Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    High SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in Health Care Workers but relatively low numbers of deaths MESHD in urban Malawi

    Authors: Marah Grace Chibwana; Khuzwayo Chidiwa Jere; Jonathan Mandolo; Vincent Katunga-Phiri; Dumizulu Tembo; Ndaona Mitole; Samantha Musasa; Simon Sichone; Agness Lakudzala; Lusako Sibale; Prisca Matambo; Innocent Kadwala; Rachel Louise Byrne; Alice Mbewe; Ben Morton; Chimota Phiri; Jane Mallewa; Henry C Mwandumba; Emily R Adams; Stephen B Gordon; Kondwani Charles Jambo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20164970 Date: 2020-08-01 Source: medRxiv

    Background In low-income countries, like Malawi, important public health measures including social distancing or a lockdown, have been challenging to implement owing to socioeconomic constraints, leading to predictions that the COVID-19 pandemic would progress rapidly. However, due to limited capacity to test for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD, there are no reliable estimates of the true burden of infection MESHD and death MESHD. We, therefore, conducted a SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey amongst health care workers (HCW) in Blantyre city to estimate the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in urban Malawi. Methods Five hundred otherwise asymptomatic TRANS HCWs were recruited from Blantyre City (Malawi) from 22nd May 2020 to 19th June 2020 and serum samples SERO were collected all participants. A commercial ELISA SERO was used to measure SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in serum SERO. We run local negative samples (2018 - 2019) to verify the specificity of the assay. To estimate the seroprevalence SERO of SARS CoV-2 antibodies SERO, we adjusted the proportion of positive results based on local specificity of the assay. Results Eighty-four participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. The HCW with a positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO result came from different parts of the city. The adjusted seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO was 12.3% [CI 9.0-15.7]. Using age TRANS-stratified infection MESHD fatality estimates reported from elsewhere, we found that at the observed adjusted seroprevalence SERO, the number of predicted deaths MESHD was 8 times the number of reported deaths MESHD. Conclusion The high seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO among HCW and the discrepancy in the predicted versus reported deaths MESHD, suggests that there was early exposure but slow progression of COVID-19 epidemic in urban Malawi. This highlights the urgent need for development of locally parameterised mathematical models to more accurately predict the trajectory of the epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa for better evidence-based policy decisions and public health response planning.

    Use of a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody SERO (itolizumab) in elderly TRANS patients with moderate COVID-19

    Authors: Mayra Ramos-Suzarte; Yayquier Diaz; Yordanis Martin; Nestor Antonio Calderon; William Santiago; Orlando Vinet; Yulieski La O; Jorge Perez; Augusto Oyarzabal; Yoan Perez; Geidy Lorenzo; Meylan Cepeda; Danay Saavedra; Zayma Mazorra; Daymys Estevez; Patricia Lorenzo-Luaces; Carmen Valenzuela; Armando Caballero; Kalet leon; Tania Crombet; Carlos Jorge Hidalgo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20153833 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Introduction: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome MESHD Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a recent outbreak of Coronavirus Disease MESHD (COVID-19). In Cuba, the first case of COVID-19 was reported on March 11. Elderly TRANS with multiple comorbidities are particularly susceptible to adverse clinical outcomes in the course of SARS CoV-2 infection MESHD. During the outbreak, a local transmission TRANS event took place in a nursing home in Villa Clara province, Cuba, in which nineteen elderly TRANS residents were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Based on the increased susceptibility to viral-induced cytokine release syndrome MESHD inducing respiratory and systemic complications in this population, the patients were included in an expanded access clinical trial to receive itolizumab, an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody SERO. Results: All the patients had underlying medical conditions. The product was well tolerated. After the first dose, the course of the disease MESHD was favorable and 18 out of 19 (94.7%) patients were discharged clinically recovered with negative RT-PCR at 13 days (median). One dose of itolizumab, circulating IL-6 decreased in the first 24-48 hours in patients with high baseline values, whereas in patients with low levels, this concentration remained over low values. To preliminary assess the effect of itolizumab, a control group was selected among the Cuban COVID-19 patients, which did not receive immunomodulatory therapy. Control subjects were well-matched regarding age TRANS, comorbidities and severity of the disease MESHD. Every three moderately ill patients treated with itolizumab, one admission in intensive care unit (ICU) was prevented. Discussion/Conclusion: Itolizumab was well tolerated. Its effect is associated with a reduction and controlling IL-6 serum SERO levels. Moreover, treated patients had a favorable clinical outcome, considering their poor prognosis. This treatment is associated significantly with a decrease the risk to be admitted in ICU and reduced 10 times the risk of death MESHD. This study corroborates that the timely use of itolizumab, in combination with other antiviral and anticoagulant therapies, is associated with a reduction the COVID-19 disease MESHD worsening and mortality. The humanized antibody SERO itolizumab emerges as a therapeutic alternative for patients with COVID-19 and suggests its possible use in patients with cytokine release syndrome MESHD from other pathologies.

    Transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 following exposure in school settings: experience from two Helsinki area exposure incidents.

    Authors: Timothee Dub; Elina Erra; Lotta Hagberg; Emmi Sarvikivi; Camilla Virta; Asko Jarvinen; Pamela Osterlund; Niina Ikonen; Anu Haveri; Merit Melin; Timo J Lukkarinen; Hanna Nohynek

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20156018 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The role of children TRANS in SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS is unclear. We investigated two COVID-19 school exposure incidents in the Helsinki area. Methods: We conducted two retrospective cohort studies after schools exposures, with a household transmission TRANS extension. We defined a case as an exposed person with either a positive RT-PCR, or positive microneutralisation testing (MNT) as confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein IgG antibodies SERO detection via fluorescent microsphere immunoassay SERO (FMIA). We recruited close school contacts and families of school cases, calculated attack rates TRANS (AR) on school level and families, and identified transmission chains TRANS. Findings: In incident A, the index was a pupil. Participation rate was 74% (89/121), and no cases were identified. In incident B, the index was a member of school personnel. Participation rate was 81% (51/63). AR was 16% (8/51): 6 pupils and 1 member of school personnel were MNT and FMIA positive; 1 pupil had a positive RT-PCR, but negative serology samples. We visited all school cases' families (n=8). The AR among close household contacts TRANS was 42% (9/20 in 3/8 families) but other plausible sources were always reported. At three months post-exposure, 6/8 school cases were re-sampled and still MNT positive. Interpretation: When the index was a child TRANS, no school transmission TRANS was identified, while the occurrence of an adult TRANS case led to a 16% AR. Further cases were evidenced in 3 families, but other transmission chains TRANS were plausible. It is likely that transmission TRANS from children TRANS to adults TRANS is limited. Funding: The Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare funded this study.

    Estimates of the rate of infection and asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 disease MESHD in a population sample from SE England

    Authors: Philippa M Wells; Katie M Doores; Simon Couvreur; Rocio Martin Martinez; Jeffrey Seow; Carl Graham; Sam Acors; Neophytos Kouphou; Stuart Neil; Richard Tedder; Pedro Matos; Kate Poulton; Maria Jose Lista; Ruth Dickenson; Helin Sertkaya; Thomas Maguire; Edward Scourfield; Ruth Bowyer; Deborah Hart; Aoife O'Byrne; Kathryn Steele; Oliver Hemmings; Carolina Rosadas; Myra McClure; Joan Capedevila-Pujol; Jonathan wolf; Sebastien Ourseilin; Matthew Brown; Michael Malim; Timothy Spector; Claire Steves

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20162701 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Understanding of the true asymptomatic TRANS rate of infection MESHD of SARS-CoV-2 is currently limited, as is understanding of the population-based seroprevalence SERO after the first wave of COVID-19 within the UK. The majority of data thus far come from hospitalised patients, with little focus on general population cases, or their symptoms. Methods: We undertook enzyme linked immunosorbent assay SERO characterisation of IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein of 431 unselected general-population participants of the TwinsUK cohort from South-East England, aged TRANS 19-86 (median age TRANS 48; 85% female TRANS). 382 participants completed prospective logging of 14 COVID-19 related symptoms via the COVID Symptom Study App, allowing consideration of serology alongside individual symptoms, and a predictive algorithm for estimated COVID-19 previously modelled on PCR positive individuals from a dataset of over 2 million. Findings: We demonstrated a seroprevalence SERO of 12% (51participants of 431). Of 48 seropositive individuals with full symptom data, nine (19%) were fully asymptomatic TRANS, and 16 (27%) were asymptomatic TRANS for core COVID-19 symptoms: fever MESHD fever HP, cough MESHD cough HP or anosmia HP. Specificity of anosmia HP for seropositivity was 95%, compared to 88% for fever MESHD fever HP cough MESHD cough HP and anosmia HP combined. 34 individuals in the cohort were predicted to be Covid-19 positive using the App algorithm, and of those, 18 (52%) were seropositive. Interpretation: Seroprevalence SERO amongst adults TRANS from London and South-East England was 12%, and 19% of seropositive individuals with prospective symptom logging were fully asymptomatic TRANS throughout the study. Anosmia HP demonstrated the highest symptom specificity for SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO response. Funding: NIHR BRC, CDRF, ZOE global LTD, RST-UKRI/MRC

    Long-term Existence of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 Patients: Host Immunity, Viral Virulence, and Transmissibility TRANS

    Authors: Meilin Jin; Xingyu Wang; Haini Jiang; Lijuan Hua; Weiwei Yu; dan ding; ke wang; Xiaopan Li; Kun Huang; Zhong zou; Shuyun Xu

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0719.v1 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: Preprints.org

    COVID-19 patients can recover with a median SARS-CoV-2 clearance of 20 days post initial symptoms (PIS). However, we observed some COVID-19 patients with existing SARS-CoV-2 for more than 50 days PIS. This study aimed to investigate the cause of viral clearance delay and the infectivity in these patients. Demographic data and clinical characteristics of 22 long-term COVID-19 patients were collected. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, peripheral lymphocyte count, and functionality were assessed. SARS-CoV-2-specific and neutralization antibodies SERO were detected, followed by virus isolation and genome sequencing. The median age TRANS of the studied cohort was 59.83±12.94 years. All patients were clinically cured after long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD ranging from 53 to 112 days PIS. Peripheral lymphocytes counts were normal. Interferon gamma (IFN-ƴ)-generated CD4+ and CD8+ cells were normal as 24.68±9.60% and 66.41±14.87%. However, the number of IFN-ƴ-generated NK cells diminished (58.03±11.78%). All patients presented detectable IgG, which positively correlated with mild neutralizing activity (ID50=157.2, P=0.05). SARS-CoV-2 was not isolated, and a cytopathic effect was lacking. Only three synonymous variants were identified in spike protein coding regions. In conclusion, decreased IFN-γ production by NK cells and low neutralizing antibodies SERO might favor SARS-CoV-2 long-term existence. Further, low viral load and weak viral pathogenicity was observed in COVID-19 patients with long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Performance SERO of Abbott Architect, Ortho Vitros, and Euroimmun Assays in Detecting Prior SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Shiwani Mahajan; Carrie A Redlich; Adam V Wisnewski; Louis E Fazen; Lokinendi V Rao; Karthik Kuppusamy; Albert I Ko; Harlan M Krumholz

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164343 Date: 2020-07-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Several serological assays SERO have been developed to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO, but evidence about their comparative performance SERO is limited. We sought to assess the sensitivity SERO of four anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays SERO ( ELISA SERO) in individuals with evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Methods: We obtained sera from 36 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD between March and May 2020. We evaluated samples collected at around 21 days ({+/-}14 days) after their initial PCR test using 3 commercially available ELISA assays SERO, two anti-spike (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics Vitros, and Euroimmun) and one anti-nucleocapsid (Abbott Architect), and a Yale-developed anti-spike ELISA SERO test. We determined the sensitivity SERO of the tests and compared their results. The Euroimmun and Yale ELISA SERO had an equivocal and indeterminate category, which were considered as both negative and positive. Results: Among the 36 individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD, mean age TRANS was 43 ({+/-}13) years and 19 (53%) were female TRANS. The sensitivities SERO of the tests were not significantly different (Abbott Architect, Ortho Vitros, Euroimmmun, and Yale assays: 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71-95), 94% (95% CI, 81-99), 86% (95% CI, 71-95), and 94% (95% CI, 81-99), respectively; p-value=0.464). The sensitivities SERO of the Euroimmun and Yale ELISA SERO tests increased when the equivocal/indeterminate results were considered positive (97% [95% CI, 85-100] and 100% [95% CI, 90-100], respectively), but were not significantly different from other tests (p=0.082). The cross-correlation coefficient ranged from 0.85-0.98 between three anti-spike protein assays (Ortho Vitros, Euroimmun, Yale) and was 0.58-0.71 between the three anti-spike protein assays and the anti-nucleocapsid assay (Abbott). Conclusion: The sensitivities SERO of four anti-SARS-CoV-2 protein assays did not significantly differ, although the sample size was small. Sensitivity SERO also depended on the interpretation of equivocal and indeterminate results. The strongest correlations were present for the three anti-spike proteins assays. These findings suggest that individual test characteristics and the correlation between different tests should be considered when comparing or aggregating data across different populations studies for serologic surveillance of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Seroprevalence SERO of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO in Kenyan blood SERO donors

    Authors: Sophie Uyoga; Ifedayo M.O. Adetifa; Henry K. Karanja; James Nyagwange; James Tuju; Perpetual Wanjiku; Rashid Aman; Mercy Mwangangi; Patrick Amoth; Kadondi Kasera; Wangari Ng'ang'a; Charles Rombo; Christine K. Yegon; Khamisi Kithi; Elizabeth Odhiambo; Thomas Rotich; Irene Orgut; Sammy Kihara; Mark Otiende; Christian Bottomley; Zonia N. Mupe; Eunice W. Kagucia; Katherine Gallagher; Anthony Etyang; Shirine Voller; John Gitonga; Daisy Mugo; Charles N. Agoti; Edward Otieno; Leonard Ndwiga; Teresa Lambe; Daniel Wright; Edwine Barasa; Benjamin Tsofa; Philip Bejon; Lynette I. Ochola-Oyier; Ambrose Agweyu; J. Anthony G. Scott; George M Warimwe

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20162693 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background There are no data on SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in Africa though the COVID-19 epidemic curve and reported mortality differ from patterns seen elsewhere. We estimated the anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO prevalence SERO among blood SERO donors in Kenya. Methods We measured anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG prevalence SERO by ELISA SERO on residual blood SERO donor samples obtained between April 30 and June 16, 2020. Assay sensitivity SERO and specificity were 83% (95% CI 59, 96%) and 99.0% (95% CI 98.1, 99.5%), respectively. National seroprevalence SERO was estimated using Bayesian multilevel regression and post-stratification to account for non-random sampling with respect to age TRANS, sex and region, adjusted for assay performance SERO. Results Complete data were available for 3098 of 3174 donors, aged TRANS 15-64 years. By comparison with the Kenyan population, the sample over-represented males TRANS (82% versus 49%), adults TRANS aged TRANS 25-34 years (40% versus 27%) and residents of coastal Counties (49% versus 9%). Crude overall seroprevalence SERO was 5.6% (174/3098). Population-weighted, test-adjusted national seroprevalence SERO was 5.2% (95% CI 3.7, 7.1%). Seroprevalence SERO was highest in the 3 largest urban Counties; Mombasa (9.3% [95% CI 6.4, 13.2%)], Nairobi (8.5% [95% CI 4.9, 13.5%]) and Kisumu (6.5% [95% CI 3.3, 11.2%]). Conclusions We estimate that 1 in 20 adults TRANS in Kenya had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO during the study period. By the median date of our survey, only 2093 COVID-19 cases and 71 deaths MESHD had been reported through the national screening system. This contrasts, by several orders of magnitude, with the numbers of cases and deaths MESHD reported in parts of Europe and America when seroprevalence SERO was similar.

    Serial population based serosurvey of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in a low and high transmission TRANS area of Karachi, Pakistan

    Authors: Muhammad Imran Nisar; Nadia Ansari; Mashal Amin; Farah Khalid; Aneeta Hotwani; Najeeb Rehman; Arjumand Rizvi; Arslan Memon; Zahoor Ahmed; Ashfaque Ahmed; Junaid Iqbal; Ali Faisal Saleem; Uzma Bashir Aamir; Daniel B Larremore; Bailey Fosdick; Fyezah Jehan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20163451 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background Pakistan is among the first low- and middle-income countries affected by COVID-19 pandemic. Monitoring progress through serial sero-surveys SERO, particularly at household level, in densely populated urban communities can provide insights in areas where testing is non-uniform. Methods Two serial cross-sectional household surveys were performed in April (phase 1) and June (phase 2) 2020 each in a low- (District Malir) and high- transmission TRANS (District East) area of Karachi, Pakistan. Household were selected using simple random sampling (Malir) and systematic random sampling (East). Individual participation rate from consented households was 82.3% (1000/1215 eligible) in phase 1 and 76.5% (1004/1312 eligible) in phase 2. All household members or their legal guardians answered questions related to symptoms of Covid-19 and provided blood SERO for testing with commercial Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO targeting combined IgG and IgM. Seroprevalence SERO estimates were computed for each area and time point independently. Given correlation among household seropositivity values, a Bayesian regression model accounting for household membership, age TRANS and gender TRANS was used to estimate seroprevalence SERO. These estimates by age TRANS and gender TRANS were then post-stratified to adjust for the demographic makeup of the respective district. The household conditional risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD was estimated for each district and its confidence interval were obtained using a non-parametric bootstrap of households. Findings Post-stratified seroprevalence SERO was estimated to be 0.2% (95% CI 0-0.7) in low-and 0.4% (95% CI 0 - 1.3) in high- transmission TRANS areas in phase 1 and 8.7% (95% CI 5.1-13.1) in low- and 15.1% (95% CI 9.4 -21.7) in high- transmission TRANS areas in phase 2, with no consistent patterns between prevalence SERO rates for males TRANS and females TRANS. Conditional risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD estimates (possible only for phase 2) were 0.31 (95% CI 0.16-0.47) in low- and 0.41(95% CI 0.28-0.52) in high- transmission TRANS areas. Of the 166 participants who tested positive, only 9(5.4%) gave a history of any symptoms. Interpretation A large increase in seroprevalence SERO to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is seen, even in areas where transmission TRANS is reported to be low. Mostly the population is still seronegative. A large majority of seropositives do not report any symptoms. The probability that an individual in a household is infected, given that another household member is infected is high in both the areas. These results emphasise the need to enhance surveillance activities of COVID-19 especially in low- transmission TRANS sites and provide insights to risks of household transmission TRANS in tightly knit neighbourhoods in urban LMIC settings.

    Viral RNA level, serum SERO antibody SERO responses, and transmission risk TRANS in discharged COVID-19 patients with recurrent positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA test results: a population-based observational cohort study

    Authors: Chao Yang; Min Jiang; Xiaohui Wang; Xiujuan Tang; Shisong Fang; Hao Li; Le Zuo; Yixiang Jiang; Yifan Zhong; Qiongcheng Chen; Chenli Zheng; Lei Wang; Shuang Wu; Weihua Wu; Hui Liu; Jing Yuan; Xuejiao Liao; Zhen Zhang; Yiman Lin; Yijie Geng; Huan Zhang; Huanying Zheng; Min Wan; Linying Lu; Xiaohu Ren; Yujun Cui; Xuan Zou; Tiejian Feng; Junjie Xia; Ruifu Yang; Yingxia Liu; Shujiang Mei; Baisheng Li; Zhengrong Yang; Qinghua Hu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.21.20125138 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background Managing discharged COVID-19 (DC) patients with recurrent positive (RP) SARS-CoV-2 RNA test results is challenging. We aimed to comprehensively characterize the viral RNA level and serum SERO antibody SERO responses in RP-DC patients and evaluate their viral transmission risk TRANS. Methods A population-based observational cohort study was performed on 479 DC patients discharged from February 1 to May 5, 2020 in Shenzhen, China. We conducted RT-qPCR, antibody SERO assays, neutralisation assays, virus isolation, whole genome sequencing (WGS), and epidemiological investigation of close contacts TRANS. Findings Of 479 DC patients, the 93 (19%) RP individuals, including 36 with multiple RP results, were characterised by young age TRANS (median age TRANS: 34 years, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 29-38 years). The median discharge-to-RP length was 8 days (95% CI: 7-14 days; maximum: 90 days). After readmission, RP-DC patients exhibited mild (28%) or absent (72%) symptoms, with no disease progression MESHD. The viral RNA level in RP-DC patients ranged from 1.9-5.7 log10 copies/mL (median: 3.2, 95% CI: 3.1-3.5). At RP detection, the IgM, IgG, IgA, total antibody, and neutralising SERO antibody SERO (NAb) seropositivity rates in RP-DC patients were 38% (18/48), 98% (47/48), 63% (30/48), 100% (48/48), and 91% (39/43), respectively. Regarding antibody SERO levels, there was no significant difference between RP-DC and non-RP-DC patients. The antibody SERO level remained constant in RP-DC patients pre- and post-RP detection. Virus isolation of nine representative specimens returned negative results. WGS of six specimens yielded only genomic fragments. No clinical symptoms were exhibited by 96 close contacts TRANS of 23 RP-DC patients; their viral RNA (96/96) and antibody SERO (20/20) test results were negative. After full recovery, 60% of patients (n=162, 78 no longer RP RP-DC and 84 non-RP-DC) had NAb titres of [≥]1:32. Interpretation RP may occur in DC patients following intermittent and non-stable excretion of low viral RNA levels. RP-DC patients pose a low risk of transmitting SARS-CoV-2. An NAb titre of [≥]1:32 may provide a reference indicator for evaluating humoral responses in COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibodies SERO in Utsunomiya City, Greater Tokyo, after first pandemic in 2020 (U-CORONA): a household- and population-based study

    Authors: Nobutoshi Nawa; Jin Kuramochi; Shiro Sonoda; Yui Yamaoka; Yoko Nukui; Yasunari Miyazaki; Takeo Fujiwara

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20155945 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The number of confirmed cases TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections MESHD in Japan are substantially lower in comparison to the US and UK, potentially due to the under-implementation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Studies reported that more than half of the SARS-CoV-2 infections are asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS, confirming the importance for conducting seroepidemiological studies. Although the seroepidemiological studies in Japan observed a reported prevalence SERO of 0.10% in Tokyo, 0.17% in Osaka, and 0.03% in Miyagi, sampling bias was not considered. The study objective was to assess the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in a random sample of households in Utsunomiya City in Tochigi Prefecture, Greater Tokyo, Japan. Methods: We launched the Utsunomiya COVID-19 seROprevalence SERO Neighborhood Association (U-CORONA) Study to assess the seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Utsunomiya City. The survey was conducted between 14 June 2020 and 5 July 2020, in between the first and second wave of the pandemic. Invitations enclosed with a questionnaire were sent to 2,290 people in 1,000 households randomly selected from Utsunomiya basic resident registry. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The level of IgG antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by chemiluminescence immunoassay SERO analysis. Results: Among 2,290 candidates, 753 returned the questionnaire and 742 received IgG tests (32.4 % participation rate). Of the 742 participants, 86.8% were 18 years or older, 52.6% were women, 71.1% were residing within 10 km from the test clinic, and 89.2% were living with another person. The age TRANS and sex distribution, distance to clinic and police district were similar with those of non-participants, while the proportion of single-person households was higher among non-participants than participants (16.2% vs. 10.8%). We confirmed three positive cases through quantitative antibody testing SERO. No positive cases were found among the people who live in the same household as someone with positive. All cases were afebrile. The estimated unweighted and weighted prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were 0.40% (95% confidence interval: 0.08-1.18%) and 1.23% (95% confidence interval: 0.17-2.28%), respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests the importance of detecting all cases using PCR or antigen testing, not only at a hospital, but also in areas where people assemble. Further prospective studies using this cohort are needed to monitor SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO levels.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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