymptomatic TRANS and symptomatic children TRANS. The daily cycle threshold values of SARS-CoV-2 in the nasopharynx of a cohort of infected children TRANS were collected for analysis. Among 17 infected children TRANS, 10 (58.8%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic children TRANS, when compared to asymptomatic TRANS children TRANS, had higher viral load (mean cycle threshold on day 7 of illness 28.6 versus 36.7, p = 0.02). Peak SARS-CoV-2 viral loads occured around days 2-3 of illness/days of diagnosis in infected children TRANS. After adjusting for the estimated date of infection MESHD, the higher SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in symptomatic children TRANS remained. We postulate that symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD children TRANS may have higher transmissibility TRANS than asymptomatic TRANS children TRANS. As peak viral load in infected children TRANS occurred in the early stage of illness, viral shedding and transmission TRANS in the pre-symptomatic phase probable. Our study highlights the importance of screening for SARS-CoV-2 in children TRANS with epidemiological risk factors, even when they are asymptomatic TRANS in order to improve containment of the virus in the community, including educational settings.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    Perception and Response of Religious Leaders in Precaution Transmission TRANS of COVID-19 Through Handling and Burial of Dead Bodies in Indonesia

    Authors: Nurhayati; Tri Bayu Purnama

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    One of the roles of religious leaders/ulama that can prevent the transmission TRANS of COVID-19 is education and socialization in the process of handling and burial of corpses. The varying practice on handling and burial of corpse in the community, as well as different perceptions of each cleric, are factors that hinder the implementation of the corpse handling and burial protocol with the COVID-19 procedure. This study aims to understand the differences in perceptions and responses of ulama in the process of handling and burial of dead bodies in Indonesia. This study interviewed 6 prominent ulama figures in each of the significant Islamic religious organizations in Indonesia as representatives of each practice of handling and burial of corpse. The case study research design with a structured interview guide was carried out by telephone in the COVID-19 pandemic. Data analysis was carried out with content analysis to classify variations in perception and response to the corpse handling and burial process with the COVID-19 procedure. All scholars interviewed in this study were men over 40 years of age TRANS and understand that the COVID-19 procedure in handling and burial of dead bodies can reduce the potential for disease transmission TRANS even though some clerical figures argue that there is a difference in opinion between ulama and the COVID-19 procedure. All scholars / religious leaders say that the handling and burial of the dead body using the COVID-19 protocol must be carried out by considering the possibility of disease transmission TRANS. However, some have adjusted the procedure to the religious values ​​held by the organization. Comprehensive socialization and coordination can reduce misperceptions and misinformation in the process of handling and burial for corpses with the COVID-19 procedure so that the carrying out of handling and burial of dead bodies can prevent new COVID-19 clusters in the community.

    Are COVID-19 proximity tracing TRANS apps working under real-world conditions? Indicator development and assessment of drivers for app (non-)use

    Authors: Viktor von Wyl; Marc Hoeglinger; Chloe Sieber; Marco Kaufmann; Andre Moser; Miquel Serra-Burriel; Tala Ballouz; Dominik Menges; Anja Frei; Milo Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.29.20184382 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Digital proximity tracing TRANS (DPT) apps have been released to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS, but it remains unclear how their effectiveness should be monitored. The aim of this study was to formalize indicators for measuring the fulfillment of assumptions for appropriate proximity tracing TRANS app functioning. Six indicators were developed to monitor the SwissCovid app functioning and effectiveness in the Swiss population. Using official statistics and survey data, we calculated indicator values and examined socio-demographic factors associated with the SwissCovid app utilization. Indicators show that 1 in 3 adults TRANS in Switzerland have downloaded the app. However, only 15% of new cases also triggered DPT-app notifications, and indicators also reveal ignored app notifications. In the full survey sample (n=2098), higher monthly household income or being a non-smoker were associated with higher SwissCovid app uptake; older age TRANS or having a non-Swiss nationality with a lower uptake. In a subsample including more detailed information (n=701), high trust in health authorities was associated with higher SwissCovid app uptake. The indicators help to monitor key drivers of DPT-apps effectiveness and hint to non-compliance issues. Streamlining procedures, removing technical hurdles, and communicating the usefulness of DPT-apps are crucial to promote uptake, compliance, and ultimately effectiveness of DPT-apps for pandemic mitigation.

    A world apart: levels and factors of excess mortality due to COVID-19 in care homes. The case of Wallonia - Belgium.

    Authors: Olivier J. Hardy; Dominique Dubourg; Mélanie Bourguignon; Simon Dellicour; Thierry Eggerickx; Marius Gilbert; Jean-Paul Sanderson; Aline Scohy; Eline Vandael; Jean-Michel Decroly; Josephine Soltani; Mehrsa Koukabi-Fradelizi; Jean Paul Beressi; Cecile Laureana; Jean Fran&ccedilois Prost; Livarek Bernard; Elisabet Leiva; Albert Ariza-Sole; Paolo D Dallaglio; Maria Quero; Antonio Soriano; Alberto Pasqualetto; Maylin Koo; Virginia Esteve; Arnau Antoli; Rafael Moreno; Sergi Yun; Pau Cerda; Mariona Llaberia; Francesc Formiga; Marta Fanlo; Abelardo Montero; David Chivite; Olga Capdevila; Ferran Bolao; Xavier Pinto; Josep Llop; Antoni Sabate; Jordi Guardiola; Josep M Cruzado; Josep Comin-Colet; Salud Santos; Ramon Jodar; Xavier Corbella

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.29.20183210 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 became pandemic in 2020 and causes higher mortality in males TRANS (M) than females TRANS (F) and among older people. In some countries, like Belgium, more than half of COVID-19 confirmed or suspected deaths occurring in spring 2020 concerned residents of care homes. The high incidence in this population is certainly linked to its peculiar age TRANS structure but could also result from its poorer general health condition and/or from a higher contamination through the staff of care homes, while protection equipment and testing capacity were initially limited. To address these issues, we used data from Wallonia (Belgium) to characterize the distribution of death rates among care home institutions, to compare the dynamics of deaths in and outside care homes, and to analyse how age TRANS and sex affected COVID-19 death rates inside and outside care homes. We also used annual death rates as a proxy for the health condition of each population. We found that: (1) COVID-19 death rate per institution varied widely from 0{per thousand} to 340{per thousand} (mean 43{per thousand}) and increased both with the size of the institution (number of beds) and with the importance of medical care provided. (2) 65% of COVID-19 deaths in Wallonia MESHD concerned residents of care homes where the outbreak started after but at a faster pace than the outbreak seen in the external population. (3) The impact of age TRANS on both annual and COVID-19 mortality closely follows exponential laws (i.e. Gompertz law) but mortality was much higher for the population living in care homes where the age TRANS effect was lower (mortality rate doubling every 20 years of age TRANS increment in care homes, 6 years outside them). (4) Both within and outside care homes, the ratio of M/F death rates was 1.6 for annual mortality but reached 2.0 for COVID-19 mortality, a ratio consistent among both confirmed and suspected COVID-19 deaths. (5) When reported to the annual death rate per sex and age TRANS, the COVID-19 relative mortality was little affected by age TRANS and reached 24% (M) and 18% (F) of their respective annual rate in nursing homes, while these percentages reduced to 10% (M) and 9% (F) in homes for elderly TRANS people (with less medical assistance), and to 5% (M) and 4% (F) outside of care homes. In conclusion, a c. 130x higher COVID-19 mortality rate found in care homes compared to the outside population can be attributed to the near multiplicative combination of: (1) a 11x higher mortality due to the old age TRANS of its residents, (2) a 3.8x higher mortality due to the low average health condition of its residents, and (3) probably a 3.5x higher infection rate (1.6x in homes for elderly TRANS people) due to the transmission TRANS by its staff, a problem more acute in large institutions. Our results highlight that nursing home residents should be treated as a very specific population, both for epidemiological studies and to take preventive measures, due to their extreme vulnerability to COVID-19.

    Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, hospitalisation, and death in Catalonia MESHD, Spain: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Authors: Judit Villar-Garcia; Rosa Maria Vivanco-Hidalgo; Montserrat Cleries; Elisenda Martinez; David Monterde; Pol Perez-Sust; Luis Garcia-Eroles; Carol Sais; Montserrat Moharra; Emili Vela; Jochen Lennerz; Hetal Desai Marble; Lauren L. Ritterhouse; Julie Batten; N. Zeke Georgantas; Rebecca Pellerin; Sylvia Signorelli; Julia Thierauf; Molly Kemball; Christian Happi; Donald S. Grant; Daouda Ndiaye; Katherine J. Siddle; Samar B Mehta; Jason B. Harris; Edward T Ryan; Virginia M. Pierce; Regina C LaRocque; Jacob Lemieux; Pardis Sabeti; Eric Rosenberg; John Branda; Sarah E Turbett; Gail Carson; Malcolm G Semple; Janet T Scott

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.26.20182303 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    OBJECTIVE To identify the different subpopulations that are susceptible for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD and hospitalisation or death MESHD due to coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in Catalonia, Spain. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data collected from the Catalan Health Surveillance System (CatSalut) in Catalonia, a region of Spain. PARTICIPANTS Using data collected between 1 March and 1 June 2020, we conducted the following comparative analyses: people infected by SARS-CoV-2 (328 892) vs Catalonia's entire population (7 699 568); COVID-19 cases who required hospitalisation (37 638) vs cases who did not require hospitalisation (291 254); and COVID-19 cases who died during the study period vs cases who did not die during the study period (12 287). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Three clinical outcomes related to COVID-19 ( infection MESHD, hospitalisation, or death MESHD). We analysed sociodemographic and environment variables (such as residing in a nursing home) and the presence of previous comorbidities. RESULTS A total of 328 892 cases were considered to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 (4.27% of total population). The main risk factors for the diagnostic were: female TRANS gender TRANS (risk ratio [RR] =1.49; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] =1.48-1.50), age TRANS (45-64 years old; RR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01-1.03), high comorbidity burden (GMA index) (RR=3.03; 95% CI=2.97-3.09), reside in a nursing home (RR=11.82; 95% CI=11.66-11.99), and smoking (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.05-1.07). During the study period, there were 37 638 (11.4 %) hospitalisations due to COVID-19, and the risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.45; 95% CI=1.43-1.48), age TRANS > 65 (RR=2.38; 95% CI=2.28-2.48), very low individual income (RR=1.03; 95% CI=0.97-1.08), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.15; 95% CI=4.89-5.42). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were obesity HP obesity MESHD (RR=1.23; 95% CI=1.20-1.25), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.15-1.22), heart failure MESHD (RR=1.19; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.07; 95% CI=1.04-1.10), and neuro-psychiatric MESHD comorbidities (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.03-1.10). A total of 12 287 deaths (3.73%) were attributed to COVID-19, and the main risk factors were: male TRANS gender TRANS (RR=1.73; 95% CI=1.67-1.81), age TRANS > 65 (RR=37.45; 95% CI=29.23-47.93), residing in a nursing home (RR=9.22; 95% CI=8.81-9.65), and high burden of comorbidities (GMA index) (RR=5.25; 95% CI=4.60-6.00). The individual comorbidities with higher burden were: heart failure MESHD (RR=1.21; 95% CI=1.16-1.22), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (RR=1.17; 95% CI=1.13-1.22), and diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (RR=1.10; 95% CI=1.06-1.14). These results did not change significantly when we considered only PCR-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS Female TRANS gender TRANS, age TRANS between 45 to 64 years old, high burden of comorbidities, and factors related to environment (nursing home) play a relevant role in SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and transmission TRANS. In addition, we found risk factors for hospitalisation and death MESHD due to COVID-19 that had not been described to date, including comorbidity burden, neuro-psychiatric disorders MESHD, and very low individual income. This study supports interventions for transmission TRANS control beyond stratify-and-shield strategies focused only on protecting those at risk of death. Future COVID-19 studies should examine the role of gender TRANS, the burden of comorbidities, and socioeconomic status in disease transmission TRANS, and should determine its relationship to workplaces, especially healthcare centres and nursing homes.

    Kawasaki Disease MESHD Outbreak in Children TRANS During COVID-19 Pandemic.

    Authors: Ewelina Gowin; Jacek Wysocki; Magdalena Frydrychowicz; Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska

    doi:10.21203/ Date: 2020-09-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundIn response to the recent information about the outbreak of Kawasaki disease MESHD ( KD MESHD) in children TRANS connected to SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, we would like to present a group of six patients hospitalized from March to May 2020 with an inflammatory disease similar to KD MESHD. Findings There were four girls and two boys, aged TRANS from 15 months to 16 years. They all presented with fever HP fever MESHD lasting at least five days, irritability HP irritability MESHD, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis HP conjunctivitis MESHD, lymphadenopathy, mucus membrane changes, rash MESHD, edema HP edema MESHD.Neither the patients nor the other members of the patients' households had a positive history of COVID-19 infection MESHD. None of the six children TRANS had a positive PCR result for SARS-CoV-2 or a positive results for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO. All patients received empiric antibiotic therapy. Four patients were diagnosed with KD MESHD. Three children TRANS received standard treatment. One boy did not respond and received an additional 14-days course of methylprednisolone.In two girls, the diagnosis of KD MESHD was not made. All patients survived ConclusionFinding a correlation with the Covid-19 pandemic is difficult regarding the situation in our country. According to ECDC, in May 2020 Poland wass still before the peak of the epidemy. The intention of this article is to report that increased hospitalization of children TRANS with the inflammatory syndrome MESHD is also observed in countries with low levels of transmission TRANS of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. Our observation may broaden the knowledge of new inflammatory syndrome MESHD, which is not necessarily caused by SARS-Cov-2 but may be worsened by co-infection MESHD.

    Potential reduction in transmission TRANS of COVID-19 by digital contact tracing TRANS systems

    Authors: Michael J Plank; Alex James; Audrey Lustig; Nicholas Steyn; Rachelle N Binny; Shaun C Hendy; Arco van der Spek; Paulien Tolsma; Ariene Rietveld; Miranda Brouwer; Noortje Bouwmeester-Vincken; Frank Harders; Renate Hakze-van der Honing; Marjolijn C.A. Wegdam-Blans; Ruth Bouwstra; Corine GeurtsvanKessel; Annemiek van der Eijk; Francisca Velkers; Lidwien Smit; Arjan Stegeman; Wim H.M. van der Poel; Marion Koopmans

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.27.20068346 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Digital tools are being developed to support contact tracing TRANS as part of the global effort to control the spread of COVID-19. These include smartphone apps, Bluetooth-based proximity detection, location tracking, and automatic exposure notification features. Evidence on the effectiveness of alternative approaches to digital contact tracing TRANS is so far limited. We use an age TRANS-structured branching process model of the transmission TRANS of COVID-19 in different settings to estimate the potential of manual contact tracing TRANS and digital tracing TRANS systems to help control the epidemic. We investigate the effect of the uptake rate and proportion of contacts recorded by the digital system on key model outputs: the effective reproduction number TRANS, the mean outbreak size after 30 days, and the probability of elimination. We show that effective manual contact tracing TRANS can reduce the effective reproduction number TRANS from 2.4 to around 1.5. The addition of a digital tracing TRANS system with a high uptake rate over 75% could further reduce the effective reproduction number TRANS to around 1.1. Fully automated digital tracing TRANS without manual contact tracing TRANS is predicted to be much less effective. We conclude that, for digital tracing TRANS systems to make a significant contribution to the control of COVID-19, they need be designed in close conjunction with public health agencies to support and complement manual contact tracing TRANS by trained professionals.

    Changes in social behavior over time in the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Megan M Sheehan; Elizabeth R. Pfoh; Sidra Speaker; Michael B. Rothberg; Jianmei Liu; Yuhang Pan; Tanakao Takana; Peiyu Xie; Zhaoguang Wang; Shuocen Liu; George Fu Gao; Guojun He; Maigeng Zhou

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.27.20183376 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    Public health recommendations aimed at limiting spread of SARS-CoV-2 have encouraged social distancing and masks as economies across the United States re-open. Understanding adherence to these guidelines will inform further efforts to reduce transmission TRANS. In this repeated cross-sectional survey study, we describe changes in social behavior in Ohio during periods of declining and rising cases. While essential activities remained consistent over time, more individuals attended gatherings of 10 or more people as cases rose, particularly in the 18-29 age group TRANS. A majority of individuals wore masks. It appears necessary to continue limiting gatherings and encourage mask-wearing, particularly among younger groups.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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