Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype


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    Clinical and laboratory evaluation of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP treated with high-titer convalescent plasma SERO: a prospective study

    Authors: Michele Donato; Steven Park; Melissa Baker; Robert Korngold; Alison Morawski; Xue Geng; Ming Tony Tan; Scott Rowley; Kar Chow; Emily Brown; Joshua Zenreich; Phyllis McKiernan; Kathryn Buttner; Anna Ullrich; Laura Long; Marlo Kemp; Mariefel Vendivil; Andrea Ricourt; Rena Feinman; Hyung Suh; Balani Bindu; Cristina Cicogna; Rani Sebti; Abdulla Al-Khan; Steven Sperber; Samit Desai; Stacey Fanning; Danit Arad; Ronaldo Go; Elizabeth Tam; Keith Rose; Sean Sadikot; David S Siegel; Martin Gutierrez; Andrew Ip; Stuart Goldberg; Tatyana Feldman; Andre Goy; Andrew Pecora; Noa Biran; Lori Leslie; Alfred Gillio; Sarah Timmapuri; Michele Boonstra; Samuel Singer; Sukhdeep Kaur; Ernest Richards; David Perlin

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20156398 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background Effective antiviral therapy against the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains elusive. Convalescent plasma SERO is an anti-viral approach currently under investigation. We aimed to assess the laboratory and clinical parameters of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP treated with convalescent plasma SERO containing high levels of neutralizing anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO.

    Dysregulated transcriptional responses to SARS-CoV-2 in the periphery support novel diagnostic approaches

    Authors: Micah T McClain; Florica J Constantine; Ricardo Henao; Yiling Liu; Ephraim L Tsalik; Thomas W Burke; Julie M Steinbrink; Elizabeth Petzold; Bradly P Nicholson; Robert Rolfe; Bryan D Kraft; Matthew S Kelly; Gregory D Sempowski; Thomas N Denny; Geoffrey S Ginsburg; Christopher W Woods

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20155507 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    In order to elucidate novel aspects of the host response to SARS-CoV-2 we performed RNA sequencing on peripheral blood SERO samples across 77 timepoints from 46 subjects with COVID-19 and compared them to subjects with seasonal coronavirus, influenza, bacterial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, and healthy controls. Early SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD triggers a conserved transcriptomic response in peripheral blood SERO that is heavily interferon-driven but also marked by indicators of early B-cell activation and antibody SERO production. Interferon responses during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD demonstrate unique patterns of dysregulated expression compared to other infectious and healthy states. Heterogeneous activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways are present in early COVID-19, as are IL1 and JAK/STAT signaling pathways, that persist into late disease MESHD. Classifiers based on differentially expressed genes accurately distinguished SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD from other acute illnesses (auROC 0.95). The transcriptome in peripheral blood SERO reveals unique aspects of the immune response in COVID-19 and provides for novel biomarker-based approaches to diagnosis.

    High neutralizing potency of swine glyco-humanized polyclonal antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Bernard Vanhove; Odile Duvaux; Juliette Rousse; Pierre-Joseph Royer; Gwenaelle Evanno; Carine Ciron; Elsa Lheriteau; Laurent Vacher; Nadine Gervois; Romain Oger; Yannick Jacques; Apolline Salama; Roberto Duchi; Andrea Perota; Philippe Delahaut; Matthieu Ledure; Melody Paulus; Ray So; Chris Ka Pun Mok; Roberto Bruzzone; Marc Bouillet; Sophie Brouard; Emanuele Cozzi; Cesare Galli; Dominique Blanchard; Jean-Marie Bach; Jean-Paul Soulillou

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.217158 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: bioRxiv

    Perfusion of convalescent plasma SERO (CP) has demonstrated a potential to improve the pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP induced by SARS-CoV-2, but procurement and standardization of CP are barriers to its wide usage. Heterologous polyclonal antibodies SERO of animal origin have been used to fight against infectious agents and are a possible alternative to the use of CP in SARS-CoV-2 disease MESHD. However, heterologous polyclonal antibodies SERO trigger human natural xenogeneic antibody SERO responses particularly directed against animal-type carbohydrate epitopes, mainly the N-glycolyl form of the neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and the Gal alpha1,3-galactose (a-Gal), ultimately forming immune complexes and potentially leading to serum sickness MESHD serum SERO or allergy HP. To circumvent these drawbacks, we engineered animals lacking the cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) and alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) enzymes to produce glyco-humanized polyclonal antibodies SERO (GH-pAb) lacking Neu5Gc and a-Gal epitopes. We also found that these IgG Fc domains fail to interact with human Fc receptors and thereby should confer the safety advantage to avoiding macrophage dependent exacerbated inflammatory responses or elicit antibody SERO-dependent enhancement (ADE), two drawbacks possibly associated with antibody SERO responses against SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, we immunized CMAH/GGTA1 double knockout (DKO) pigs with the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD) domain to elicit neutralizing antibodies SERO. Animals rapidly developed hyperimmune sera with end-titers binding dilutions over one to a million and end-titers neutralizing dilutions of 1:10,000. The IgG fraction purified and formulated following clinical Good Manufacturing Practices, named XAV-19, neutralized Spike/ACE-2 interaction at a concentration < 1microgram/mL and inhibited infection MESHD of human cells by SARS-CoV-2 in cytopathic assays. These data and the accumulating safety advantages of using glyco-humanized swine antibodies SERO in humans warrant clinical assessment of XAV-19 to fight against COVID-19.

    Overweight MESHD Overweight HP/ obesity MESHD obesity HP as the potentially most important lifestyle factor associated with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19

    Authors: Vanessa Sacco; Barbara Rauch; Christina Gar; Stefanie Haschka; Anne L Potzel; Stefanie Kern-Matschilles; Friederike Banning; Irina Benz; Mandy Meisel; Jochen Seissler; Andreas Lechner

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20161042 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Objective The occurrence of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP separates severe cases of COVID-19 from the majority of cases with mild disease MESHD. However, the factors determining whether or not pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP develops remain to be fully uncovered. We therefore explored the associations of several lifestyle factors with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19. Methods Between May and July 2020, we conducted an online survey of adults TRANS in Germany who had recently gone through COVID-19, predominantly as outpatients (n=201). Of these, 165 had a PCR-based diagnosis and 36 had a retrospective diagnosis by antibody testing SERO. The survey covered demographic information, eight lifestyle factors, comorbidities and medication use. We defined the main outcome as the presence vs. the absence of signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, represented by dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, the requirement for oxygen therapy or intubation. Results Signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP occurred in 39 of the 165 individuals with a PCR-based diagnosis of COVID-19 (23.6%). Among the lifestyle factors examined, only overweight MESHD overweight HP/ obesity MESHD obesity HP associated with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP (odds ratio 2.68 (1.29 - 5.59) p=0.008). The observed association remained significant after multivariate adjustment, with BMI as a metric variable, and also after including the antibody SERO-positive individuals into the analysis. Conclusions This exploratory study finds an association of overweight MESHD overweight HP/ obesity MESHD obesity HP with signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in COVID-19. This finding suggests that a signal proportional to body fat mass, such as the hormone leptin, impairs the body's ability to clear SARS-CoV-2 before pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP develops. This hypothesis concurs with previous work and should be investigated further to possibly reduce the proportion of severe cases of COVID-19.

    IgG antibody SERO seroconversion and the clinical progression of COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP: A retrospective, cohort study

    Authors: Kazuyoshi Kurashima; Naho Kagiyama; Takashi Ishiguro; Yotaro Takaku; Hiromi Nakajima; Shun Shibata; Yuma Matsui; Kenji Takano; Taisuke Isono; Takashi Nishida; Eriko Kawate; Chiaki Hosoda; Yoichi Kobayashi; Noboru Takayanagi; Tsutomu Yanagisawa

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.16.20154088 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) causes severe acute respiratory failure HP. Antibody SERO-dependent enhancement (ADE) is known as the mechanism for severe forms of other coronavirus diseases MESHD. The clinical progression of COVID-19 before and after IgG antibody SERO seroconversion was investigated. Methods: Fifty-three patients with reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCT)-confirmed COVID-19 viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP with or without respiratory failure HP were retrospectively investigated. The timing of the first IgG antibody SERO against SARS-CoV-2-positive date, as well as changes of C-reactive protein (CRP) as an inflammatory marker and blood SERO lymphocyte numbers, was assessed using serial preserved blood SERO samples. Findings: Ten patients recovered without oxygen therapy (mild/moderate group), 32 patients had hypoxemia HP and recovered with antiviral drugs (severe/non-ICU group), and 11 patients had severe respiratory failure HP and were treated in the ICU (6 of them died; critical/ICU group). The first IgG-positive date (day 0) was observed from 5 to 18 days from the onset of disease MESHD. At day 0, a CRP peak was observed in the severe and critical groups, whereas there was no synchronized CRP peak on day 0 in the mild/moderate group. In the severe/non-ICU group, the blood SERO lymphocyte number increased (P=0.0007) and CRP decreased (P=0.0007) after day 0, whereas CRP did not decrease and the blood SERO lymphocyte number further decreased (P=0.0370) in the critical/ICU group. Interpretation: The respiratory failure HP due to COVID-19 viral pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP observed in week 2 may be related to an antibody SERO-related mechanism rather than uncontrolled viral replication. In the critical form of COVID-19, inflammation MESHD was sustained after IgG seroconversion.

    Pericarditis MESHD Pericarditis HP and myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP long after SARS-CoV-2 infection: a cross MESHD-sectional descriptive study in health-care workers

    Authors: Rocio Eiros; Manuel Barreiro-Perez; Ana Martin-Garcia; Julia Almeida; Eduardo Villacorta; Alba Perez-Pons; Soraya Merchan; Alba Torres-Valle; Clara Sanchez-Pablo; David Gonzalez-Calle; Oihane Perez-Escurza; Ines Toranzo; Elena Diaz-Pelaez; Blanca Fuentes-Herrero; Laura Macias-Alvarez; Guillermo Oliva-Ariza; Quentin Lecrevisse; Rafael Fluxa; Jose L Bravo-Grandez; Alberto Orfao; Pedro L Sanchez

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.12.20151316 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Cardiac sequelae of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD are still poorly documented. We conducted a cross-sectional study in health-care workers to report evidence of pericarditis MESHD pericarditis HP and myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods We studied 139 health-care workers with confirmed past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD (103 diagnosed by RT-PCR and 36 by serology). Participants underwent clinical assessment, electrocardiography, laboratory tests including immune cell profiling and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Pericarditis MESHD Pericarditis HP was diagnosed when classical criteria were present, and the diagnosis of myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP was based on the updated CMR Lake-Louise-Criteria. Results: Median age TRANS was 52 years (IQR 41-57), 100 (72%) were women, and 23 (16%) were previously hospitalized for Covid-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. At examination (10.4 [9.3-11.0] weeks after infection MESHD-like symptoms), all participants presented hemodynamic stability. Chest pain MESHD Chest pain HP, dyspnoea or palpitations HP were observed in 58 (42%) participants; electrocardiographic abnormalities in 69 (50%); NT-pro-BNP was elevated in 11 (8%); troponin in 1 (1%); and CMR abnormalities in 104 (75%). Isolated pericarditis MESHD pericarditis HP was diagnosed in 4 (3%) participants, myopericarditis in 15 (11%) and isolated myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP in 36 (26%). Participants diagnosed by RT-PCR were more likely to still present symptoms than participants diagnosed by serology (73 [71%] vs 18 [50%]; p=0.027); nonetheless, the prevalence SERO of pericarditis MESHD pericarditis HP or myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP was high in both groups (44 [43%] vs 11 [31%]; p=0.238). Most participants (101 [73%]) showed altered immune cell counts in blood SERO, particularly decreased eosinophil (37 [27%]; p<0.001) and increased CD4-CD8-/loT alpha beta-cell numbers (24 [17%]; p<0.001). Pericarditis MESHD Pericarditis HP was associated with elevated CD4-CD8-/loT alpha beta-cell numbers (p=0.011), while participants diagnosed with myopericarditis or myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP had lower (p<0.05) plasmacytoid dendritic cell, NK-cell and plasma SERO cell counts and lower anti-SARS-CoV-2- IgG antibody SERO levels (p=0.027). Conclusions: Pericarditis MESHD Pericarditis HP and myocarditis MESHD myocarditis HP with clinical stability are frequent long after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, even in presently asymptomatic TRANS subjects. These observations will probably apply to the general population infected and may indicate that cardiac sequelae might occur late in association with an altered (delayed) innate and adaptative immune response.

    Replication-competent vesicular stomatitis MESHD stomatitis HP virus vaccine vector protects against SARS-CoV-2-mediated pathogenesis

    Authors: James Brett Case; Paul Rothlauf; Rita E. Chen; Natasha Kafai; Julie M. Fox; Swathi Shrihari; Broc T. McCune; Ian B. Harvey; Brittany Smith; Shamus Keeler; Louis-Marie Bloyet; Emma S Winkler; Michael J. Holtzman; Daved H. Fremont; Sean P. J. Whelan; Michael S. Diamond

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.196386 Date: 2020-07-10 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused millions of human infections MESHD and hundreds of thousands of deaths MESHD. Accordingly, an effective vaccine is of critical importance in mitigating coronavirus induced disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) and curtailing the pandemic. We developed a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis MESHD stomatitis HP virus (VSV)-based vaccine by introducing a modified form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike gene in place of the native glycoprotein gene (VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2). Immunization of mice with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 elicits high titers of antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 SERO infection MESHD and target the receptor binding domain that engages human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Upon challenge with a human isolate of SARS-CoV-2, mice expressing human ACE2 and immunized with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 show profoundly reduced viral infection MESHD and inflammation MESHD in the lung indicating protection against pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP. Finally, passive transfer of sera from VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2-immunized animals protects naive mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These data support development of VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 as an attenuated, replication-competent vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.

    Baricitinib restrains the immune dysregulation HP in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Vincenzo Bronte; Stefano Ugel; Elisa Tinazzi; Antonio Vella; Francesco De Sanctis; Stefania Canè; Veronica Batani; Rosalinda Trovato; Alessandra Fiore; Varvara Petrova; Francesca Hofer; Roza Maria Barouni; Chiara Musiu; Simone Caligola; Laura Pinton; Lorena Torroni; Enrico Polati; Katia Donadello; Simonetta Friso; Francesca Pizzolo; Manuela Iezzi; Federica Facciotti; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci; Daniela Righetti; Paolo Bazzoni; Marielisa Rampudda; Andrea Comel; Walter Mosaner; Caludio Lunardi; Oliviero Olivieri

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.26.20135319 Date: 2020-06-29 Source: medRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). The majority of patients with COVID-19 have a good prognosis, but variable percentages in different countries develop pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP associated with lymphocytopenia and severe inflammatory response due to uncontrolled release of cytokines. These immune mediators are transcriptionally regulated by JAK-STAT molecular pathways, which can be disabled by small molecules. Here, we provide evidences on the efficacy of baricitinib, a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, in correcting the immune abnormalities observed in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Indeed, we demonstrate a significant reduction in serum SERO levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1{beta} and tumor necrosis MESHD factor (TNF), a rapid recovery in circulating T and B cell frequencies and an increased antibody SERO production against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in baricitinib-treated patients. Moreover, treated patients underwent a rapid reduction in oxygen flow need and progressive increase in the P/F. Our work provides the basis on developing effective treatments against COVID-19 pathogenesis using on-target therapy.

    Persistence of viral RNA, widespread thrombosis MESHD thrombosis and abnormal HP and abnormal cellular syncytia are hallmarks of COVID-19 lung pathology

    Authors: Mauro Giacca; Rossana Bussani; Edoardo Schneider; Lorena Zentilin; Chiara Collesi; Hashim Ali; Luca Braga; Ilaria Secco; Maria Concetta Volpe; Andrea Colliva; Fabrizio Zanconati; Giorgio Berlot; Furio Silvestri; Serena Zacchigna

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.22.20136358 Date: 2020-06-26 Source: medRxiv

    COVID-19 is a deadly pulmonary disease MESHD with unique clinical features. A thorough understanding of the molecular and histological correlates of the disease MESHD is still missing, especially because post-mortem analysis of COVID-19-affected organs has been so far scant and often anecdotical. Here we report the results of the systematic analysis of 41 consecutive post-mortem samples from individuals who died of COVID-19. We found that the disease MESHD is characterized by extensive alveolar damage and thrombosis MESHD of the lung micro- and macro-vasculature. Thrombi were in different stages of organization, consistent with an ongoing, endogenous thrombotic process. In all the analyzed samples, in situ RNA hybridization showed that pneumocytes and vascular endothelial cells had massive presence of viral RNA even at the later stages of the disease MESHD. An additional feature of the disease MESHD was the presence, in the vast majority of patients, of a large number of dysmorphic pneumocytes, often forming large syncytial elements, a consequence of the fusogenic activity of the viral Spike protein, detected with specific antibodies SERO. Despite occasional presence of virus-positive cells in the heart, no overt signs of viral infection MESHD were detected in other organs, which showed common alterations compatible with prolonged hypoxia MESHD, multifocal organ disease MESHD or previous comorbidities. In summary, COVID-19 is a unique interstitial pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP with extensive lung thrombosis MESHD, long-term persistence of viral replication in pneumocytes and endothelial cells, along with the presence of infected cellular syncytia in the lung. We propose that several of the COVID-19 disease MESHD features are due to the persistence of virus-infected cells in the lungs of the infected individuals for the duration of the disease MESHD.


    Authors: Francesca Crovetto; Fatima Crispi; Elisa Llurba; Francesc Figueras; Maria Dolores Gomez-Roig; Eduard Gratacos

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.17.20134098 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: Case registries of pregnant women diagnosed with coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have reported that the majority experienced mild infection MESHD, but up to 9% may require critical care. Most COVID-19 cases published were in the third trimester of pregnancy, which could reflect reporting bias, higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD or increased disease MESHD severity in late pregnancy. Seroprevalence SERO studies may allow reliable estimates of the susceptibility to infection MESHD and clinical spectrum since they include asymptomatic TRANS and mild infections MESHD not tested for PCR. We evaluated the seroprevalence SERO and clinical presentation of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in pregnant women in the first and third trimester. Methods: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at each institution and informed consent was obtained. We recruited 874 consecutive pregnancies attending for first trimester screening (10-16 weeks of gestation, n=372) or delivery (n=502) from April 14 to May 5. All women were interviewed with a structured questionnaire for COVID-19 symptoms two months prior to sampling. SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM/IgA antibodies were tested SERO (COVID-19 VIRCLIA Monotest, Vircell Microbiologist, Spain; reported sensitivity SERO 70% IgG and 89% IgM/IgA, and specificity 89% and 99% respectively). Indeterminate results were re-tested (VITROS Immunodiagnostic Products Anti-SARS-CoV2 Total Tests, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA; 100% sensitivity SERO and specificity) and re-classified as positive or negative. Women with COVID-19 were diagnosed and managed according to standard protocols and guidelines3,4. Statistical differences were tested using the {chi}2 test or Student t-test as appropriate (p<0.05). Results: A total of 125 of 874 women (14.3%) were positive for either IgG or IgM/IgA SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, 54/372 (14.5%) in the first and 71/502 (14.1%) in the third trimester. A total of 75/125 (60%) reported no symptoms of COVID-19 in the past 2 months, whereas 44 (35.2%) reported one or more symptoms, of which 31 (24.8%) had at least 3 symptoms or anosmia HP and 8 (6.4%) dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP. Overall, 7 women (5.6%) were admitted for persistent fever MESHD fever HP despite paracetamol and dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP, of which 3 had signs of pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP on chest radiography. All 3 had criteria for severity (bilateral chest condensation, respiratory rate>30 and leukopenia MESHD leukopenia HP) and required oxygen support but not critical care or mechanical ventilation, and they were all discharged well. The rates of symptomatic infection MESHD, hospital admission or dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP were significantly higher in third trimester women (Table and Figure). Discussion: The 14.3% seroprevalence SERO of SARS-COV-2 in pregnant women in this study was substantially larger than the contemporary rates of PCR positive cases (0.78%) reported for women 20-40y in Barcelona. The data confirm that COVID-19 is asymptomatic TRANS in the majority of pregnant women6 and illustrate the value of seroprevalence SERO studies to capture the high proportion of asymptomatic TRANS or mild infections MESHD. In this study, none of the 125 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD required critical care as compared to 9% reported in cases diagnosed with PCR. However, the proportion of infections MESHD with symptoms or dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP was remarkably higher in the third trimester, and these results are in line with COVID-19 registries, reporting that 81% of hospitalized women were in late pregnancy or peripartum. These results provide reassuring information that, even in settings with a high prevalence SERO, SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in pregnancy mostly presents with asymptomatic TRANS or mild clinical forms. The susceptibility to infection MESHD seemed to be the same in the first and the third trimesters of gestation. The data further suggest that, as with other respiratory viruses, COVID-19 could be more severe and require increased surveillance in late pregnancy. These findings should be confirmed and extended with larger consecutive prevalence SERO studies in pregnancy.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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