Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Comparative analyses of SARS-CoV-2 binding (IgG, IgM, IgA) and neutralizing antibodies SERO from human serum samples SERO

    Authors: Livia Mazzini; Donata Martinuzzi; Inesa Hyseni; Giulia Lapini; Linda Benincasa; Pietro Piu; Claudia Maria Trombetta; Serena Marchi; Ilaria Razzano; Alessandro Manenti; Emanuele Montomoli

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.243717 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: bioRxiv

    A newly identified coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, emerged in December 2019 in Hubei Province, China, and quickly spread throughout the world; so far, it has caused more than 18 million cases of disease MESHD and 700,000 deaths MESHD. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is currently based on the detection of viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs by means of molecular-based assays, such as real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, serological assays SERO aimed at detecting different classes of antibodies SERO constitute the best surveillance strategy for gathering information on the humoral immune response to infection MESHD and the spread of the virus through the population, in order to evaluate the immunogenicity of novel future vaccines and medicines for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 disease MESHD. The aim of this study was to determine SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO in human serum samples SERO by means of different commercial and in-house ELISA SERO kits, in order to evaluate and compare their results first with one another and then with those yielded by functional assays using wild-type virus. It is important to know the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies SERO in order to predict population immunity and possible cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses and to identify potentially infectious subjects. In addition, in a small sub-group of samples, we performed a subtyping Immunoglobulin G ELISA SERO. Our data showed an excellent statistical correlation between the neutralization titer and the IgG, IgM and IgA ELISA SERO response against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein, confirming that antibodies SERO against this portion of the virus spike protein are highly neutralizing and that the ELISA SERO Receptor-Binding Domain-based assay can be used as a valid surrogate for the neutralization assay in laboratories which do not have Biosecurity level-3 facilities.

    SARS-CoV-2 antigens expressed in plants detect antibody SERO responses in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Mohau S Makatsa; Marius B Tincho; Jerome M Wendoh; Sherazaan D Ismail; Rofhiwa Nesamari; Francisco Pera; Scott de Beer; Anura David; Sarika Jugwanth; Maemu P Gededzha; Nakampe Mampeule; Ian Sanne; Wendy Stevens; Lesley Scott; Jonathan Blackburn; Elizabeth S Mayne; Roanne S Keeton; Wendy A Burgers

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20167940 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has swept the world and poses a significant global threat to lives and livelihoods, with over 16 million confirmed cases TRANS and at least 650 000 deaths MESHD from COVID-19 in the first 7 months of the pandemic. Developing tools to measure seroprevalence SERO and understand protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is a priority. We aimed to develop a serological assay SERO using plant-derived recombinant viral proteins, which represent important tools in less-resourced settings. Methods: We established an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) using the S1 and receptor-binding domain (RBD) portions of the spike protein from SARS-CoV-2, expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. We measured antibody SERO responses in sera from South African patients (n=77) who had tested positive by PCR for SARS-CoV-2. Samples were taken a median of six weeks after the diagnosis, and the majority of participants had mild and moderate COVID-19 disease MESHD. In addition, we tested the reactivity of pre-pandemic plasma SERO (n=58) and compared the performance SERO of our in-house ELISA SERO with a commercial assay. We also determined whether our assay could detect SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA in saliva. Results: We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins are readily detectable using recombinant plant-derived viral proteins, in patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR. Reactivity to S1 and RBD was detected in 51 (66%) and 48 (62%) of participants, respectively. Notably, we detected 100% of samples identified as having S1-specific antibodies SERO by a validated, high sensitivity SERO commercial ELISA SERO, and OD values were strongly and significantly correlated between the two assays. For the pre-pandemic plasma SERO, 1/58 (1.7%) of samples were positive, indicating a high specificity for SARS-CoV-2 in our ELISA SERO. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG correlated significantly with IgA and IgM responses. Endpoint titers of S1- and RBD-specific immunoglobulins ranged from 1:50 to 1:3200. S1-specific IgG and IgA were found in saliva samples from convalescent volunteers. Conclusions: We demonstrate that recombinant SARS-CoV-2 proteins produced in plants enable robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses. This assay can be used for seroepidemiological studies and to measure the strength and durability of antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2 in infected patients in our setting.

    Cold-adapted live attenuated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine completely protects human ACE2 transgenic mice from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Sang Heui Seo; Yunyueng Jang

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.235689 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: bioRxiv

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has infected more than 16,000,000 people and has caused the death MESHD of more than 650,000 individuals since December 2019. A safe and effective vaccine that can provide herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed to stop the spread of this virus among humans. Many human viral vaccines are live attenuated forms of viruses that elicit humoral and cellular immunity. Here, we describe the development of a cold-adapted live attenuated vaccine (SARS-CoV-2/human/Korea/CNUHV03-CA22{degrees}C/2020) by gradually adapting the growth of SARS-CoV-2 from 37{degrees}C to 22{degrees}C in Vero cells. This vaccine can be potentially administered to humans through nasal spray. Its single dose was observed to strongly induce the neutralising antibody SERO (>640), cellular immunity, and mucosal IgA antibody SERO in intranasally immunised K18-hACE2 mice, which are very susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection MESHD. The one-dose vaccinated mice were completely protected from SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and did not show loss of body weight MESHD, death MESHD, and the presence of virus in tissues, such as the nasal turbinates, brain, lungs, and kidneys. Taken together, the cold-adapted live attenuated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine developed by us may contribute to saving of human lives from the threat of SARS-CoV-2.

    High SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in Health Care Workers but relatively low numbers of deaths MESHD in urban Malawi

    Authors: Marah Grace Chibwana; Khuzwayo Chidiwa Jere; Jonathan Mandolo; Vincent Katunga-Phiri; Dumizulu Tembo; Ndaona Mitole; Samantha Musasa; Simon Sichone; Agness Lakudzala; Lusako Sibale; Prisca Matambo; Innocent Kadwala; Rachel Louise Byrne; Alice Mbewe; Marc Y.R. Henrion; Ben Morton; Chimota Phiri; Jane Mallewa; Henry C Mwandumba; Emily R Adams; Stephen B Gordon; Kondwani Charles Jambo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164970 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background In low-income countries, like Malawi, important public health measures including social distancing or a lockdown, have been challenging to implement owing to socioeconomic constraints, leading to predictions that the COVID-19 pandemic would progress rapidly. However, due to limited capacity to test for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD, there are no reliable estimates of the true burden of infection MESHD and death MESHD. We, therefore, conducted a SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey amongst health care workers (HCW) in Blantyre city to estimate the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in urban Malawi. Methods Five hundred otherwise asymptomatic TRANS HCWs were recruited from Blantyre City (Malawi) from 22nd May 2020 to 19th June 2020 and serum samples SERO were collected all participants. A commercial ELISA SERO was used to measure SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in serum SERO. We run local negative samples (2018 - 2019) to verify the specificity of the assay. To estimate the seroprevalence SERO of SARS CoV-2 antibodies SERO, we adjusted the proportion of positive results based on local specificity of the assay. Results Eighty-four participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. The HCW with a positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO result came from different parts of the city. The adjusted seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO was 12.3% [CI 9.0-15.7]. Using age TRANS-stratified infection MESHD fatality estimates reported from elsewhere, we found that at the observed adjusted seroprevalence SERO, the number of predicted deaths MESHD was 8 times the number of reported deaths MESHD. Conclusion The high seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO among HCW and the discrepancy in the predicted versus reported deaths MESHD, suggests that there was early exposure but slow progression of COVID-19 epidemic in urban Malawi. This highlights the urgent need for development of locally parameterised mathematical models to more accurately predict the trajectory of the epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa for better evidence-based policy decisions and public health response planning.

    Use of a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody SERO (itolizumab) in elderly TRANS patients with moderate COVID-19

    Authors: Mayra Ramos-Suzarte; Yayquier Diaz; Yordanis Martin; Nestor Antonio Calderon; William Santiago; Orlando Vinet; Yulieski La O; Jorge Perez; Augusto Oyarzabal; Yoan Perez; Geidy Lorenzo; Meylan Cepeda; Danay Saavedra; Zayma Mazorra; Daymys Estevez; Patricia Lorenzo-Luaces; Carmen Valenzuela; Armando Caballero; Kalet leon; Tania Crombet; Carlos Jorge Hidalgo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20153833 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Introduction: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a recent outbreak of Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19). In Cuba, the first case of COVID-19 was reported on March 11. Elderly TRANS with multiple comorbidities are particularly susceptible to adverse clinical outcomes in the course of SARS CoV-2 infection MESHD. During the outbreak, a local transmission TRANS event took place in a nursing home in Villa Clara province, Cuba, in which nineteen elderly TRANS residents were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Based on the increased susceptibility to viral-induced cytokine release syndrome MESHD inducing respiratory and systemic complications in this population, the patients were included in an expanded access clinical trial to receive itolizumab, an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody SERO. Results: All the patients had underlying medical conditions. The product was well tolerated. After the first dose, the course of the disease MESHD was favorable and 18 out of 19 (94.7%) patients were discharged clinically recovered with negative RT-PCR at 13 days (median). One dose of itolizumab, circulating IL-6 decreased in the first 24-48 hours in patients with high baseline values, whereas in patients with low levels, this concentration remained over low values. To preliminary assess the effect of itolizumab, a control group was selected among the Cuban COVID-19 patients, which did not receive immunomodulatory therapy. Control subjects were well-matched regarding age TRANS, comorbidities and severity of the disease MESHD. Every three moderately ill patients treated with itolizumab, one admission in intensive care unit (ICU) was prevented. Discussion/Conclusion: Itolizumab was well tolerated. Its effect is associated with a reduction and controlling IL-6 serum SERO levels. Moreover, treated patients had a favorable clinical outcome, considering their poor prognosis. This treatment is associated significantly with a decrease the risk to be admitted in ICU and reduced 10 times the risk of death MESHD. This study corroborates that the timely use of itolizumab, in combination with other antiviral and anticoagulant therapies, is associated with a reduction the COVID-19 disease MESHD worsening and mortality. The humanized antibody SERO itolizumab emerges as a therapeutic alternative for patients with COVID-19 and suggests its possible use in patients with cytokine release syndrome MESHD from other pathologies.

    Seroprevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in Kenyan blood SERO donors

    Authors: Sophie Uyoga; Ifedayo M.O. Adetifa; Henry K. Karanja; James Nyagwange; James Tuju; Perpetual Wanjiku; Rashid Aman; Mercy Mwangangi; Patrick Amoth; Kadondi Kasera; Wangari Ng'ang'a; Charles Rombo; Christine K. Yegon; Khamisi Kithi; Elizabeth Odhiambo; Thomas Rotich; Irene Orgut; Sammy Kihara; Mark Otiende; Christian Bottomley; Zonia N. Mupe; Eunice W. Kagucia; Katherine Gallagher; Anthony Etyang; Shirine Voller; John Gitonga; Daisy Mugo; Charles N. Agoti; Edward Otieno; Leonard Ndwiga; Teresa Lambe; Daniel Wright; Edwine Barasa; Benjamin Tsofa; Philip Bejon; Lynette I. Ochola-Oyier; Ambrose Agweyu; J. Anthony G. Scott; George M Warimwe

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20162693 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background There are no data on SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in Africa though the COVID-19 epidemic curve and reported mortality differ from patterns seen elsewhere. We estimated the anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO prevalence SERO among blood SERO donors in Kenya. Methods We measured anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG prevalence SERO by ELISA SERO on residual blood SERO donor samples obtained between April 30 and June 16, 2020. Assay sensitivity SERO and specificity were 83% (95% CI 59, 96%) and 99.0% (95% CI 98.1, 99.5%), respectively. National seroprevalence SERO was estimated using Bayesian multilevel regression and post-stratification to account for non-random sampling with respect to age TRANS, sex and region, adjusted for assay performance SERO. Results Complete data were available for 3098 of 3174 donors, aged TRANS 15-64 years. By comparison with the Kenyan population, the sample over-represented males TRANS (82% versus 49%), adults TRANS aged TRANS 25-34 years (40% versus 27%) and residents of coastal Counties (49% versus 9%). Crude overall seroprevalence SERO was 5.6% (174/3098). Population-weighted, test-adjusted national seroprevalence SERO was 5.2% (95% CI 3.7, 7.1%). Seroprevalence SERO was highest in the 3 largest urban Counties; Mombasa (9.3% [95% CI 6.4, 13.2%)], Nairobi (8.5% [95% CI 4.9, 13.5%]) and Kisumu (6.5% [95% CI 3.3, 11.2%]). Conclusions We estimate that 1 in 20 adults TRANS in Kenya had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO during the study period. By the median date of our survey, only 2093 COVID-19 cases and 71 deaths MESHD had been reported through the national screening system. This contrasts, by several orders of magnitude, with the numbers of cases and deaths MESHD reported in parts of Europe and America when seroprevalence SERO was similar.

    A Comprehensive Evaluation of Early Predictors of Disease Progression MESHD in Patients with COVID-19: A Case Control Study

    Authors: Qiang Tang; Yanwei Liu; Yingfeng Fu; Ziyang Di; Kailiang Xu; Bo Tang; Hui Wu; Maojun Di

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50527/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) has become an unprecedented public health crisis with nearly 16 million confirmed cases TRANS and 630,000 deaths MESHD worldwide. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological and treatment data of COVID-19 patients consecutively enrolled from January 18 to May 15, 2020, in Taihe and Jinzhou central hospital. Results: Of all 197 patients, the median age TRANS was 66.5 years (IQR 7-76), and 120 (60.9%) patients were males TRANS. We identified 88 (44.7%) of 197 COVID-19 patients as the disease progression MESHD (aggravation) cases. The aggravation cases tend to have more medical comorbidity: hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (34.1%), diabetes (30.7%), and presented with dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP (34.1%), neutrophilia HP (60.2%), and lymphocytopenia (73.9%), compared with those without. And the patients with disease progression MESHD showed significantly higher level of Fibrinogen (Fbg), D-dimer, IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and serum SERO ferritin, and were more prone to develop organ damage in the liver, kidney, and heart (P<0.05). Multivariable regression showed that advanced age TRANS, comorbidities, lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP, and elevated level of Fbg, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Cardiac troponin (CTnI), IL-6, serum SERO ferritin were the significant predictors of disease progression MESHD. Further, we investigated antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2 and found that the levels of IgM and IgG were significantly higher in the disease progression MESHD cases compared to non-progression cases from 3 weeks after symptom onset TRANS. In addition, the disease progression MESHD group tended to peak later and has a more vigorous IgM/IgG response against SARS-CoV-2. Further, we performed Kaplan-Meier analysis and found that 61.6% of patients had not experienced ICU transfer or survival from hospital within 25 days from admission.Conclusions: Investigating the potential factors of advanced age TRANS, comorbidities and elevated level of IL-6, serum SERO ferritin and Kaplan-Meier analysis enables early identification and management of patients with poor prognosis. Detection of the dynamic antibody SERO may offer vital clinical information during the course of SARS-CoV-2 and provide prognostic value for patients infection MESHD.  

    Asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19; We Don’t Know What We Don’t Know

    Authors: Olen R. Brown

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0681.v1 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: preprints.org

    Decisions affecting the COVID-19 pandemic, by the individual and those with highest authority, are being made on the basis of unreliable data. Data about cases and deaths MESHD are collected daily but represent only a sample of reality. Statistics convert sample data into more reliable estimates. However, statistics have no magical powers; reliability requires dependable data. It is futile to rail against this darkness; COVID-19 is not a scientific experiment. However, we must do better both with data collection and data analysis. In this review, I focus on one element of the data, the asymptomatic TRANS case of COVID-19. Without reliable information about this number, decision makers are significantly blinded. By its nature, the asymptomatic TRANS case is hidden but contaminating to understanding COVID-19. The true case rate and death MESHD rate per case are unknowable without knowing the fraction of cases that are asymptomatic TRANS. The best estimate of asymptomatic TRANS cases is in the CDC document: COVID-19 Pandemic Planning Scenarios. For four different scenarios the estimates range from 10% to 70%, with the best estimate of 40% for asymptomatic TRANS cases. However, even the definition of the asymptomatic TRANS case is problematic. In simplest terms, two elements are required: an infection MESHD and no symptoms. How is “no symptoms” to be usefully defined? It appears to be analogous to pontificating about black swans from studying only white swans. It implies infection MESHD, but how is infection MESHD defined? Is it presence of the virus, replication of the virus, or presence of antibodies SERO? Is asymptomatic disease MESHD asymptomatic TRANS an oxymoron? Without extensive, purposeful screening for specifically defined, essential symptoms and appropriate virus and antibody testing SERO over time, the class of asymptomatic TRANS cases remains unknown. Current estimates range from <20% to ˃80%. If low, it can be ignored; if high, it dramatically and proportionately lowers the case rate and the death MESHD rate per case. Consequentially, the asymptomatic TRANS rate dramatically affects our societal and political responses. In this focused review, we assess the limitations of the published estimates, bring attention to the importance of obtaining accurate data, and exhort that high priority be given in the scientific community to understanding the issue, asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 cases.

    Longitudinal COVID-19 Surveillance and Characterization in the Workplace with Public Health and Diagnostic Endpoints

    Authors: Manjula Gunawardana; Jessica Breslin; John M Cortez; Sofia Rivera; Simon Webster; F Javier Ibarrondo; Otto O Yang; Richard B Pyles; Christina M Ramirez; Amy P Adler; Peter A Anton; Marc M Baum

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.20160812 Date: 2020-07-28 Source: medRxiv

    Background The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the associated coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) have precipitated a global pandemic heavily challenging our social behavior, economy, and healthcare infrastructure. Public health practices currently represent the primary interventions for managing the spread of the pandemic. We hypothesized that frequent, longitudinal workplace disease MESHD surveillance would represent an effective approach to controlling SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS among employees and their household members, reducing potential economic consequences and loss of productivity of standard isolation methods, while providing new insights into viral-host dynamics. Methodology and Findings On March 23, 2020 a clinical study (OCIS-05) was initiated at a small Southern California organization. Results from the first 3 months of the ongoing study are presented here. Study participants (27 employees and 27 household members) consented to provide frequent nasal or oral swab samples that were analyzed by RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using CDC protocols. Only participants testing negative were allowed to enter the "safe zone" workplace facility. Optional blood SERO samples were collected at baseline and throughout the 3-month study. Serum SERO virus-specific antibody SERO concentrations (IgG, IgM, and IgA) were measured using a selective, sensitive, and quantitative ELISA assay SERO developed in house. A COVID-19 infection MESHD model, based on traditional SEIR compartmental models combined with Bayesian non-linear mixed models and modern machine learning, was used to predict the number of employees and household members who would have become infected in the absence of workplace surveillance. Two study participants were found to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the study. One subject, a household member, tested positive clinically by RT-qPCR prior to enrollment and experienced typical COVID-19 symptoms that did not require hospitalization. While on study, the participant was SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive for at least 71 days and had elevated virus-specific antibody SERO concentrations (medians: IgM, 9.83 ug mL-1; IgG, 11.5 ug mL-1; IgA, 1.29 ug mL-1) in serum samples SERO collected at three timepoints. A single, unrelated employee became positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA over the course of the study, but remained asymptomatic TRANS with low associated viral RNA copy numbers. The participant did not have detectable serum SERO IgM and IgG concentrations, and IgA concentrations decayed rapidly (half-life: 1.3 d). The employee was not allowed entry to the safe zone workplace until testing negative three consecutive times over 7 d. No other employees or household members contracted COVID-19 over the course of the study. Our model predicted that under the current prevalence SERO in Los Angeles County without surveillance intervention, up to 7 employees (95% CI = 3-10) would have become infected with at most 1 of them requiring hospitalizations and 0 deaths MESHD. Conclusions Our clinical study met its primary objectives by using intense longitudinal testing to provide a safe work environment during the COVID-19 pandemic, and elucidating SARS-CoV-2 dynamics in recovering and asymptomatic TRANS participants. The surveillance plan outlined here is scalable and transferrable. The study represents a powerful example on how an innovative public health initiative can be dovetailed with scientific discovery.

    Newcastle disease MESHD virus (NDV) expressing the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 as vaccine candidate

    Authors: Weina Sun; Sarah R Leist; Stephen McCroskery; Yonghong Liu; Stefan Slamanig; Justine Oliva; Fatima Amanat; Alexandra Schaefer; Kenneth Dinnon III; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Florian Krammer; Ralph S. Baric; Peter Palese

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.26.221861 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: bioRxiv

    Due to the lack of protective immunity of humans towards the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, this virus has caused a massive pandemic across the world resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths MESHD. Thus, a vaccine is urgently needed to contain the spread of the virus. Here, we describe Newcastle disease MESHD virus (NDV) vector vaccines expressing the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 in its wild type or a pre-fusion membrane anchored format. All described NDV vector vaccines grow to high titers in embryonated chicken eggs. In a proof of principle mouse study, we report that the NDV vector vaccines elicit high levels of antibodies that are neutralizing SERO when the vaccine is given intramuscularly. Importantly, these COVID-19 vaccine candidates protect mice from a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 challenge with no detectable viral titer and viral antigen in the lungs. Research in contextO_ST_ABSEvidence before this studyC_ST_ABSThe spike (S) protein of the SARS-CoV-2 is the major antigen that notably induces neutralizing antibodies SERO to block viral entry. Many COVID-19 vaccines are under development, among them viral vectors expressing the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 exhibit many benefits. Viral vector vaccines have the potential of being used as both live or inactivated vaccines and they can induce Th1 and Th2-based immune responses following different immunization regimens. Additionally, viral vector vaccines can be handled under BSL-2 conditions and they grow to high titers in cell cultures or other species restricted-hosts. For a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, several viral vectors are being tested, such as adenovirus, measles MESHD virus and Modified vaccinia MESHD Ankara. Added value of this studyThe NDV vector vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 described in this study has advantages similar to those of other viral vector vaccines. But the NDV vector can be amplified in embryonated chicken eggs, which allows for high yields and low costs per dose. Also, the NDV vector is not a human pathogen, therefore the delivery of the foreign antigen would not be compromised by any pre-existing immunity in humans. Finally, NDV has a very good safety record in humans, as it has been used in many oncolytic virus trials. This study provides an important option for a cost-effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Implications of all the available evidenceThis study informs of the value of a viral vector vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, for this NDV based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, the existing egg-based influenza virus vaccine manufactures in the U.S. and worldwide would have the capacity to rapidly produce hundreds of millions of doses to mitigate the consequences of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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