Background NVX-CoV2373 is a recombinant nanoparticle vaccine composed of trimeric full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins. We present the Day 35 primary analysis of our trial of NVX-CoV2373 with or without the saponin-based Matrix-M1 adjuvant in healthy adults TRANS. Methods This is a randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial in 131 healthy adults TRANS. Trial vaccination comprised two intramuscular injections, 21 days apart. Primary outcomes were reactogenicity, safety labs, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-spike protein response. Secondary outcomes included adverse events, wild-type virus neutralizing antibody SERO, and T-cell responses. Results Participants received NVX-CoV2373 with or without Matrix-M1 (n=106) or placebo (n=25). There were no serious adverse events. Reactogenicity was mainly mild in severity and of short duration (mean [≥] 2 days), with second vaccinations inducing greater local and systemic reactogenicity. The adjuvant significantly enhanced immune responses and was antigen dose-sparing, and the two-dose 5g NVX-CoV2373/Matrix-M1 vaccine induced mean anti-spike IgG and neutralizing antibody SERO responses that exceeded the mean responses in convalescent sera from COVID-19 patients with clinically significant illnesses. The vaccine also induced antigen-specific T cells with a largely T helper 1 (Th1) phenotype. Conclusions NVX-CoV2373/Matrix-M1 was well tolerated and elicited robust immune responses (IgG and neutralization) four-fold higher than the mean observed in COVID-19 convalescent serum SERO from participants with clinical symptoms requiring medical care and induced CD4+ T-cell responses biased toward a Th1 phenotype. These findings suggest that the vaccine may confer protection and support transition to efficacy evaluations to test this hypothesis. (Funded by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368988).