Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Pneumonia (48)

Fever (41)

Cough (21)

Respiratory distress (14)

Anosmia (12)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 851
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    Comparative analyses of SARS-CoV-2 binding (IgG, IgM, IgA) and neutralizing antibodies SERO from human serum samples SERO

    Authors: Livia Mazzini; Donata Martinuzzi; Inesa Hyseni; Giulia Lapini; Linda Benincasa; Pietro Piu; Claudia Maria Trombetta; Serena Marchi; Ilaria Razzano; Alessandro Manenti; Emanuele Montomoli

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.243717 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: bioRxiv

    A newly identified coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, emerged in December 2019 in Hubei Province, China, and quickly spread throughout the world; so far, it has caused more than 18 million cases of disease MESHD and 700,000 deaths MESHD. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is currently based on the detection of viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs by means of molecular-based assays, such as real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, serological assays SERO aimed at detecting different classes of antibodies SERO constitute the best surveillance strategy for gathering information on the humoral immune response to infection MESHD and the spread of the virus through the population, in order to evaluate the immunogenicity of novel future vaccines and medicines for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 disease MESHD. The aim of this study was to determine SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO in human serum samples SERO by means of different commercial and in-house ELISA SERO kits, in order to evaluate and compare their results first with one another and then with those yielded by functional assays using wild-type virus. It is important to know the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies SERO in order to predict population immunity and possible cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses and to identify potentially infectious subjects. In addition, in a small sub-group of samples, we performed a subtyping Immunoglobulin G ELISA SERO. Our data showed an excellent statistical correlation between the neutralization titer and the IgG, IgM and IgA ELISA SERO response against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein, confirming that antibodies SERO against this portion of the virus spike protein are highly neutralizing and that the ELISA SERO Receptor-Binding Domain-based assay can be used as a valid surrogate for the neutralization assay in laboratories which do not have Biosecurity level-3 facilities.

    Immunogenicity and Safety of a SARS-CoV-2 Inactivated Vaccine in Healthy Adults TRANS Aged TRANS 18-59 years: Report of the Randomized, Double-blind, and Placebo-controlled Phase 2 Clinical Trial

    Authors: Yan-Jun Zhang; Gang Zeng; Hong-Xing Pan; Chang-Gui Li; Biao Kan; Ya-Ling Hu; Hai-Yan Mao; Qian-Qian Xin; Kai Chu; Wei-Xiao Han; Zhen Chen; Rong Tang; Wei-Dong Yin; Xin Chen; Xue-Jie Gong; Chuan Qin; Yuan-Sheng Hu; Xiao-Yong Liu; Guo-Liang Cui; Cong-Bing Jiang; Heng-Ming Zhang; Jing-Xin Li; Min-Nan Yang; Xiao-Juan Lian; Yan Song; Jin-Xing Lu; Xiang-Xi Wang; Miao Xu; Qiang Gao; Feng-Cai Zhu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20161216 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND The top priority for the control of COVID-19 pandemic currently is the development of a vaccine. A phase 2 trial conducted to further evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac). METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the optimal dose, immunogenicity and safety of the CoronaVac. A total of 600 healthy adults TRANS aged TRANS 18-59 years were randomly assigned to receive 2 injections of the trial vaccine at a dose of 3 g/0.5 mL or 6 g /0.5mL, or placebo on Day 0,14 schedule or Day 0,28 schedule. For safety evaluation, solicited and unsolicited adverse events were collected after each vaccination within 7 days and 28 days, respectively. Blood SERO samples were taken for antibody SERO assay. RESULTS CoronaVac was well tolerated, and no dose-related safety concerns were observed. Most of the adverse reactions fell HP in the solicited category and were mild in severity. Pain MESHD Pain HP at injection site was the most frequently reported symptoms. No Grade 3 adverse reaction or vaccine related SAEs were reported. CoronaVac showed good immunogenicity with the lower 3 g dose eliciting 92.4% seroconversion under Day 0,14 schedule and 97.4% under Day 0,28 schedule. 28 days after two-dose vaccination, the Nab levels of individual schedules range from 23.8 to 65.4 among different dosage and vaccination schedules. CONCLUSIONS Favorable safety and immunogenicity of CoronaVac was demonstrated on both schedules and both dosages, which support the conduction of phase 3 trial with optimum schedule/dosage per different scenarios.

    Neutralizing antibody SERO response in non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients

    Authors: Natalia Ruetalo; Ramona Businger; Karina Althaus; Simon Fink; Felix Ruoff; Klaus Hamprecht; Bertram Flehmig; Tamam Bakchould; Markus F Templin; Michael Schindler

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20169961 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    The majority of infections MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 (SCoV2) are asymptomatic TRANS or mild without the necessity of hospitalization. It is of outmost importance to reveal if these patients develop an antibody SERO response against SCoV2 and to define which antibodies SERO confer virus neutralization. We hence conducted a comprehensive serological survey of 49 patients with a mild course of disease MESHD and quantified neutralizing antibody SERO responses against authentic SCoV2 employing human cells as targets. Four patients (8%), even though symptomatic, did not develop antibodies SERO against SCoV2 and two other sera (4%) were only positive in one of the serological assays SERO employed. For the remainder, antibody SERO response against the S-protein correlated with serum SERO neutralization whereas antibodies SERO against the nucleocapsid were poor predictors of virus neutralization. Only six sera (12%) could be classified as highly neutralizing. Furthermore, sera from several individuals with fairly high antibody SERO levels had only poor neutralizing activity. In addition, our data suggest that antibodies SERO against the seasonal coronavirus 229E contribute to SCoV2 neutralization. Altogether, we show that there is a wide breadth of antibody SERO responses against SCoV2 in patients that differentially correlate with virus neutralization. This highlights the difficulty to define reliable surrogate markers for immunity against SCoV2.

    Kinetics of viral clearance and antibody SERO production across age groups TRANS in SARS-CoV-2 infected children TRANS

    Authors: Burak Bahar; Cyril Jacquot; Yunchuan Delores Mo; Roberta DeBiasi; Meghan Delaney

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20162446 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To improve understanding of transition from viral infection MESHD to viral clearance, and antibody SERO response in pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Study design: This retrospective analysis of children TRANS tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR and IgG antibody SERO at a quaternary-care, free-standing pediatric hospital between March 13th, 2020 to June 21st, 2020 included 6369 patients who underwent PCR testing and 215 patients who underwent antibody testing SERO. During the initial study period, testing focused primarily on symptomatic children TRANS; the later study period included asymptomatic TRANS patients who underwent testing as preadmission or preprocedural screening. We report the proportion of positive and negative tests, time to viral clearance, and time to seropositivity. Results: The rate of positivity varied over time due to viral circulation in the community and transition from targeted testing of symptomatic patients to more universal screening of hospitalized patients. Median duration of viral shedding (RT-PCR positivity) was 19.5 days and RT-PCR negativity from positivity was 25 days. Of note, patients aged TRANS 6 to 15 years demonstrated a longer period of RT-PCR negativity from positivity, compared to patients aged TRANS 16 to 22 years (median=32 versus 18 days, p=0.015). Median time to seropositivity from RT-PCR positivity was 18 days while median time to reach adequate levels of neutralizing antibodies SERO (defined as equivalent to 160 titer) was 36 days. Conclusions: The majority of patients demonstrated a prolonged period of viral shedding after infection MESHD with SARS CoV-2. Whether this correlates with persistent infectivity is unknown. Only 17 of 33 patients demonstrated neutralizing antibodies SERO, suggesting that some patients may not mount significant immune responses to infection MESHD. It remains unknown if IgG antibody SERO production correlates with immunity and how long measurable antibodies SERO persist and protect against future infection MESHD.

    Dynamics of neutralizing antibody SERO titers in the months after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Katharine HD Crawford; Adam S Dingens; Rachel Eguia; Caitlin R Wolf; Naomi Wilcox; Jennifer K Logue; Kiel Shuey; Amanda M Casto; Brooke Fiala; Samuel Wrenn; Deleah Pettie; Neil P King; Helen Y Chu; Jesse D Bloom

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169367 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Most individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop neutralizing antibodies SERO that target the viral spike protein. Here we quantify how levels of these antibodies SERO change in the months following SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD by examining longitudinal samples collected between {approx}30 and 152 days post- symptom onset TRANS from a prospective cohort of 34 recovered individuals with asymptomatic TRANS, mild, or moderate-severe disease MESHD. Neutralizing antibody SERO titers declined an average of about four-fold from one to four months post- symptom onset TRANS. Importantly, our data are consistent with the expected early immune response to viral infection MESHD, where an initial peak in antibody SERO levels is followed by a decline to a lower plateau. Additional studies of long-lived B-cells and antibody SERO titers over longer time frames are necessary to determine the durability of immunity to SARS-CoV-2.

    Specificity and Performance SERO of Nucleocapsid and Spike-based SARS-CoV-2 Serologic Assays

    Authors: Zahra Rikhtegaran Tehrani; Saman Saadat; Ebtehal Saleh; Xin Ouyang; Niel Constantine; Anthony L. DeVico; Anthony D. Harris; George K. Lewis; Shyam Kottilil; Mohammad M. Sajadi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168476 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    There is an urgent need for an accurate antibody test SERO for severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this paper, we have developed 3 ELISA SERO methods, trimer spike IgA, trimer spike IgG, and nucleocapsid IgG, for detecting anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. We evaluated their performance SERO in comparison with four commercial ELISAs SERO, EDI Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 ELISA IgG SERO and IgM, Euroimmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgG SERO and IgA, and one lateral flow assay, DPP COVID-19 IgM/IgG System (Chembio). Both sensitivity SERO and specificity were evaluated and the causes of false-positive reactions were determined. The assays were compared using 300 pre-epidemic samples and 100 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 samples. The sensitivities SERO and specificities of the assays were as follows: 90%/100% (in-house trimer spike IgA), 90%/99.3% (in-house trimer spike IgG), 89%/98.3% (in-house nucleocapsid IgG), 73.7%/100% (EDI nucleocapsid IgM), 84.5%/95.1% (EDI nucleocapsid IgG), 95%/93.7% (Euroimmun S1 IgA), 82.8%/99.7% (Euroimmun S1 IgG), 82.0%/91.7% (Chembio nucleocapsid IgM), 92%/93.3% (Chembio nucleocapsid IgG). The presumed causes of positive signals from pre-epidemic samples in commercial and in-house assays were mixed. In some cases, positivity varied with assay repetition. In other cases, reactivity was abrogated by competitive inhibition (spiking the sample with analyte prior to performing the assay). In other cases, reactivity was consistently detected but not abrogated by analyte spiking. Overall, there was wide variability in assay performance SERO using our samples, with in-house tests exhibiting the highest combined sensitivity SERO and specificity. The causes of false positivity in pre-epidemic samples may be due to plasma SERO antibodies SERO apparently reacting with the analyte, or spurious reactivity may be directed against non-specific components in the assay system. Identification of these targets will be essential to improving assay performance SERO.

    Performance SERO of an automated anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO in prepandemic cohorts

    Authors: Elena Riester; Beda Krieter; Peter Findeisen; Michael Laimighofer; Kathrin Schoenfeld; Tina Laengin; Christoph Niederhauser

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20169987 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The Elecsys(R) Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO (Roche Diagnostics) was developed to provide an accurate and reliable method for the detection of antibodies SERO to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We evaluated the specificity of the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO in prepandemic sample cohorts across five sites in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Methods: Specificity of the immunoassay SERO was evaluated using anonymised, frozen, residual serum SERO and/or plasma SERO samples from blood SERO donors or routine diagnostic testing. All samples were collected before September 2019 and therefore presumed negative for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies SERO. Cohorts included samples from blood SERO donors, pregnant women and paediatric patients. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: Overall specificities for the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO in 9575 samples from blood SERO donors (n = 6714) and diagnostic specimens (n = 2861) were 99.82% (95% CI 99.69-99.91) and 99.93% (95% CI 99.75-99.99), respectively. Among 2256 samples from pregnant women, specificity was 99.91% (95% CI 99.68-99.99). Among 205 paediatric samples, specificity was 100% (95% CI 98.22-100). Conclusion: The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO demonstrated a very high specificity across blood SERO donor samples and diagnostic specimens from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Our findings support the use of the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO as a potential tool for determination of an immune response following previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in the general population, including in blood SERO donors, pregnant women and paediatric populations.

    mRNA induced expression of human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in mice for the study of the adaptive immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2

    Authors: Mariah Hassert; Elizabeth Geerling; E. Taylor Stone; Tara L. Steffen; Alexandria Dickson; Madi S. Feldman; Jacob Class; Justin M. Richner; James D Brien; Amelia K Pinto

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.241877 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: bioRxiv

    The novel human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic resulting in nearly 20 million infections across MESHD the globe, as of August 2020. Critical to the rapid evaluation of vaccines and antivirals is the development of tractable animal models of infection MESHD. The use of common laboratory strains of mice to this end is hindered by significant divergence of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the receptor required for entry of SARS-CoV-2. In the current study, we designed and utilized an mRNA-based transfection system to induce expression of the hACE2 receptor in order to confer entry of SARS-CoV-2 in otherwise non-permissive cells. By employing this expression system in an in vivo setting, we were able to interrogate the adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in type 1 interferon receptor deficient mice. In doing so, we showed that the T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 is enhanced when hACE2 is expressed during infection MESHD. Moreover, we demonstrated that these responses are preserved in memory and are boosted upon secondary infection MESHD. Interestingly, we did not observe an enhancement of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody SERO responses with hACE2 induction. Importantly, using this system, we functionally identified the CD4+ and CD8+ peptide epitopes targeted during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in H2b restricted mice. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in mice of this MHC haplotype primarily target peptides of the spike and membrane proteins, while the antigen-specific CD4+ T cells target peptides of the nucleocapsid, membrane, and spike proteins. The functional identification of these T cell epitopes will be critical for evaluation of vaccine efficacy in murine models of SARS-CoV-2. The use of this tractable expression system has the potential to be used in other instances of emerging infections MESHD in which the rapid development of an animal model is hindered by a lack of host susceptibility factors.

    Prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 among high-risk populations in Lomé (Togo) in 2020

    Authors: Wemboo Afiwa Halatoko; Yao Rodion KONU; Fifonsi Adjidossi Gbeasor-Komlanvi; Arnold Junior Sadio; Martin Kouame Tchankoni; Koffi Segbeaya Komlanvi; Mounerou Salou; Ameyo Monique Dorkenoo; Issaka Maman; Ametepe Agbobli; Majeste Ihou Wateba; Komi Seraphin Adjoh; Edem Goeh Akue; Yem-bla Kao; Innocent Kpeto; Paul Pana; Rebecca Kinde-Sossou; Agbeko Tamakloe; Josee Nayo-Apetsianyi; Simon-Pierre Hamadi Assane; Mireille Prince-David; Sossinou Marcel Awoussi; Mohaman Djibril; Moustafa Mijiyawa; Anoumou Claver Dagnra; Didier Koumavi Ekouevi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20163840 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: This survey aims at estimating the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in high risk populations in Lomé. Methods: From April 23rd to May 8th 2020, we recruited a sample of participants from five sectors: healthcare, air transport, police, road transport and informal. We collected oropharyngeal swab for direct detection through real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), and blood SERO for antibodies SERO detection by serological tests SERO. The overall prevalence SERO (current and past) of infection MESHD was defined by positivity for both tests. Results: A total of 955 participants with a median age TRANS of 36 (IQR 32-43) were included and 71.6% (n=684) were men. Around 22.1% (n=212) were from the air transport sector, 20.5% (n=196) in the police, and 38.7% (n=370) in the health sector. Seven participants (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.3-1.6%) had a positive rRT-PCR at the time of recruitment and nine (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.4-1.8%) were seropositive for IgM or IgG against SARS-CoV-2. We found an overall prevalence SERO of 1.6% (n=15), 95% CI: 0.9-2.6%. Conclusion: The prevalence SERO of the SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD among high-risk populations in Lomé was relatively low and could be explained by the various measures taken by the Togolese government. Therefore, we recommend targeted screening.

    SARS-CoV-2 cellular immune response in uninfected health care workers with prolonged and close exposure to COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Alejandro Vallejo; Pilar Vizcarra; Carmen Quereda; Ana Moreno; Jose L Casado

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-55720/v1 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: ResearchSquare

    Health care workers (HCW) are at an increased risk since they are directly exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, nevertheless, some remained without the development of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO, suggesting lesser susceptibility to infection1-5. This study aimed to ascertain a potential specific cellular immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in these largely exposed HCWs.In this cross-sectional, case-control study, we analyzed 39 exposed uninfected HCWs and 17 convalescent HCWs. Cellular immune response was evaluated after SARS-CoV-2 stimulation with peptide pools (proteins S, M, and N), using bead-based multiplex assay (12 cytokines).Overall, 94.8% of uninfected HCWs had some degree of specific cellular response to SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins that could be classified, according to the number of cytokine production, as strong (61.5%), partial (33.3%), and weak/no response (5.1%). Strong responders showed a higher anti-inflammatory cytokine production (IL5 and IL10, p<0.001 and 0.002, respectively), and similar (IFN-γ and TNF-α, p=0.435 and 0.532, respectively) or higher (IL12, p=0.021) pro-inflammatory production compared to convalescents, resulted in a predominantly Th2 response. This study demonstrated a consistent and polyfunctional immune cellular response after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptides in extensively exposed individuals that should be considered to establish the infection MESHD susceptibility, the impact in herd immunity, and the risk of relapses.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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