Corpus overview


MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (33)

Fever (24)

Cough (12)

Anosmia (11)

Respiratory distress (10)


    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 476
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    Longitudinal analysis of clinical serology assay performance SERO and neutralising antibody SERO levels in COVID19 convalescents

    Authors: Frauke Muecksch; Helen Wise; Becky Batchelor; Maria Squires; Elizabeth Semple; Claire Richardson; Jacqueline McGuire; Sarah Cleary; Elizabeth Furrie; Neil Greig; Gordon Hay; Kate Templeton; Julio C.C. Lorenzi; Theodora Hatziioannou; Sara J Jenks; Paul Bieniasz

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20169128 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Objectives:To investigate longitudinal trajectory of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies SERO and the performance SERO of serological assays SERO in diagnosing prior infection MESHD and predicting serum SERO neutralisation titres with time Design Retrospective longitudinal analysis of a COVID19 case cohort . Setting NHS outpatient clinics Participants Individuals with RT-PCR diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD that did not require hospitalization Main outcome measures The sensitivity SERO with which prior infection MESHD was detected and quantitative antibody SERO titres were assessed using four SARS-CoV-2 serologic assay platforms. Two platforms employed SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) based antigens and two employed nucleocapsid (N) based antigens. Serum SERO neutralising antibody SERO titres were measured using a validated pseudotyped virus SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation assay. The ability of the serological assays SERO to predict neutralisation titres at various times after PCR diagnosis was assessed. Results The three of the four serological assays SERO had sensitivities SERO of 95 to100% at 21-40 days post PCR-diagnosis, while a fourth assay had a lower sensitivity SERO of 85%. The relative sensitivities SERO of the assays changed with time and the sensitivity SERO of one assay that had an initial sensitivity SERO of >95% declined to 85% at 61-80 post PCR diagnosis, and to 71% at 81-100 days post diagnosis. Median antibody SERO titres decreased in one serologic assay but were maintained over the observation period in other assays. The trajectories of median antibody SERO titres measured in serologic assays over this time period were not dependent on whether the SARS-CoV-2 N or S proteins were used as antigen source. A broad range of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising titres were evident in individual sera, that decreased over time in the majority of participants; the median neutralisation titre in the cohort decreased by 45% over 4 weeks. Each of the serological assays SERO gave quantitative measurements of antibody SERO titres that correlated with SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation titres, but, the S-based serological assay SERO measurements better predicted serum SERO neutralisation potency. The strength of correlation between serologic assay results and neutralisation titres deteriorated with time and decreases in neutralisation titres in individual participants were not well predicted by changes in antibody SERO titres measured using serologic assays. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays differed in their comparative diagnostic performance SERO over time. Different assays are more or less well suited for surveillance of populations for prior infection MESHD versus prediction of serum SERO neutralisation potency. Continued monitoring of declining neutralisation titres during extended follow up should facilitate the establishment of appropriate serologic correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection.

    Antibody SERO Response and Therapy in COVID-19 Patients: Significance in Vaccine Development

    Authors: Ligong Lu; Hui Zhang; Meixiao Zhan; Jun Jiang; Hua Yin; Danielle J. Dauphars; Shi-You Li; Yong Li; You-Wen He

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0166.v1 Date: 2020-08-06 Source:

    The newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people and caused tremendous morbidity and mortality worldwide. Effective treatment for coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is lacking and different therapeutic strategies are under testing. Host humoral and cellular immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is a critical determinant for patients’ outcome. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD results in seroconversion and production of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. The antibodies SERO may suppress viral replication through neutralization but also might also participate in COVID-19 pathogenesis through a process termed antibody SERO-dependent enhancement. Rapid progress has been made in the research of antibody SERO response and therapy in COVID-19 patients including characterization of the clinical features of antibody SERO responses in different populations infected by SARS-CoV-2, treatment of COVID-19 patients with convalescent plasma SERO and intravenous immunoglobin products, isolation and characterization of a large panel of monoclonal neutralizing antibodies SERO, as well as preliminary clinical results from several COVID-19 vaccine candidates. In this review, we summarize the recent progress and discuss the implications of these findings in vaccine development.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2-Specific IgG Antibodies SERO Among Adults TRANS Living in Connecticut Between March 1 and June 1, 2020: Post- Infection MESHD Prevalence SERO (PIP) Study

    Authors: Shiwani Mahajan; Rajesh Srinivasan; Carrie A Redlich; Sara K Huston; Kelly M Anastasio; Lisa Cashman; Dan Witters; Jenny Marlar; Shu-Xia Li; Zhenqiu Lin; Domonique Hodge; Manas Chattopadhyay; Mark D Adams; Charles Lee; Lokinendi V Rao; Chris Stewart; Karthik Kuppusamy; Albert I Ko; Harlan M Krumholz

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168203 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: A seroprevalence SERO study can estimate the percentage of people with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in the general population. Most existing reports have used a convenience sample, which may bias their estimates. Objective: To estimate the seroprevalence SERO of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 based on a random sample of adults TRANS living in Connecticut between March 1 and June 1, 2020. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: We sought a representative sample of Connecticut residents who completed a survey between June 4 and June 23, 2020 and underwent serology testing for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies SERO between June 10 and July 6, 2020. Participants: 505 respondents, aged TRANS [≥]18 years, residing in non-congregate settings who completed both the survey and the serology test. Main outcomes and measures: We estimated the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies SERO among the overall population and across pre-specified subgroups. We also assessed the prevalence SERO of symptomatic illness, risk factors for virus exposure, and self-reported adherence to risk mitigation behaviors among this population. Results: Of the 505 respondents (mean age TRANS 50 [{+/-}17] years; 54% women; 76% non-Hispanic White individuals) included, 32% reported having at least 1 symptom suggestive of COVID-19 since March 1, 2020. Overall, 18 respondents had SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO, resulting in the state-level weighted seroprevalence SERO of 3.1 (90% CI 1.4-4.8). Individuals who were asymptomatic TRANS had significantly lower seroprevalence SERO (0.6% [90% CI 0.0-1.5]) compared with the overall state estimate, while those who reported having had [≥]1 and [≥]2 symptoms had a seroprevalence SERO of 8.0% (90% CI 3.1-12.9) and 13.0% (90% CI 3.5-22.5), respectively. All 9 of the respondents who reported previously having a positive coronavirus test were positive for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies SERO. Nearly two-third of respondents reported having avoided public places (74%) and small gatherings of family or friends TRANS (75%), and 97% reported wearing a mask outside their home, at least part of the time. Conclusions and relevance: These estimates indicate that most people in Connecticut do not have detectable levels of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. There is a need for continued adherence to risk mitigation behaviors among Connecticut residents, to prevent resurgence of COVID-19 in this region.

    Serology assessment of antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19 by rapid IgM/IgG antibody test SERO

    Authors: Yang De Marinis; Torgny Sunnerhagen; Pradeep Bompada; Anna Blackberg; Runtao Yang; Joel Svensson; Ola Ekstrom; Karl-Fredrik Eriksson; Ola Hansson; Leif Groop; Isabel Goncalves; Magnus Rasmussen

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168815 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a global health- and economic crisis. Lifting confinement restriction and resuming to normality depends greatly on COVID-19 immunity screening. Detection of antibodies SERO to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes COVID-19 by serological methods is important to diagnose a current or resolved infection MESHD. In this study, we applied a rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG antibody test SERO and performed serology assessment of antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2. In PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients (n=45), the total antibody SERO detection rate is 92% in hospitalized patients and 79% in non-hospitalized patients. We also studied antibody SERO response in relation to time after symptom onset TRANS and disease MESHD severity, and observed an increase in antibody SERO reactivity and distinct distribution patterns of IgM and IgG following disease progression MESHD. The total IgM and IgG detection is 63% in patients with < 2 weeks from disease MESHD onset; 85% in non-hospitalized patients with > 2 weeks disease MESHD duration; and 91% in hospitalized patients with > 2 weeks disease MESHD duration. We also compared different blood SERO sample types and suggest a potentially higher sensitivity SERO by serum SERO/ plasma SERO comparing with whole blood SERO measurement. To study the specificity of the test, we used 69 sera/ plasma SERO samples collected between 2016-2018 prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and obtained a test specificity of 97%. In summary, our study provides a comprehensive validation of the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG serology test, and mapped antibody SERO detection patterns in association with disease MESHD progress and hospitalization. Our study supports that the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG test may be applied to assess the COVID-19 status both at the individual and at a population level.

    Peptide Antidotes to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)

    Authors: Andre Watson; Leonardo M.R. Ferreira; Peter Hwang; Jinbo Xu; Robert Stroud

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.238915 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: bioRxiv

    The design of an immunogenic scaffold that serves a role in treating a pathogen, and can be rapidly and predictively modeled, has remained an elusive feat. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-BLOCK synthetic peptide scaffolds act as antidotes to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated infection MESHD of human ACE2-expressing cells. Critically, SARS-BLOCK peptides are able to potently and competitively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 S1 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) binding to ACE2, the main cellular entry pathway for SARS-CoV-2, while also binding to neutralizing antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. In order to create this potential therapeutic antidote-vaccine, we designed, simulated, synthesized, modeled epitopes, predicted peptide folding, and characterized behavior of a novel set of synthetic peptides. The biomimetic technology is modeled off the receptor binding motif of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, and modified to provide enhanced stability and folding versus the truncated wildtype sequence. These novel peptides attain single-micromolar binding affinities for ACE2 and a neutralizing antibody SERO against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD), and demonstrate significant reduction of infection MESHD in nanomolar doses. We also demonstrate that soluble ACE2 abrogates binding of RBD to neutralizing antibodies SERO, which we posit is an essential immune-evasive mechanism of the virus. SARS-BLOCK is designed to uncloak the viral ACE2 coating mechanism, while also binding to neutralizing antibodies SERO with the intention of stimulating a specific neutralizing antibody SERO response. Our peptide scaffolds demonstrate promise for future studies evaluating specificity and sensitivity SERO of immune responses to our antidote-vaccine. In summary, SARS-BLOCK peptides are a promising COVID-19 antidote designed to combine the benefits of a therapeutic and vaccine, effectively creating a new generation of prophylactic and reactive antiviral therapeutics whereby immune responses can be enhanced rather than blunted.

    Features and Functions of Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Immunity Among SARS-CoV-2 Convalescent Individuals

    Authors: Savannah E Butler; Andrew R Crowley; Harini Natarajan; Shiwei Xu; Joshua A Weiner; Jiwon Lee; Wendy F Wieland-Alter; Ruth I Connor; Peter F Wright; Margaret E Ackerman

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168971 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Understanding humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD will play a critical role in the development of vaccines and antibody SERO-based interventions. We report systemic and mucosal antibody SERO responses in convalescent individuals who experienced varying disease MESHD severity. Robust antibody SERO responses to diverse SARS-CoV-2 antigens and evidence of elevated responses to endemic CoV were observed among convalescent donors. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG responses were often negatively correlated, particularly in mucosal samples, suggesting subject-intrinsic biases in isotype switching. Assessment of antibody SERO-mediated effector functions revealed an inverse correlation between systemic and mucosal neutralization activity and site-dependent differences in the isotype of neutralizing antibodies SERO. Serum SERO neutralization correlated with systemic anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM response magnitude, while mucosal neutralization was associated with nasal SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA. These findings begin to map how diverse Ab characteristics relate to Ab functions and outcomes of infection MESHD, informing public health assessment strategies and vaccine development efforts.

    Two SARS-CoV-2 IgG Immunoassays SERO Comparison and Time-Course Profile of Antibodies SERO Response

    Authors: Ruggero Dittadi; Haleh Afshar; Paolo Carraro

    id:202008.0114/v1 Date: 2020-08-05 Source:

    The role of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is not yet well known, in particular about the persistence of circulating antibodies SERO. The aim of the study is to compare the results of two automated systems for the determination of IgG antibodies SERO against SARS CoV-2 and to assess the time course of the IgG response after the onset of symptoms TRANS for a period longer than that evaluated to date. IgG were measured in 98 specimens of 55 subjects with COVID-19 (time from the onset of symptoms TRANS from 3 to 109 days) using the automated tests "Abbott SARS-COV-2 IgG" and the "MAGLUMI 2019-nCoV IgG". The two methods had a concordance of 91.8%, but the quantitative correlation showed very dispersed results. All the specimens resulted positive after 17 days from the onset of the synptoms. However, the median concentrations of IgG, after a rapid increase up to about 20 days, quickly decrease to about 15% of the maximum for Maglumi. The same samples measured by Architect showed a quite constant trend up to 80 day, and then an only moderate decline. The titer of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 in patients exposed to COVID-19 may significantly and rapidly decrease, with a different time-course depending on the method used for the determination.

    Comparative Evaluation of Three Serologic Assays for the Identification of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies SERO

    Authors: Keenan O. Hogan; Dave Klippel; Fred V. Plapp; Rachael M. Liesman

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20167643 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Background and aims Serologic assays for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 ( SARS-CoV-2) antibodies SERO are being developed and approved rapidly with limited external validation. Accurate diagnostics are an essential component to pandemic management and public health. Materials and methods Residual serum samples SERO (N=113) from patients who were evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD status by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were retrospectively tested in parallel across three automated SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays: Liaison SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG, Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 total antibody SERO, and Access SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Results Testing of 51 PCR-positive and 62 PCR-negative patients demonstrated qualitative inter-test agreement of 96% overall, 100% in PCR-negative patients, 88% in early positive samples (0-13 days post positive PCR), and 100% in convalescent samples (14+ days post positive PCR). Calculated kappa values for paired inter-test agreement ranged 0.93-0.96. Compared to PCR, overall percent positive agreement ranged from 82-86% (100% for convalescent samples) and percent negative agreement was 100% for each assay. Conclusion This study demonstrates high diagnostic accuracy and inter-test agreement for three automated SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays. External validation of serologic assays is critical to ensure diagnostic accuracy and appropriate utilization of critical resources.

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

    Evidence for sustained mucosal and systemic antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Baweleta Isho; Kento T Abe; Michelle Zuo; Alainna J Jamal; Bhavisha Rathod; Jenny H Wang; Zhijie Li; Gary Chao; Olga L Rojas; Yeo Myong Bang; Annie Pu; Natasha Christie-Holmes; Christian Gervais; Derek Ceccarelli; Payman Samavarchi-Tehrani; Furkan Guvenc; Patrick Budylowski; Angel Li; Aimee Paterson; Yue Feng Yun; Lina G Marin; Lauren Caldwell; Jeffrey L Wrana; Karen Colwill; Frank Sicheri; Samira Mubareka; Scott D Gray-Owen; Steven J Drews; Walter L Siqueira; Miriam Barrios-Rodiles; Mario Ostrowski; James M Rini; Yves Durocher; Allison J McGeer; Jennifer L Gommerman; Anne-Claude Gingras

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166553 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    While the antibody SERO response to SARS-CoV-2 has been extensively studied in blood SERO, relatively little is known about the mucosal immune response and its relationship to systemic antibody SERO levels. Since SARS-CoV-2 initially replicates in the upper airway, the antibody SERO response in the oral cavity is likely an important parameter that influences the course of infection MESHD. We developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assays SERO to detect IgA and IgG antibodies SERO to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (full length trimer) and its receptor binding domain (RBD) in serum SERO (n=496) and saliva (n=90) of acute and convalescent patients with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 ranging from 3-115 days post- symptom onset TRANS (PSO), compared to negative controls. Anti-CoV-2 antibody SERO responses were readily detected in serum SERO and saliva, with peak IgG levels attained by 16-30 days PSO. Whereas anti-CoV-2 IgA antibodies SERO rapidly decayed, IgG antibodies SERO remained relatively stable up to 115 days PSO in both biofluids. Importantly, IgG responses in saliva and serum SERO were correlated, suggesting that antibodies SERO in the saliva may serve as a surrogate measure of systemic immunity.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype

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