Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    COVID-19 Serological Tests SERO: How Well Do They Actually Perform?

    Authors: Abdi Ghaffari; Robyn Meurant; Ali Ardakani

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0278.v1 Date: 2020-06-21 Source: Preprints.org

    In only a few months after initial discovery in Wuhan, China, SARS-CoV-2 and the associated COVID-19 disease has become a global pandemic causing significant mortality and morbidity. In the absence of vaccines and effective therapeutics, reliable serological testing SERO can be a key element of public health policy to control further spread of the disease TRANS and gradually ease quarantine measures. However, prior to launch of large-scale seroprevalence SERO studies to assess herd immunity, it is critical to understand the limits and potential of current SARS-CoV-2 serological tests SERO on the market. In this study, we provide an overview of serological testing SERO and conduct a systematic review of independent evaluations of SARS-CoV-2 serological tests SERO performance SERO. Our findings show significant variability in the accuracy of marketed tests and highlight several lab-based and point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests with high performance SERO level in detecting SRAS-CoV-2 specific antibodies SERO. The findings of this review highlight the need for ongoing independent evaluations of commercialized COVID-19 diagnostic tests.

    Serology surveillance of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO among asymptomatic TRANS healthcare workers in Malaysian healthcare facilities designated for COVID-19 care

    Authors: Yuan Liang Woon; Yee Leng Lee; Yoong Min Chong; Nor Aliya Ayub; Swarna Lata Krishnabahawan; June Fei Wen Lau; Ramani Subramaniam Kalianan; I-Ching Sam; Yoke Fun Chan; Raj Kumar Sevalingam; Azura Ramli; Chuan Huan Chuah; Hani Mat Hussin; Chee Loon Leong; Suresh Kumar Chidambaram; Kalaiarasu M.Peariasamy; Pik Pin Goh

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-37132/v1 Date: 2020-06-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    IntroductionHealthcare workers (HCW) are presumed to be at increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection MESHD due to occupational exposure to infected MESHD patients. We aim to determine the prevalence SERO of anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO among asymptomatic TRANS HCW.MethodsWe prospectively recruited HCW from the National Public Health Laboratory and two COVID-19 designated public hospitals in Klang Valley, Malaysia between April 13th and May 12th, 2020. Quota sampling was applied to ensure adequate representation of the HCW involved in provision of care for patients directly and indirectly. All participants had worked in the respective healthcare facility for at least 30 days prior study enrollment. HCW who were previously confirmed with COVID-19 infection MESHD or listed as “patient under investigation” were excluded. A self-administered questionnaire was used to capture sociodemographic information, history of contact with COVID-19 cases within the past month, clinical signs and symptoms and adherence to universal precautions. Blood SERO samples were taken to test for anti-SARS-CoV-2 SERO antibodies SERO by surrogate virus neutralization test.ResultsA total of 400 HCW were recruited, comprising 154 (38.5%) nurses, 103 (25.8%) medical doctors, 47 (11.8%) laboratory technologists and others (23.9%). The mean age TRANS was 35±7.8 years, with females TRANS predominant (74%). A majority (68.9%) reported direct contact with COVID-19 patients, body fluids of COVID-19 patients and/or contaminated objects and surfaces in the past month within their respective workplaces. Nearly all claimed to adhere to personal protection equipment (PPE) guidelines (97%-100% adherence) and hand hygiene practice (91%-96% adherence). None (95% CI: 0, 0.0095) of the participants had anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO detected, despite 135 (33.8%) reporting respiratory symptoms one month prior to study recruitment. One hundred and fifteen (29%) participants claimed to have contact with known COVID-19 persons outside of the workplace.ConclusionOur finding of zero seroprevalence SERO among asymptomatic TRANS HCW suggests a low risk of asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 infection MESHD in our healthcare setting; which is at expected levels for a country with an incidence of 26 per 100,000. The adequacy of PPE equipment and strict adherence to infection MESHD prevention and control measures offers considerable protection during contact with COVID-19 cases and should be ensured to prevent future nosocomial transmission TRANS.

    Combined point of care nucleic acid and antibody testing SERO for SARS-CoV-2: a prospective cohort study in suspected moderate to severe COVID-19 disease.

    Authors: Petra Mlcochova; Dami Collier; Allyson V Ritchie; Sonny M Assennato; Myra Hosmillo; Neha Goel; Bo Meng; Krishna Chatterji; Vivien Mendoza; Nigel Temperton; Leo Kiss; Katarzyna A Ciazyns; Xiaoli Xiong; John AG Briggs; James Nathan; Federica Mescia; Hongyi Zhang; Petros Barmpounakis; Nikos Demeris; Richard Skells; Paul Lyons; John Bradley; Stephen Baker; Jean Pierre Allain; Kenneth GC Smith; Ian Goodfellow; Ravindra K Gupta

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.16.20133157 Date: 2020-06-18 Source: medRxiv

    Background Rapid COVID-19 diagnosis in hospital is essential for patient management and identification of infectious patients to limit the potential for nosocomial transmission TRANS. The diagnosis of infection MESHD is complicated by 30-50% of COVID-19 hospital admissions with nose/throat swabs testing negative for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, frequently after the first week of illness when SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO responses become detectable. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of combined rapid antibody SERO point of care (POC) and nucleic acid assays for suspected COVID-19 disease in the emergency department. Methods We developed (i) an in vitro neutralization assay using a lentivirus expressing a genome encoding luciferase and pseudotyped with spike (S) protein and (ii) an ELISA SERO test to detect IgG antibodies SERO to nucleocapsid (N) and S proteins from SARS-CoV-2. We tested two lateral flow rapid fingerprick tests with bands for IgG and IgM. We then prospectively recruited participants with suspected moderate to severe COVID-19 and tested for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in a combined nasal/throat swab using the standard laboratory RT-PCR and a validated rapid POC nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) test. Additionally, serum SERO collected at admission was retrospectively tested by in vitro neutralisation, ELISA SERO and the candidate POC antibody tests SERO. We evaluated the performance SERO of the individual and combined rapid POC diagnostic tests against a composite reference standard of neutralisation and standard laboratory based RT-PCR. Results 45 participants had specimens tested for nucleic acid in nose/throat swabs as well as stored sera for antibodies SERO. Using the composite reference standard, prevalence SERO of COVID-19 disease was 53.3% (24/45). Median age TRANS was 73.5 (IQR 54.0-86.5) years in those with COVID-19 disease by our reference standard and 63.0 (IQR 41.0-72.0) years in those without disease. The overall detection rate by rapid NAAT was 79.2% (95CI 57.8-92.9%), decreasing from 100% (95% CI 65.3-98.6%) in days 1-4 to 50.0% (95% CI 11.8-88.2) for days 9-28 post symptom onset TRANS. Correct identification of COVID-19 with combined rapid POC diagnostic tests was 100% (95CI 85.8-100%) with a false positive rate of 5.3-14.3%, driven by POC LFA antibody tests SERO. Conclusions Combined POC tests SERO have the potential to transform our management of COVID-19, including inflammatory manifestations later in disease where nucleic acid test results are negative. A rapid combined approach will also aid recruitment into clinical trials and in prescribing therapeutics, particularly where potentially harmful immune modulators (including steroids) are used.

    SARS-CoV-2 Community Transmission TRANS During Shelter-in-Place in San Francisco

    Authors: Gabriel Chamie; Carina Marquez; Emily Crawford; James Peng; Maya Petersen; Daniel Schwab; Joshua Schwab; Jackie Martinez; Diane Jones; Douglas Black; Monica Gandhi; Andrew D. Kerkhoff; Vivek Jain; Francesco Sergi; Jon Jacobo; Susana Rojas; Valerie Tulier-Laiwa; Tracy Gallardo-Brown; Ayesha Appa; Charles Y Chiu; Mary Rodgers; John Hackett Jr.; Amy Kistler; Samantha Hao; Jack Kamm; David Dynerman; Joshua Batson; Bryan Greenhouse; Joe DeRisi; Diane V. Havlir

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.15.20132233 Date: 2020-06-17 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT Background: We characterized SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD in a densely-populated, majority Latinx San Francisco community six-weeks into the city's shelter-in-place order. Methods: We offered SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-PCR and antibody SERO (Abbott ARCHITECT IgG) testing, regardless of symptoms, to all residents (>=4 years) and workers in a San Francisco census tract (population: 5,174) at outdoor, community-mobilized events over four days. We estimated SARS-CoV-2 point prevalence SERO (PCR-positive) and cumulative incidence ( antibody SERO or PCR-positive) in the census tract and evaluated risk factors for recent (PCR-positive/ antibody SERO-negative) versus prior infection ( antibody SERO-positive/PCR-negative). SARS-CoV-2 genome recovery and phylogenetics were used to measure viral strain diversity, establish viral lineages present, and estimate number of introductions. Results: We tested 3,953 persons: 40% Latinx; 41% White; 9% Asian/Pacific Islander; and 2% Black. Overall, 2.1% (83/3,871) tested PCR-positive: 95% were Latinx and 52% asymptomatic TRANS when tested. 1.7% of residents and 6.0% of workers (non-census tract residents) were PCR-positive. Among 2,598 census tract residents, estimated point prevalence SERO of PCR-positives was 2.3% (95%CI: 1.2-3.8%): 3.9% (95%CI: 2.0-6.4%) among Latinx vs. 0.2% (95%CI: 0.0-0.4%) among non-Latinx persons. Estimated cumulative incidence among residents was 6.1% (95%CI: 4.0-8.6%). Prior infections MESHD were 67% Latinx, 16% White, and 17% other ethnicities. Among recent infections, 96% were Latinx. Risk factors for recent infection MESHD were Latinx ethnicity, inability to shelter-in-place and maintain income, frontline service work, unemployment, and household income

    Clinical, immunological and virological characterization of COVID-19 patients that test re-positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR

    Authors: Jing Lu; Jinju Peng; Qianling Xiong; Zhe Liu; Huifang Lin; Xiaohua Tan; Min Kang; Runyu Yuan; Lilian Zeng; Pingping Zhou; Chumin Liang; Lina Yi; Louis du Plessis; Tie Song; Wenjun Ma; Jiufeng Sun; Oliver Pybus; Changwen Ke

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.15.20131748 Date: 2020-06-17 Source: medRxiv

    Background COVID-19 pandemic is underway. Some COVID-19 cases re-tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA after discharge raising the public concern on their infectivity. Characterization of re-positive cases are urgently needed for designing intervention strategies. Methods Clinical data were obtained through Guangdong COVID-19 surveillance network. Neutralization antibody SERO titre was determined using a microneutralization assay. Potential infectivity of clinical samples was evaluated after the cell inoculation. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected using three different RT-PCR kits and multiplex PCR with nanopore sequencing. Results Among 619 discharged COVID-19 cases, 87 were re-tested as SARS-CoV-2 positive in circumstance of social isolation. All re-positive cases had mild or moderate symptoms in initial diagnosis and a younger age TRANS distribution (mean, 30.4). Re-positive cases (n=59) exhibited similar neutralization antibodies SERO (NAbs) titre distributions to other COVID-19 cases (n=150) parallel-tested in this study. No infective viral strain could be obtained by culture and none full-length viral genomes could be sequenced for all re-positive cases. Conclusions Re-positive SARS-CoV-2 was not caused by the secondary infection MESHD and was identified in around 14% of discharged cases. A robust Nabs response and a potential virus genome degradation were detected from nearly all re-positive cases suggesting a lower transmission risk TRANS, especially through a respiratory route.

    Mass Antibody SERO Detection: Can It be An Avenger for Infectivity War against COVID-19

    Authors: Sarfaraz Ahmad Ejazi; Sneha Ghosh; Nahid Ali

    id:10.20944/preprints202006.0211.v1 Date: 2020-06-17 Source: Preprints.org

    The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 has not only commenced a global health emergency but agitated various aspects of humanity. During this period of crisis researchers over the world have ramped their efforts to constrain the disease in all possible ways whether it is vaccination, therapy, or diagnosis. Since the spread of the disease TRANS has not yet elapsed sharing the ongoing research findings could be the key to disease control and management. An early and efficient diagnosis could leverage the outcome until a successful vaccine is developed. Molecular tests both in-house and commercial kits are preferably being used worldwide in the COVID-19 diagnosis. However, the limitation of high prices and lengthy procedures impede their use for mass testing. Keeping the constant rise of infection in mind search for an alternative test that should be cost-effective, simple, and suitable for large scale testing and surveillance is a need of an hour. One such alternative could be the immunological tests. Therefore, in the last few months deluge of immunological rapid tests SERO has been developed and validated across the globe. The objective of the present review is to share the diagnostic performance SERO of various immunological assays reported so far in SARS-CoV-2 case detection. The article consolidated the studies (published and preprints) related to the serological tests SERO such as chemiluminescence, enzyme-linked and lateral flow-based point-of-care tests in COVID-19 diagnosis and updated the current scenario. This review will hopefully be an add-on in COVID-19 research and will contribute to congregate the evidence for decision-making.

    Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 in Breastmilk from 18 Infected Women

    Authors: Christina D Chambers; Paul Krogstad; Kerri Bertrand; Deisy Contreras; Lars Bode; Nicole Tobin; Grace Aldrovandi

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.12.20127944 Date: 2020-06-16 Source: medRxiv

    To The Editor, Currently, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Academy of Pediatrics and the World Health Organization advise that women who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 may choose to breastfeed with appropriate protections to prevent transmission TRANS of the virus through respiratory droplets. However, the potential for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 through breastfeeding is currently unknown. To date, case reports on breastmilk samples from a total of 24 SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD women have been published. Of those, viral RNA was detected in ten breastmilk samples from four women. In some but not all cases, environmental contamination as the source of the virus or retrograde flow from an infected infant could not be ruled out. We established a quantitative RT-PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2 in breastmilk with a limit of detection of 250 copies per mL and validated it by spiking breastmilk from uninfected women with known amounts of viral RNA. In addition, we established tissue culture methods to detect replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 in breastmilk. No viral RNA nor culturable virus was detected after Holder pasteurization of breastmilk samples that had been spiked with replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 (see Supplement). Between March 27 and May 6, 2020, we collected and analyzed 64 serial breastmilk samples from 18 SARS-CoV-2-infected MESHD women residing in the U.S. (see Supplement for clinical characteristics). Breastmilk samples were collected before and after women had a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test and all but one woman had symptomatic disease (see Figure). One of the 64 breastmilk samples had detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR. The positive sample was collected on the day of symptom onset TRANS but one sample 2 days prior to symptom onset TRANS and two subsequent samples, collected 12 and 41 days later, tested negative for viral RNA. In addition, a subset of 26 breastmilk samples from nine women were tested for the presence of replication-competent virus using our established culture methods, and all were negative including the one sample that tested positive for viral RNA by RT-PCR. Although SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in one milk sample from one of eighteen infected women, the viral culture for that sample was negative. This suggests that SARS-CoV-2 RNA does not represent replication-competent virus and that breastmilk itself is likely not a source of infection for the infant. Furthermore, when control breastmilk samples spiked with replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 virus were treated by Holder pasteurization, a process commonly performed by donor milk banks, no replication-competent virus nor viral RNA was detectable. Further research to confirm these findings is needed, as well as an examination of convalescent milk for the presence of antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2.

    A population-based study of the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 infection MESHD in Espirito Santo, Brazil: methodology and results of the first stage

    Authors: Cristiana Costa Gomes; Crispim Cerutti Jr.; Eliana Zandonade; Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel; Filomena Euridice Carvalho de Alencar; Gilton Luiz Almada; Orlei Amaral Cardoso; Pablo Medeiros Jabor; Raphael Lubiana Zanotti; Tania Queiroz Reuter; Vera Lucia Gomes de Andrade; Whisllay Maciel Bastos; Nesio Fernandes de Medeiros Jr.

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.13.20130559 Date: 2020-06-16 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is affecting almost the entire world, causing more than four hundred thousand deaths and undermining the health care systems, as much as the economy, of the afflicted countries. The strategies for prevention depend on largely lacking information, as infection MESHD prevalence SERO and virus pathogenicity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence SERO, the pathogenicity, and the speed of infection MESHD spreading in a large population in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a serial cross-sectional study designed on a population basis and structured over houses as the sampling units. The sampling consisted of four visits at 15 days intervals in randomly selected census-designated sectors of the State major municipalities (reference municipalities) and two visits at 30 days intervals in smaller municipalities of the same regions of those of reference. At each visit, the investigators sampled houses and sampled one individual in each house for data collection. After the informed consent, the investigators performed a rapid antibody SERO detection test (Celer Technology, Inc) and applied a questionnaire containing clinical and demographic questions. RESULTS: From May 13th to 15th, the investigators performed 6,393 rapid tests SERO in 4,612 individuals of the reference municipalities, 1,163 individuals of the smaller municipalities, and 166 contacts of the positive individuals. Ninety-seven dwellers were positive in the reference municipalities, giving a prevalence SERO of 2.1% (CI 95%: 1.67-2.52%). In the smaller municipalities, the figure was 0.26% (CI 95%: 0.05%-0.75%) (three positives). There was an association of the positive result with female TRANS sex (p = 0.013) and houses with five dwellers or more (p = 0.003). Seventy-eight positive individuals reported symptoms in the previous 15 days (80.4%), being anosmia HP anosmia MESHD (45.4%), cough HP (40.2%), and myalgia HP myalgia MESHD (38.1%) the more frequent. About one-third of them reported fever HP fever MESHD (28.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal a still small prevalence SERO of infection MESHD in the study area, despite the significant number of sick people overloading the health system. The figures indicate an important underreporting in the area and a frequency that still can grow, making necessary public health actions for the containment of the transmission TRANS.

    Assessment of spread of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR and concomitant serology in children TRANS in a region heavily affected by COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Robert Cohen; Camille Jung; Naim Ouldali; Aurelie Sellam; Christophe Batard; Fabienne Cahn-Sellem; Annie Elbez; Alain Wollner; Olivier Romain; Francois Corrard; Said Aberrane; Nathalie Soismier; Rita Creidy; Mounira Smati-Lafarge; Odile Launay; Stephane Bechet; Emmanuelle Varon; Corinne Levy

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.12.20129221 Date: 2020-06-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Several studies indicated that children TRANS seem to be less frequently infected with SARS-CoV-2 and potentially less contagious. To examine the spread of SARS-CoV-2 we combined both RT-PCR testing and serology in children TRANS in the most affected region in France, during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods. From April 14, 2020 to May 12, 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional prospective, multicenter study. Healthy controls and pauci-symptomatic children TRANS from birth to age TRANS 15 years were enrolled by 27 ambulatory pediatricians. A nasopharyngeal swab was taken for detection of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR and a microsample of blood SERO for micro-method serology. Results. Among the 605 children TRANS, 322 (53.2%) were asymptomatic TRANS and 283 (46.8%) symptomatic. RT-PCR testing and serology were positive for 11 (1.8%) and 65 (10.7%) of all children TRANS, respectively. Only 3 children TRANS were RT-PCR-positive without any antibody SERO response have been detected. The frequency of positivity on RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was significantly higher in children TRANS with positive serology than those with a negative one (12.3% vs 0.6%, p<0.001). Contact with a person with proven COVID-19 increased the odds of positivity on RT-PCR (OR 7.8, 95% confidence interval [1.5; 40.7]) and serology (15.1 [6.6; 34.6]). Conclusion. In area heavily affected by COVID-19, after the peak of the first epidemic wave and during the lockdown, the rate of children TRANS with positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was very low (1.8%), but the rate of positive on serology was higher (10.7%). Most of PCR positive children TRANS had at the same time, positive serology suggesting a low risk of transmission TRANS.

    A systematic review on the levels of antibodies SERO in COVID-19 virus exposed but negative newborns: a possible vertical transmission TRANS of IgG/ IgM

    Authors: George M. Bwire; Belinda J. Njiro

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.09.20127118 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: medRxiv

    Background Currently, there is no doubt on human-to-human transmission TRANS of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). Now, the debates remain on whether, vertical transmission TRANS of Severe Respiratory Syndrome Virus 2 MESHD ( SARS-CoV-2) and antibodies SERO against the virus do exist. We therefore, conducted a systematic review to determine the immunoglobulin G and M (IgG/IgM) levels among infants born to mothers with COVID-19. Methods The systematic search was done using PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar database. The research included studies on IgG/ IgM against SARS-CoV-2 among infants born to mother with COVID-19 published in English from December 1, 2019 onwards. Data were extracted by two independent authors in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA-P) guidelines. We synthesized a narrative from eligible studies and performed two tailed non-parametric Mann-Whitney test to determine and compare the median IgG/IgM levels. Results In total, 486 abstracts were screened and 63 full-text articles were assessed. Of 63 articles, 6 met the inclusion criteria for qualitative analysis. Two articles were included in quantitative analysis of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/ IgM levels. The median antibody SERO levels was 75.49AU/mL (range: 7.25AU/mL- 140.32AU/mL ) and for 3.79AU/mL (range: 0.16AU/mL-45.83AU/mL) (P = 0.0041) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM, respectively. Conclusion There were high levels of IgG but low IgM against SARS-CoV-2 (using <10 AU/mL as a reference range) among COVID-19 virus exposed but negative newborns. This review suggest a possible natural passive immunity (IgG/ IgM) against COVID-19 virus.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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