Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 21 - 30 records in total 134
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    Insights into the practical effectiveness of RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 from serologic data, a cohort study

    Authors: Zhen Zhang; Qifang Bi; Shisong Fang; Lan Wei; Xin Wang; Jianfan He; Yongsheng Wu; Xiaojian Liu; Wei Gao; Renli Zhang; Qiru Su; Andrew Azman; Justin Lessler; Xuan Zou; Wenfeng Gong; Brenda Clemente; Jerel Vega; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.20182469 Date: 2020-09-03 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Virologic detection of SARS-CoV-2 through Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) has limitations for surveillance. Serologic tests SERO can be an important complementary approach. Objective: Assess the practical performance SERO of RT-PCR based surveillance protocols, and the extent of undetected SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS in Shenzhen, China. Design: Cohort study nested in a public health response. Setting: Shenzhen, China; January-May 2020. Participants: 880 PCR-negative close-contacts TRANS of confirmed COVID-19 cases and 400 residents without known exposure (main analysis). Fifty-seven PCR-positive case contacts (timing analysis). Measurements: Virological testing by RT-PCR. Measurement of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in PCR-negative contacts 2-15 weeks after initial testing using total Ab ELISA SERO. Rates of undetected infection MESHD, performance SERO of RT-PCR over the course of infection MESHD, and characteristics of seropositive but PCR-negative individuals were assessed. Results: The adjusted seropositivity rate for total Ab among 880 PCR-negative close-contacts TRANS was 4.1% (95%CI, 2.9% to 5.7%), significantly higher than among residents without known exposure to cases (0.0%, 95%CI, 0.0% to 1.0%). PCR-positive cases were 8.0 times (RR; 95% CI, 5.3 to 12.7) more likely to report symptoms than the PCR-negative individuals who were seropositive, but otherwise similar. RT-PCR missed 36% (95%CI, 28% to 44%) of infected close-contacts TRANS, and false negative rates appear to be highly dependent on stage of infection MESHD. Limitations: No serological data were available on PCR-positive cases. Sample size was limited, and only 20% of PCR-negative contacts met inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Even rigorous RT-PCR testing protocols may miss a significant proportion of infections MESHD, perhaps in part due to difficulties timing testing of asymptomatics TRANS for optimal sensitivity SERO. Surveillance and control protocols relying on RT-PCR were, nevertheless, able to contain community spread in Shenzhen.

    Spike mutation D614G alters SARS-CoV-2 fitness MESHD and neutralization susceptibility

    Authors: Jessica A Plante; Yang Liu; Jianying Liu; Hongjie Xia; Bryan A Johnson; Kumari G Lokugamage; Xianwen Zhang; Antonio E Muruato; Jing Zou; Camila R Fontes-Garfias; Divya Mirchandani; Dionna Scharton; John P Bilello; Zhiqiang Ku; Zhiqiang An; Birte Kalveram; Alexander N Freiberg; Vineet D Menachery; Xuping Xie; Kenneth S Plante; Scott C Weaver; Pei-Yong Shi; Pieter S. Hiemstra; Bruce A. Ponder; Mika J Makela; Kristiina Malmstrom; Robert C. Rintoul; Paul A. Reyfman; Fabian J. Theis; Corry-A Brandsma; Ian Adcock; Wim Timens; Cheng J. Xu; Maarten van den Berge; Roland F. Schwarz; Gerard H. Koppelman; Martijn C. Nawijn; Alen Faiz

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.01.278689 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: bioRxiv

    A spike protein mutation D614G became dominant in SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the mutational impact on viral spread and vaccine efficacy remains to be defined. Here we engineer the D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 strain and characterize its effect on viral replication, pathogenesis, and antibody SERO neutralization. The D614G mutation significantly enhances SARS-CoV-2 replication on human lung epithelial cells and primary human airway tissues, through an improved infectivity of virions with the spike receptor-binding domain in an "up" conformation for binding to ACE2 receptor. Hamsters infected with D614 or G614 variants developed similar levels of weight loss HP weight loss MESHD. However, the G614 virus produced higher infectious titers in the nasal washes and trachea, but not lungs, than the D614 virus. The hamster results confirm clinical evidence that the D614G mutation enhances viral loads in the upper respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients and may increases transmission TRANS. For antibody SERO neutralization, sera from D614 virus-infected hamsters consistently exhibit higher neutralization titers against G614 virus than those against D614 virus, indicating that (i) the mutation may not reduce the ability of vaccines in clinical trials to protect against COVID-19 and (ii) therapeutic antibodies SERO should be tested against the circulating G614 virus before clinical development. ImportanceUnderstanding the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic is essential for disease control and prevention. A spike protein mutation D614G emerged and became dominant soon after the pandemic started. By engineering the D614G mutation into an authentic wild-type SARS-CoV-2 strain, we demonstrate the importance of this mutation to (i) enhanced viral replication on human lung epithelial cells and primary human airway tissues, (ii) improved viral fitness in the upper airway of infected hamsters, and (iii) increased susceptibility to neutralization. Together with clinical findings, our work underscores the importance of this mutation in viral spread, vaccine efficacy, and antibody SERO therapy.

    Spike mutation D614G alters SARS-CoV-2 fitness and neutralization susceptibility

    Authors: Pei-Yong Shi; Jessica Plante; Yang Liu; Jianying Liu; Hongjie Xia; Bryan Johnson; Kumari Lokugamage; Xianwen Zhang; Antonio Muruato; Jing Zou; Camila Fontes-Garfias; Divya Mirchandani; Dionna Scharton; Birte Kalveram; John Bilello; Zhiqiang Ku; Zhiqiang An; Alexander Freiberg; Vineet Menachery; Xuping Xie; Kenneth Plante; Scott Weaver

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-70482/v1 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    A spike protein mutation D614G became dominant in SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the mutational impact on viral spread and vaccine efficacy remains to be defined. Here we engineer the D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 strain and characterize its effect on viral replication, pathogenesis, and antibody SERO neutralization. The D614G mutation significantly enhances SARS-CoV-2 replication on human lung epithelial cells and primary human airway tissues, through an improved infectivity of virions with the spike receptor-binding domain in an “up” conformation for binding to ACE2 receptor. Hamsters infected with D614 or G614 variants developed similar levels of weight loss HP. However, the G614 virus produced higher infectious titers in the nasal washes and trachea, but not lungs, than the D614 virus. The hamster results confirm clinical evidence that the D614G mutation enhances viral loads in the upper respiratory tract of COVID-19 patients and may increases transmission TRANS. For antibody SERO neutralization, sera from D614 virus-infected hamsters consistently exhibit higher neutralization titers against G614 virus than those against D614 virus, indicating that (i) the mutation may not reduce the ability of vaccines in clinical trials to protect against COVID-19 and (ii) therapeutic antibodies SERO should be tested against the circulating G614 virus before clinical development.

    Seroprevalence SERO and immunity of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents in schools in Switzerland: design for a longitudinal, school-based prospective cohort study

    Authors: Agne Ulyte; Thomas Radtke; Irene Abela; Sarah H Haile; Julia Braun; Ruedi Jung; Christoph Berger; Alexandra Trkola; Jan Fehr; Milo A Puhan; Susi Kriemler; Anel Nurtay; Lucie Abeler-Dörner; David G Bonsall; Michael V McConnell; Shawn O'Banion; Christophe Fraser; Scott Roberts; Jose A. Gonzalez; Marciano Sablad; Rodrigo Yelin; Wendy Taylor; Kiyoshi Tachikawa; Suezanne Parker; Priya Karmali; Jared Davis; Sean M Sullivan; Steve G. Hughes; Pad Chivukula; Eng Eong Ooi

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.30.20184671 Date: 2020-09-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Seroprevalence SERO and transmission TRANS routes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD in children TRANS and adolescents, especially in school setting, are not clear. Resulting uncertainty is reflected in very different decisions on school closures and reopenings across countries. The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to assess the extent and patterns of seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO in school-attending children TRANS repeatedly. It will examine risk factors for infection MESHD, relationship between seropositivity and symptoms, and temporal persistence of antibodies SERO. Additionally, it will include testing of school personnel and parents TRANS. Methods and analysis The study (Ciao Corona) will enroll a regionally representative, random sample of schools in the canton of Zurich, where 18% of the Swiss population live. Children TRANS aged TRANS 5 to 16 years, attending classes in primary and secondary schools are invited. Venous blood MESHD blood SERO and saliva samples are collected for SARS-CoV-2 serological testing SERO after the first wave of infections (June/July 2020), in fall HP (October/November 2020), and after winter (March/April 2021). Venous blood MESHD blood SERO is also collected for serological testing SERO of parents TRANS and school personnel. Bi-monthly questionnaires to children TRANS, parents TRANS and school personnel cover SARS-CoV-2 symptoms MESHD and tests, health, preventive behavior, lifestyle and quality of life information. Total seroprevalence SERO and cumulative incidence will be calculated. Hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression models will account for sensitivity SERO and specificity of the serological test SERO in the analyses and for the complex sampling structure, i.e., clustering within classes and schools. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (2020-01336). The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be made available to study participants and participating schools, the Federal Office of Public Health, and the Educational Department of the canton of Zurich. Trial registration number NCT04448717.

    Kawasaki Disease MESHD Outbreak in Children TRANS During COVID-19 Pandemic.

    Authors: Ewelina Gowin; Jacek Wysocki; Magdalena Frydrychowicz; Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-70123/v1 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundIn response to the recent information about the outbreak of Kawasaki disease MESHD ( KD MESHD) in children TRANS connected to SARS-Cov-2 pandemic, we would like to present a group of six patients hospitalized from March to May 2020 with an inflammatory disease similar to KD MESHD. Findings There were four girls and two boys, aged TRANS from 15 months to 16 years. They all presented with fever HP fever MESHD lasting at least five days, irritability HP irritability MESHD, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis HP conjunctivitis MESHD, lymphadenopathy, mucus membrane changes, rash MESHD, edema HP edema MESHD.Neither the patients nor the other members of the patients' households had a positive history of COVID-19 infection MESHD. None of the six children TRANS had a positive PCR result for SARS-CoV-2 or a positive results for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO. All patients received empiric antibiotic therapy. Four patients were diagnosed with KD MESHD. Three children TRANS received standard treatment. One boy did not respond and received an additional 14-days course of methylprednisolone.In two girls, the diagnosis of KD MESHD was not made. All patients survived ConclusionFinding a correlation with the Covid-19 pandemic is difficult regarding the situation in our country. According to ECDC, in May 2020 Poland wass still before the peak of the epidemy. The intention of this article is to report that increased hospitalization of children TRANS with the inflammatory syndrome MESHD is also observed in countries with low levels of transmission TRANS of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. Our observation may broaden the knowledge of new inflammatory syndrome MESHD, which is not necessarily caused by SARS-Cov-2 but may be worsened by co-infection MESHD.

    Establishment of murine hybridoma cells producing antibodies SERO against spike protein of SARS-CoV-2

    Authors: Nadezhda V Antipova; Tatyana D Larionova; Michail I Shakhparonov; Marat S Pavlyukov; Yong Kyu Lee; Arthur Feltrin; Joyce van de Leemput; Pasquale Di Carlo; Tomoyo Sawada; Kynon J. Benjamin; Helena Brentani; Joel E Kleinman; Thomas M Hyde; Daniel A Weinberger; Gianluca Ursini; Ronald McKay; Apua C.M. Paquola; Joo Heon Shin; Jennifer A Erwin; Rujiao Li; Jingyao Zeng; Lili Hao; Shuai Jiang; Hua Chen; Dali Han; Jingfa Xiao; Zhang Zhang; Wenming Zhao; Yongbiao Xue; Yiming Bao; Valerie Mioulet; Joseph Newman; Amin S Asfor; Alison Burman; Sylvia Crossley; John Hammond; Elma Tchilian; Bryan Charleston; Dalan Bailey; Tobias J Tuthill; Simon Graham; Tomas Malinauskas; Jiandong Huo; Julia Tree; Karen Buttigieg; Ray Owens; Miles Carroll; Rod Daniels; John McCauley; Kuan-Ying A Huang; Mark Howarth; Alain Townsend

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.29.272963 Date: 2020-08-29 Source: bioRxiv

    In 2020 the world faced the pandemic of COVID-19 - severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by a new type of coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2. To stop the spread of the disease TRANS, it is crucial to create molecular tools allowing to investigate, diagnose and treat COVID-19. One of such tools are monoclonal antibodies SERO (mAbs). In this study we describe the development of hybridoma cells that can produce mouse mAbs against receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. These mAbs are able to specifically detect native and denaturized S protein in all tested applications including immunoblotting, immunofluorescence staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO. In addition, we showed that the obtained mAbs decreased infection rate of human cells by SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus particles in in vitro experiments. Finally, we determined the amino acid sequence of light and heavy chains of the mAbs. This information will allow to use the corresponding peptides to establish genetically engineered therapeutic antibodies SERO. To date multiple mAbs against SARS-CoV-2 proteins have been established, however due to the restrictions caused by pandemic, it is imperative to have a local source of the antibodies SERO suitable for researches and diagnostics of COVID-19. Moreover, as each mAb has a unique binding sequence, bigger sets of various antibodies SERO will allow to detect SARS-CoV-2 proteins even if the virus acquires novel mutations.

    A hydrophobic-interaction-based mechanism trigger docking between the SARS CoV 2 spike and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2

    Authors: Jiacheng Li; Xiaoliang Ma; Shuai Guo; Chengyu Hou; Liping Shi; Hongchi Zhang; Bing Zheng; Chencheng Liao; Lin Yang; Lin Ye; Xiaodong He

    id:2008.11883v1 Date: 2020-08-27 Source: arXiv

    A recent experimental study found that the binding affinity between the cellular receptor human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) in spike (S) protein of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) is more than 10-fold higher than that of the original severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) MESHD. However, main-chain structures of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD are almost the same with that of the SARS-CoV RBD MESHD. Understanding physical mechanism responsible for the outstanding affinity between the SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD and ACE2 is the "urgent challenge" for developing blockers, vaccines and therapeutic antibodies SERO against the coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Considering the mechanisms of hydrophobic interaction, hydration shell, surface tension, and the shielding effect of water molecules, this study reveals a hydrophobic-interaction-based mechanism by means of which SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD and ACE2 bind together in an aqueous environment. The hydrophobic interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD and ACE2 protein is found to be significantly greater than that between SARS-CoV S MESHD and ACE2. At the docking site, the hydrophobic portions of the hydrophilic side chains of SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD are found to be involved in the hydrophobic interaction between SARS-CoV-2 S MESHD and ACE2. We propose a method to design live attenuated viruses by mutating several key amino acid residues of the spike protein to decrease the hydrophobic surface areas at the docking site. Mutation of a small amount of residues can greatly reduce the hydrophobic binding of the coronavirus to the receptor, which may be significant reduce infectivity and transmissibility TRANS of the virus.

    The influence of major S protein mutations of SARS-CoV-2 on the potential B cell epitopes

    Authors: Xianlin Yuan; Liangping Li; Krisitn Podack; Matthew M Seavey; Padmini Jayaraman; Rahul Jasuja; Natasa Strbo; Shuetsu Fukushi; Dennis de Meulder; Peter van Run; Mart M Lamers; Bart Rijnders; Casper Rokx; Frank J.M. van Kuppeveld; Frank Grosveld; Dubravka Drabek; Corine GeurtsvanKessel; Marion Koopmans; Berend Jan Bosch; Thijs Kuiken; Barry Rockx; Greggory E Mojares; Michael P Eagan; Kristy L Ziontz; Paul Mastrokyriakos; Stuart L Goldberg; Felecia Cerrato; Maha Farhat; Damien Slater; Jason B Harris; John Branda; David Hooper; Jessie M Gaeta; Travis P. Baggett; James O'Connell; Andreas Gnirke; Tami D Lieberman; Anthony Philippakis; Meagan Burns; Catherine Brown; Jeremy Luban; Edward T Ryan; Sarah E Turbett; Regina C LaRocque; William P. Hanage; Glen Gallagher; Lawrence C Madoff; Sandra Smole; Virginia M. Pierce; Eric S Rosenberg; Pardis Sabeti; Daniel J Park; Bronwyn L MacInnis

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.24.264895 Date: 2020-08-24 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly transmitted worldwide and results in the COVID-19 pandemic. Spike glycoprotein on surface is a key factor of viral transmission TRANS, and has appeared a lot of variants due to gene mutations, which may influence the viral antigenicity and vaccine efficacy. Here, we used bioinformatic tools to analyze B-cell epitopes of prototype S protein and its 9 common variants. 12 potential linear and 53 discontinuous epitopes of B-cells were predicted from the S protein prototype. Importantly, by comparing the epitope alterations between prototype and variants, we demonstrate that B-cell epitopes and antigenicity of 9 variants appear significantly different alterations. The dominant D614G variant impacts the potential epitope least, only with moderately elevated antigenicity, while the epitopes and antigenicity of some mutants(V483A, V367F, etc.) with small incidence in the population change greatly. These results suggest that the currently developed vaccines should be valid for a majority of SARS-CoV-2 infectors MESHD. This study provides a scientific basis for large-scale application of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and for taking precautions against the probable appearance of antigen escape induced by genetic variation after vaccination. Author SummaryThe global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has lasted for more than half a year and has not yet been contained. Until now there is no effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2 caused disease (COVID-19). Successful vaccine development seems to be the only hope. However, this novel coronavirus belongs to the RNA virus, there is a high mutation rate in the genome, and these mutations often locate on the Spike proteins of virus, the gripper of the virus entering the cells. Vaccination induce the generation of antibodies SERO, which block Spike protein. However, the Spike protein variants may change the recognition and binding of antibodies SERO and make the vaccine ineffective. In this study, we predict neutralizing antibody SERO recognition sites (B cell epitopes) of the prototype S protein of SARS-COV2, along with several common variants using bioinformatics tools. We discovered the variability in antigenicity among the mutants, for instance, in the more widespread D614G variant the change of epitope was least affected, only with slight increase of antigenicity. However, the antigenic epitopes of some mutants change greatly. These results could be of potential importance for future vaccine design and application against SARS-CoV2 variants.

    Pathogenicity, immunogenicity, and protective ability of an attenuated SARS-CoV-2 variant with a deletion at the S1/S2 junction of the spike protein

    Authors: Pui Wang; Siu-Ying Lau; Shanfeng Deng; Pin Chen; Bobo Wing-Yee Mok; Anna Jinxia Zhang; Andrew Chak-Yiu Lee; Kwok-Hung Chan; Wenjun Song; Kelvin Kai-Wang To; Jasper Fuk-Woo Chen; Kwok-Yung Yuen; Honglin Chen; Qiliang Cai; Di Qu; Youhua Xie; Zhenghong Yuan; Rong Zhang; Arthur G Calise; Bradley L Pulver; Dominic Ruocco; Greggory E Mojares; Michael P Eagan; Kristy L Ziontz; Paul Mastrokyriakos; Stuart L Goldberg; Felecia Cerrato; Maha Farhat; Damien Slater; Jason B Harris; John Branda; David Hooper; Jessie M Gaeta; Travis P. Baggett; James O'Connell; Andreas Gnirke; Tami D Lieberman; Anthony Philippakis; Meagan Burns; Catherine Brown; Jeremy Luban; Edward T Ryan; Sarah E Turbett; Regina C LaRocque; William P. Hanage; Glen Gallagher; Lawrence C Madoff; Sandra Smole; Virginia M. Pierce; Eric S Rosenberg; Pardis Sabeti; Daniel J Park; Bronwyn L MacInnis

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.24.264192 Date: 2020-08-24 Source: bioRxiv

    SARS-CoV-2 contains a PRRA polybasic cleavage motif considered critical for efficient infection MESHD and transmission TRANS in humans. We previously reported that virus variants with spike protein S1/S2 junction deletions spanning this motif are attenuated. Here we characterize a further cell-adapted SARS-CoV-2 variant, Ca-DelMut. Ca-DelMut replicates more efficiently than wild type or parental virus in cells, but causes no apparent disease in hamsters, despite replicating in respiratory tissues. Unlike wild type virus, Ca-DelMut does not induce proinflammatory cytokines in hamster infections, but still triggers a strong neutralizing antibody SERO response. Ca-DelMut-immunized hamsters challenged with wild type SARS-CoV-2 are fully protected, demonstrating sterilizing immunity.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD and Transmission TRANS Depends on Heparan Sulfates and Is Blocked by Low Molecular Weight Heparins

    Authors: Marta Bermejo-Jambrina; Julia Eder; Tanja M Kaptein; Leanne C Helgers; Philip J Brouwer; John L van Hamme; Alexander P Vlaar; Frank E.H.P van Baarle; Godelieve J de Bree; Bernadien Maartje Nijmeijer; Neeltje A Kootstra; Marit J van Gils; Rogier W Sanders; Teunis B.H. Geijtenbeek; Christiane Schueler; Saskia Stenzel; Elisabeth Braun; Johanna Weiss; Daniel Sauter; Jan Muench; Steffen Stenger; Kei Sato; Alexander Kleger; Christine Goffinet; Konstantin Maria Johannes Sparrer; Frank Kirchhoff; Austin D. Swafford; Karsten Zengler; Susan Cheng; Michael Inouye; Teemu Niiranen; Mohit Jain; Veikko Salomaa; Jeffrey D. Esko; Nathan E Lewis; Rob Knight

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.18.255810 Date: 2020-08-18 Source: bioRxiv

    The current pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) and new outbreaks worldwide highlight the need for preventive treatments. Although angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the primary receptor for SARS-CoV-2, we identified heparan sulfate proteoglycans expressed by epithelial cells, alveolar MESHD macrophages and dendritic cells as co-receptors for SARS-CoV-2. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD of epithelial cells and alveolar MESHD macrophages, and virus dissemination by dendritic cells. Notably, potent neutralizing antibodies SERO from COVID-19 patients interfered with SARS-CoV-2 binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans, underscoring the importance of heparan sulfate proteoglycans as receptors and uncover that SARS-CoV-2 binding to heparan sulfates is an important mechanism for neutralization. These results have imperative implications for our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry and reveal an important target for novel prophylactic intervention.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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