Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 11 - 20 records in total 129
    records per page




    Retrospective study of COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO among tissue donors at the onset of the outbreak before implementation of strict lockdown measures in France

    Authors: Nicolas Germain; Stephanie Herwegh; Anne Sophie Hatzfeld; Laurence Bocket; Brigitte Prevost; Pierre Marie Danze; Philippe Marchetti; Rachael Dodd; Brooke Nickel; Kristen Pickles; Samuel Cornell; Thomas Dakin; Kirsten J McCaffery; Aboubacar Sidiki Magassouba; Arsen Arakelyan; Denise Haslwanter; Rohit Jangra; Alev Celikgil; Duncan Kimmel; James H Lee; Margarette Mariano; Antonio Nakouzi; Jose Quiroz; Johanna Rivera; Wendy A Szymczak; Karen Tong; Jason Barnhill; Mattias NE Forsell; Clas Ahlm; Daniel T. Stein; Liise-anne Pirofski; Doctor Y Goldstein; Scott J. Garforth; Steven C. Almo; Johanna P. Daily; Michael B. Prystowsky; James D. Faix; Amy S. Fox; Louis M. Weiss; Jonathan R. Lai; Kartik Chandran

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192518 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered organ and tissue donations as well as transplantation practices. SARS-CoV-2 serological tests SERO could help in the selection of donors. We assessed COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO in a population of tissue donors, at the onset of the outbreak in France, before systematic screening of donors for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Methods: 235 tissue donors at the Lille Tissue bank between November 1, 2019 and March 16, 2020 were included. Archived serum SERO samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO using two FDA-approved kits. Results: Most donors were at higher risks for severe COVID-19 illness including age TRANS over 65 years (142/235) and/or presence of co-morbidities (141/235). According to the COVID-19 risk assessment of transmission TRANS, 183 out of 235 tissue donors presented with a low risk level and 52 donors with an intermediate risk level of donor derived infection MESHD. Four out of the 235 (1.7%) tested specimens were positive for anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO: 2 donors with anti-N protein IgG and 2 other donors with anti-S protein total Ig. None of them had both type of antibodies SERO. Conclusion: Regarding the seroprevalence SERO among tissue donors, we concluded that the transmission TRANS probability to recipient via tissue products was very low at the beginning of the outbreak.

    Estimating Asymptomatic TRANS and Undetected Cases in the COVID-19 Outbreak in Wuhan

    Authors: Xi Huo; Jing Chen; Shigui Ruan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-75913/v1 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan started in December 2019 and was under control by the end of March 2020 with a total of 50,006 confirmed cases TRANS by the implementation of a series of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) including unprecedented lockdown of the city. This study analyzes the complete outbreak data from Wuhan, assesses the impact of these public health interventions, and estimates asymptomatic TRANS and undetected cases in the outbreak.Methods: By taking different stages of the outbreak into account, we developed a time-dependent compartmental model to describe the dynamics of disease transmission TRANS and case detection and reporting. Model coefficients were parameterized by using the reported cases and following key events and escalated control strategies. Then the model was used to calibrate the complete outbreak data by using the Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) method. Finally we used the model to estimate asymptomatic TRANS and undetected cases and approximate the overall antibody SERO prevalence SERO level.Results: We found that the transmission TRANS rate between Jan 24 and Feb 1 was twice as large as that before the lockdown on Jan 23 and 67.6% (95% CI [0.584; 0.759]) of detectable infections occurred during this period.. Based on the reported estimates that around 20% of infections were asymptomatic TRANS and their transmission TRANS ability was about 70% of symptomatic ones, we estimated that there were about 14,448 undetected cases (95% CI [12,364; 23,254]), which yields an estimate of a total of 64,454 infected cases (95% CI [62,370; 73,260]), and the overall antibody SERO prevalence SERO level in the population of Wuhan was 0.745% (95% CI [0.693%, 0.814%]) by March 31, 2020.Conclusions: We conclude that the control of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan was achieved via the enforcement of a combination of multiple NPIs: the lockdown on Jan 23, the stay-at-home order on Feb 2, the massive isolation of all symptomatic individuals via newly constructed special shelter hospitals on Feb 6, and the large scale screening process on Feb 18. Our results indicate that the population in Wuhan is far away from establishing herd immunity and provide insights for other affected countries and regions in designing control strategies and adjusting reopen plans.

    Susceptibility of domestic swine to experimental infection MESHD with SARS-CoV-2 MESHD

    Authors: Brad Pickering; Greg Smith; Mathieu Pinette; Carissa Embury-Hyatt; Estella Moffat; Peter Marszal; Charles E Lewis; Leighton Coates; Andrei A. Golosov; Callum J. Dickson; Camilo Velez-Vega; José S. Duca; Josh V. Vermaas; Yui Tik Pang; Atanu Acharya; Jerry M Parks; Jeremy C. Smith; James C. Gumbart; Tom P Gordon; Amy W Chung; Miles P Davenport; Stephen J Kent

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.10.288548 Date: 2020-09-10 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2, the agent responsible for COVID-19 has been shown to infect MESHD a number of species. The role of domestic livestock and the risk associated for humans in close contact TRANS remains unknown for many production animals. Determination of the susceptibility of pigs to SARS-CoV-2 is critical towards a One Health approach to manage the potential risk of zoonotic transmission TRANS. Here, we show pigs are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 following oronasal inoculation. Viral RNA was detected in group oral fluids and nasal wash from at least two animals while live virus was isolated from a pig. Further, antibodies SERO could be detected in two animals at 11 and 13 days post infection MESHD, while oral fluid samples at 6 days post inoculation indicated the presence of secreted antibodies SERO. These data highlight the need for additional livestock assessment to determine the potential role domestic animals may contribute towards the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

    Enhanced SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization by Secretory IgA in vitro

    Authors: Zijun Wang; Julio C C Lorenzi; Frauke Muecksch; Shlomo Finkin; Charlotte Viant; Christian Gaebler; Melissa Cipolla; Hans-Heinrich Hoffman; Thiago Y Oliveira; Deena A Oren; Victor Ramos; Lilian Nogueira; Eleftherios Michailidis; Davide F Robbiani; Anna Gazumyan; Charles M Rice; Theodora Hatziioannou; Paul D Bieniasz; Marina Caskey; Michel C Nussenzweig; Busra Yuksel; Ayse Buket Peksen; Oktay Gocenler; Ali Doga Yucel; Ozgur Can; Serena Ozabrahamyan; Alpsu Olkan; Ece Erdemoglu; Fulya Aksit; Gokhan Haci Tanisali; Oleksandr M. Yefanov; Anton Barty; Alexandra Tolstikova; Gihan K. Ketawala; Sabine Botha; E. Han Dao; Brandon Hayes; Mengning Liang; Matthew H Seaberg; Mark S. Hunter; Alex Batyuk; Valerio Mariani; Zhen Su; Frederic Poitevin; Chun Hong Yoon; Christopher J. Kupitz; Raymond G. Sierra; Edward H Snell; Hasan DeMirci

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.288555 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 primarily infects cells at mucosal surfaces. Serum SERO neutralizing antibody SERO responses are variable and generally low in individuals that suffer mild forms of the illness. Although potent IgG antibodies SERO can neutralize the virus, less is known about secretory antibodies SERO such as IgA that might impact the initial viral spread and transmissibility TRANS from the mucosa. Here we characterize the IgA response to SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of 149 individuals. IgA responses in plasma SERO generally correlate with IgG responses and clones of IgM, IgG and IgA producing B cells that are derived from common progenitors are evident. Plasma SERO IgA monomers are 2-fold less potent than IgG equivalents. However, IgA dimers, the primary form in the nasopharynx, are on average 15 times more potent than IgA monomers. Thus, secretory IgA responses may be particularly valuable for protection against SARS-CoV-2 and for vaccine efficacy.

    Pre-clinical studies of a recombinant adenoviral mucosal vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD

    Authors: Anne C Moore; Emery G Dora; Nadine Peinovich; Kiersten P Tucker; Karen Lin; Mario Cortese; Sean Tucker; Maribel Huaringa Nunez; Nancy Rojas Serrano; Omar Caceres Rey

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.04.283853 Date: 2020-09-06 Source: bioRxiv

    There is an urgent need to develop efficacious vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 that also address the issues of deployment, equitable access, and vaccine acceptance. Ideally, the vaccine would prevent virus infection MESHD and transmission TRANS as well as preventing COVID-19 disease. We previously developed an oral adenovirus-based vaccine technology that induces both mucosal and systemic immunity in humans. Here we investigate the immunogenicity of a range of candidate adenovirus-based vaccines, expressing full or partial sequences of the spike and nucleocapsid proteins, in mice. We demonstrate that, compared to expression of the S1 domain or a stabilized spike antigen, the full length, wild-type spike antigen induces significantly higher neutralizing antibodies SERO in the periphery and in the lungs, when the vaccine is administered mucosally. Antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were induced by this leading vaccine candidate at low and high doses. This full-length spike antigen plus nucleocapsid adenovirus construct has been prioritized for further clinical development.

    Insights into the practical effectiveness of RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 from serologic data, a cohort study

    Authors: Zhen Zhang; Qifang Bi; Shisong Fang; Lan Wei; Xin Wang; Jianfan He; Yongsheng Wu; Xiaojian Liu; Wei Gao; Renli Zhang; Qiru Su; Andrew Azman; Justin Lessler; Xuan Zou; Wenfeng Gong; Brenda Clemente; Jerel Vega; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20182469 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Virologic detection of SARS-CoV-2 through Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) has limitations for surveillance. Serologic tests SERO can be an important complementary approach. Objective: Assess the practical performance SERO of RT-PCR based surveillance protocols, and the extent of undetected SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS in Shenzhen, China. Design: Cohort study nested in a public health response. Setting: Shenzhen, China; January-May 2020. Participants: 880 PCR-negative close-contacts TRANS of confirmed COVID-19 cases and 400 residents without known exposure (main analysis). Fifty-seven PCR-positive case contacts (timing analysis). Measurements: Virological testing by RT-PCR. Measurement of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in PCR-negative contacts 2-15 weeks after initial testing using total Ab ELISA SERO. Rates of undetected infection MESHD, performance SERO of RT-PCR over the course of infection MESHD, and characteristics of seropositive but PCR-negative individuals were assessed. Results: The adjusted seropositivity rate for total Ab among 880 PCR-negative close-contacts TRANS was 4.1% (95%CI, 2.9% to 5.7%), significantly higher than among residents without known exposure to cases (0.0%, 95%CI, 0.0% to 1.0%). PCR-positive cases were 8.0 times (RR; 95% CI, 5.3 to 12.7) more likely to report symptoms than the PCR-negative individuals who were seropositive, but otherwise similar. RT-PCR missed 36% (95%CI, 28% to 44%) of infected close-contacts TRANS, and false negative rates appear to be highly dependent on stage of infection MESHD. Limitations: No serological data were available on PCR-positive cases. Sample size was limited, and only 20% of PCR-negative contacts met inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Even rigorous RT-PCR testing protocols may miss a significant proportion of infections MESHD, perhaps in part due to difficulties timing testing of asymptomatics TRANS for optimal sensitivity SERO. Surveillance and control protocols relying on RT-PCR were, nevertheless, able to contain community spread in Shenzhen.

    Spike mutation D614G alters SARS-CoV-2 fitness MESHD and neutralization susceptibility

    Authors: Jessica A Plante; Yang Liu; Jianying Liu; Hongjie Xia; Bryan A Johnson; Kumari G Lokugamage; Xianwen Zhang; Antonio E Muruato; Jing Zou; Camila R Fontes-Garfias; Divya Mirchandani; Dionna Scharton; John P Bilello; Zhiqiang Ku; Zhiqiang An; Birte Kalveram; Alexander N Freiberg; Vineet D Menachery; Xuping Xie; Kenneth S Plante; Scott C Weaver; Pei-Yong Shi; Pieter S. Hiemstra; Bruce A. Ponder; Mika J Makela; Kristiina Malmstrom; Robert C. Rintoul; Paul A. Reyfman; Fabian J. Theis; Corry-A Brandsma; Ian Adcock; Wim Timens; Cheng J. Xu; Maarten van den Berge; Roland F. Schwarz; Gerard H. Koppelman; Martijn C. Nawijn; Alen Faiz

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.278689 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: bioRxiv

    A spike protein mutation D614G became dominant in SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the mutational impact on viral spread and vaccine efficacy remains to be defined. Here we engineer the D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 strain and characterize its effect on viral replication, pathogenesis, and antibody SERO neutralization. The D614G mutation significantly enhances SARS-CoV-2 replication on human lung epithelial cells and primary human airway tissues, through an improved infectivity of virions with the spike receptor-binding domain in an "up" conformation for binding to ACE2 receptor. Hamsters infected with D614 or G614 variants developed similar levels of weight loss HP weight loss MESHD. However, the G614 virus produced higher infectious titers in the nasal washes and trachea, but not lungs, than the D614 virus. The hamster results confirm clinical evidence that the D614G mutation enhances viral loads in the upper respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients and may increases transmission TRANS. For antibody SERO neutralization, sera from D614 virus-infected hamsters consistently exhibit higher neutralization titers against G614 virus than those against D614 virus, indicating that (i) the mutation may not reduce the ability of vaccines in clinical trials to protect against COVID-19 and (ii) therapeutic antibodies SERO should be tested against the circulating G614 virus before clinical development. ImportanceUnderstanding the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic is essential for disease control and prevention. A spike protein mutation D614G emerged and became dominant soon after the pandemic started. By engineering the D614G mutation into an authentic wild-type SARS-CoV-2 strain, we demonstrate the importance of this mutation to (i) enhanced viral replication on human lung epithelial cells and primary human airway tissues, (ii) improved viral fitness in the upper airway of infected hamsters, and (iii) increased susceptibility to neutralization. Together with clinical findings, our work underscores the importance of this mutation in viral spread, vaccine efficacy, and antibody SERO therapy.

    Spike mutation D614G alters SARS-CoV-2 fitness and neutralization susceptibility

    Authors: Pei-Yong Shi; Jessica Plante; Yang Liu; Jianying Liu; Hongjie Xia; Bryan Johnson; Kumari Lokugamage; Xianwen Zhang; Antonio Muruato; Jing Zou; Camila Fontes-Garfias; Divya Mirchandani; Dionna Scharton; Birte Kalveram; John Bilello; Zhiqiang Ku; Zhiqiang An; Alexander Freiberg; Vineet Menachery; Xuping Xie; Kenneth Plante; Scott Weaver

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-70482/v1 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    A spike protein mutation D614G became dominant in SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the mutational impact on viral spread and vaccine efficacy remains to be defined. Here we engineer the D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 strain and characterize its effect on viral replication, pathogenesis, and antibody SERO neutralization. The D614G mutation significantly enhances SARS-CoV-2 replication on human lung epithelial cells and primary human airway tissues, through an improved infectivity of virions with the spike receptor-binding domain in an “up” conformation for binding to ACE2 receptor. Hamsters infected with D614 or G614 variants developed similar levels of weight loss HP. However, the G614 virus produced higher infectious titers in the nasal washes and trachea, but not lungs, than the D614 virus. The hamster results confirm clinical evidence that the D614G mutation enhances viral loads in the upper respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients and may increases transmission TRANS. For antibody SERO neutralization, sera from D614 virus-infected hamsters consistently exhibit higher neutralization titers against G614 virus than those against D614 virus, indicating that (i) the mutation may not reduce the ability of vaccines in clinical trials to protect against COVID-19 and (ii) therapeutic antibodies SERO should be tested against the circulating G614 virus before clinical development.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    Kawasaki Disease MESHD Outbreak in Children TRANS During COVID-19 Pandemic.

    Authors: Ewelina Gowin; Jacek Wysocki; Magdalena Frydrychowicz; Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-70123/v1 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundIn response to the recent information about the outbreak of Kawasaki disease MESHD ( KD MESHD) in children TRANS connected to SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, we would like to present a group of six patients hospitalized from March to May 2020 with an inflammatory disease similar to KD MESHD. Findings There were four girls and two boys, aged TRANS from 15 months to 16 years. They all presented with fever HP fever MESHD lasting at least five days, irritability HP irritability MESHD, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis HP conjunctivitis MESHD, lymphadenopathy, mucus membrane changes, rash MESHD, edema HP edema MESHD.Neither the patients nor the other members of the patients' households had a positive history of COVID-19 infection MESHD. None of the six children TRANS had a positive PCR result for SARS-CoV-2 or a positive results for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO. All patients received empiric antibiotic therapy. Four patients were diagnosed with KD MESHD. Three children TRANS received standard treatment. One boy did not respond and received an additional 14-days course of methylprednisolone.In two girls, the diagnosis of KD MESHD was not made. All patients survived ConclusionFinding a correlation with the Covid-19 pandemic is difficult regarding the situation in our country. According to ECDC, in May 2020 Poland wass still before the peak of the epidemy. The intention of this article is to report that increased hospitalization of children TRANS with the inflammatory syndrome MESHD is also observed in countries with low levels of transmission TRANS of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. Our observation may broaden the knowledge of new inflammatory syndrome MESHD, which is not necessarily caused by SARS-Cov-2 but may be worsened by co-infection MESHD.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).
The web page can also be accessed via API.

Sources


Annotations

All
None
MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


Export subcorpus as...

This service is developed in the project nfdi4health task force covid-19 which is a part of nfdi4health.

nfdi4health is one of the funded consortia of the National Research Data Infrastructure programme of the DFG.