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MeSH Disease

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 213
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    SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection MESHD in Patients Negative for Immunoglobulin G Following Recovery from COVID-19 MESHD

    Authors: Ayad M Ali; Kameran M Ali; Mohammed H Fatah; Hassan M Towfeeq; Hassan Muhammad Rostam; James Mwitari; Arthur Gohole; Edna Sang; Iva Cukic; Diana Menya; Daniel Pope; Catherine Ley; Dean Winslow; Jennifer Newberry; Karlie Edwards; Colin Hislop; Ingrid Choong; Yvonne Maldonado; Jeffrey Glenn; Ami Bhatt; Catherine Blish; Taia Wang; Chaitan Khosla; Benjamin Pinsky; Manisha Desai; Julie Parsonnet; Upinder Singh

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.20.20234385 Date: 2020-11-23 Source: medRxiv

    While many patients infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) eventually produce neutralising antibodies SERO, the degree of susceptibility of previously infected individuals to reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 is currently unknown. To better understand the impact of the immunoglobulin (IgG) level on reinfection in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD) patients, IgG levels against SARS-CoV-2 were measured in 829 patients with previously confirmed infection TRANS just after their recovery. Notably, 87 of these patients had no detectable IgG concentration. While there was just one case of asymptomatic TRANS reinfection 4.5 months after the initial recovery amongst patients with detectable IgG levels, 25 of the 87 patients negative for IgG were reinfected within one to three months after their first infection. Therefore, patients who recover from COVID-19 MESHD with no detectable IgG concentration appear to remain more susceptible to reinfection by SARS-CoV-2, with no apparent immunity. Also, although our results suggest the chance is lower, the possibility for recovered patients with positive IgG findings to be reinfected similarly exists.

    Diagnosis and Tracking of Past SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD in a Large Study of Vo', Italy Through T-Cell Receptor Sequencing

    Authors: Rachel M Gittelman; Enrico Lavezzo; Thomas M Snyder; H Jabran Zahid; Rebecca Elyanow; Sudeb Dalai; Ilan Kirsch; Lance Baldo; Laura Manuto; Elisa Franchin; Claudia Del Vecchio; Fabio Simeoni; Jessica Bordini; Nicola I Lorè; Dejan Lazarevic; Daniela M Cirillo; Paolo Ghia; Stefano Toppo; Jonathan M Carlson; Harlan S Robins; Giovanni Tonon; Andrea Crisanti; Shweta Sharma; Mark Teitelbaum; B. Taylor Thompson; Barnaby E Young; James D Neaton; Jens D Lundgren; - TICO study group

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.09.20228023 Date: 2020-11-12 Source: medRxiv

    Measuring the adaptive immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD may improve our understanding of COVID-19 MESHD exposure and potential future protection or immunity. We analyzed T-cell and antibody SERO signatures in a large population study of over 2,200 individuals from the municipality of Vo', Italy, including 70 PCR-confirmed COVID cases (24 asymptomatic TRANS, 37 symptomatic, 9 hospitalized). Blood SERO samples taken 60 days after PCR diagnosis demonstrated 97% (68/70) of the latter subjects had a positive T-cell test result, higher than an antibody SERO serology assay (77%; 54/70 of subjects) performed on the same samples. The depth and breadth of the T-cell response was associated with disease severity, with symptomatic and hospitalized COVID cases having significantly higher response than asymptomatic TRANS cases. In contrast, antibody SERO levels at this convalescent time point were less informative as they did not correlate with disease severity. 45 additional suspected infections were identified based on T-cell response from the 2,220 subjects without confirmatory PCR tests. Among these, notably, subjects who reported symptoms or had household exposure to a PCR- confirmed infection TRANS presented a higher T-cell test positive rate. Taken together, these results establish that T cells are a sensitive, reliable and persistent measure of past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD.

    Asymptomatic TRANS Employee Screening for SARS-CoV-2: Implementation of and Reactions to an Employer-Based Testing Program.

    Authors: Laura Goetz; Tyler L DeLaughder; Kathleen L Kennedy; Nicholas Schork; Timothy McDaniel; Jeffrey Trent; David Engelthaler; Bishesh Khanal; Martin Smid; Milan Zajicek; Tomas Diviak; Roman Neruda; Petra Vidnerova; Brian Pickering; Andrew D Badley; Rahul Kashyap; AJ Venkatakrishnan; Venky Soundararajan; Jennifer E. Wu; Cécile Alanio; Kurt D'Andrea; Oliva Kuthuru; Jeanette Dougherty; Ajinkya Pattekar; Justin Kim; Nicholas Han; Sokratis A. Apostolidis; Alex C. Huang; Laura Vella; - The UPenn COVID Processing Unit; E. John Wherry; Nuala J. Meyer; Sara Cherry; Paul Bates; Daniel J. Rader; Scott E. Hensley

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.06.20227314 Date: 2020-11-10 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction. Asymptomatic TRANS testing for SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers or other essential personnel could remove infected carriers TRANS from the workforce, decreasing chances for transmission TRANS and workplace outbreaks. Results from one-time testing programs have been reported but data regarding longitudinal testing, including information about employees reactions to such programs, is not readily available. Methods. To identify asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS of SARS-CoV-2, we implemented a longitudinal screening program for critical on-site employees within our research institute in early April 2020. We conducted a survey of both on-site employees and those working from home in order to measure their reactions to the testing program. Statistical analysis of the survey was conducted with general linear regression and Pearsons Chi-Square tests. Results. Despite an ongoing high community prevalence SERO rate of COVID-19 MESHD, to date only two asymptomatic TRANS employees tested positive out of 1050 tests run during 7 months of the program. However, 12 symptomatic employees not participating in the program have tested positive. The employee survey was completed by 132/306 (43%) employees, with 93% agreeing that asymptomatic TRANS employee screening led to a better and safer working environment and 75% agreeing with on-site public health measures to help contain the virus, but only 58% feeling COVID-19 MESHD was a serious threat to their health. Conclusion. Our results suggest that a longitudinal asymptomatic TRANS employee screening program for SARS-CoV-2 can be accepted by employees and can be used to maintain the health of the workforce, potentially keeping positivity rates below community levels in the face of the ongoing COVID-19 MESHD pandemic.

    Household Transmission TRANS of SARS-COV-2: Insights from a Population-based Serological Survey

    Authors: Qifang Bi; Justin Lessler; Isabella Eckerle; Stephen A Lauer; Laurent Kaiser; Nicolas Vuilleumier; Derek AT Cummings; Antoine Flahault; Dusan Petrovic; Idris Guessous; Silvia Stringhini; Andrew S Azman; - SEROCoV-POP; Claudia Ress; Caren Sourij; Lars Stechemesser; Harald Stingl; Thomas Stulnig; Norbert Tripolt; Michael Wagner; Peter Wolf; Andreas Zitterl; Susanne Kaser

    doi:10.1101/2020.11.04.20225573 Date: 2020-11-04 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Knowing the transmissibility TRANS of asymptomatic TRANS infections and risk TRANS of infection from household and community exposures is critical to SARS-CoV-2 control. Limited previous evidence is based primarily on virologic testing, which disproportionately misses mild and asymptomatic TRANS infections. Serologic measures are more likely to capture all previously infected individuals. Objective: Estimate the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD from household and community exposures, and identify key risk factors for transmission TRANS and infection. Design: Household serosurvey and transmission TRANS model. Setting: Population-based serosurvey in Geneva, Switzerland Participants: 4,524 household members five years and older from 2,267 households enrolled April-June 2020. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD (seropositive) household members and background risk of community transmission TRANS. Main outcomes and measures: Past SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection confirmed TRANS through anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies SERO by ELISA SERO. Chain-binomial models based on the number of infections within households were used to estimate extra-household infection risk TRANS by demographics and reported extra- household contacts TRANS, and infection risk TRANS from exposure to an infected household member by demographics and infector's symptoms MESHD. Infections attributable to exposure to different types of infectious individuals were estimated. Results: The chance of being infected by a single SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD household member was 17.2% (95%CrI 13.6-21.5%) compared to a cumulative extra-household infection risk TRANS of 5.1% (95%CrI 4.5-5.8%). Infection risk TRANS from an infected household member increased with age TRANS, from 7.5% (95%CrI 1.3-20.3%) among 5-9 years to 30.2% (95%CrI 14.3-48.2%) among those [≥]65 years. Working- age TRANS adults TRANS (20-49 years) had the highest extra-household infection risk TRANS. Seropositive household members not reporting symptoms had 74.8% lower odds (95%CrI 43.8-90.3%) of infecting another household member compared to those reporting symptoms, accounting for 19.6% (95%CrI 12.9-24.5%) of all household infections. Conclusions and Relevance: The risk of infection TRANS from exposure to a single infected household member was four-times that of extra-household exposures over the first wave of the pandemic. Young children TRANS had a lower risk from infection TRANS from household members. Asymptomatic TRANS infections are far less likely to transmit than symptomatic ones but do cause infections. While the small households in Geneva limit the contribution of household spread, household transmission TRANS likely plays a greater role in other settings.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD Hospitalization Rate and Infection Fatality Rate among the Non-Congregant Population in Connecticut

    Authors: Shiwani Mahajan; Cesar Caraballo; Shu-Xia Li; Claire Dong; Lian Chen; Sara K Huston; Rajesh Srinivasan; Carrie A Redlich; Albert I Ko; Jeremy S Faust; Howard P Forman; Harlan M Krumholz

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.30.20223461 Date: 2020-11-04 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: COVID-19 MESHD case fatality and hospitalization rates, calculated using the number of confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 MESHD, have been described widely in the literature. However, the number of infections confirmed TRANS by testing underestimates the total infections as it is biased based on the availability of testing and because asymptomatic TRANS individuals may remain untested. The infection fatality rate (IFR) and infection hospitalization rate (IHR), calculated using the estimated total infections based on a representative sample of a population, is a better metric to assess the actual toll of the disease. Objective: To determine the IHR and IFR for COVID-19 MESHD using the statewide SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO estimates for the non-congregate population in Connecticut. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Adults TRANS residing in a non-congregate setting in Connecticut between March 1 and June 1, 2020. Participants: Individuals aged TRANS 18 years or above. Exposure: Estimated number of adults TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. Main Outcome and Measures: COVID-19 MESHD-related hospitalizations and deaths among adults TRANS residing in a non-congregate setting in Connecticut between March 1 and June 1, 2020. Results: Of the 2.8 million individuals residing in the non-congregate settings in Connecticut through June 2020, 113,515 (90% CI 56,758-170,273) individuals had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies SERO. There were a total of 9425 COVID-19 MESHD-related hospitalizations and 4071 COVID-19 MESHD-related deaths in Connecticut between March 1 and June 1, 2020, of which 7792 hospitalizations and 1079 deaths occurred among the non-congregate population. The overall COVID-19 MESHD IHR and IFR was 6.86% (90% CI, 4.58%-13.72%) and 0.95% (90% CI, 0.63%-1.90%) among the non-congregate population. Older individuals, men, non-Hispanic Black individuals and those belonging to New Haven and Litchfield counties had a higher burden of hospitalization and deaths, compared with younger individuals, women, non-Hispanic White or Hispanic individuals, and those belonging to New London county, respectively. Conclusion and Relevance: Using representative seroprevalence SERO estimates, the overall COVID-19 MESHD IHR and IFR were estimated to be 6.86% and 0.95% among the non-congregate population in Connecticut. Accurate estimation of IHR and IFR among community residents is important to guide public health strategies during an infectious disease outbreak.

    Real-life performances SERO of a novel antigen detection test on nasopharyngeal specimens for SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD diagnosis: a prospective study

    Authors: Laura Courtellemont; jerome Guinard; Clemence Guillaume; Susanna Giache; Vincent Rzepecki; Aymeric Seve; Camelia Gubavu; Kim Baud; Heidi Doize; Claire Le Helloco; Clemence Lebegue; Elom A Tay; Guy Cassuto; Gilles Pialoux; Laurent Hocqueloux; thierry prazuck

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.28.20220657 Date: 2020-11-03 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has become a major public health issue worldwide. Developing and evaluating rapid and easy-to-perform diagnostic tests is an absolute priority. The current prospective study was designed to assess diagnostic performances SERO of an antigen-based rapid detection test (COVID-VIRO) in a real-life setting. Methods Two nasopharyngeal specimens of symptomatic or asymptomatic TRANS adult TRANS patients hospitalized in the Infectious Diseases Department or voluntarily accessing the COVID-19 MESHD Screening Department of the Regional Hospital of Orleans, France, were concurrently collected. COVID VIRO diagnostic specificity and sensitivity SERO were assessed in comparison to real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) results. A subgroup of patients underwent an additional oropharyngeal and/or a saliva swab for rapid testing SERO. Results 121 patients already having a confirmed infection TRANS and 127 patients having no evidence of recent or ongoing infection MESHD were enrolled, for a total of 248 couple of nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Overall COVID-VIRO sensitivity SERO was 96.7% (IC: 93.5%-99.9%). In asymptomatic TRANS patients, patients having symptoms for more than 4 days and those having a RT-qPCR Cycle threshold value >32, sensitivity SERO was of 100%, 95.8% and 96.9% respectively. The concordance between RT-qPCR and COVID VIRO rapid test SERO was 100% for the 127 patients with no SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Conclusion COVID-VIRO test had 100% specificity and above 95% sensitivity SERO, better than WHO recommendations (specificity [≥]97-100%, sensitivity SERO [≥]80%). These rapid tests SERO are particularly interesting for large-scale screening in Emergency Department, low resource settings and airports.

    Declining prevalence SERO of antibody SERO positivity to SARS-CoV-2: a community study of 365,000 adults TRANS

    Authors: Helen Ward; Graham Cooke; Christina J Atchison; Matthew Whitaker; Joshua Elliott; Maya Moshe; Jonathan C Brown; Barney Flower; Anna Daunt; Kylie E. C. Ainslie; Deborah Ashby; Christl A. Donnelly; Steven Riley; Ara Darzi; Wendy Barclay; Paul Elliott; Robert Maile; Will Lovell; Shannon Wallet; Natalie M Bowman; Suzanne L Meinig; Matthew C Wolfgang; Saibyasachi N. Choudhury; Mark Novotny; Brian D Aevermann; Richard Scheuermann; Gabrielle Cannon; Carlton Anderson; Julie Marchesan; Mandy Bush; Marcelo Freire; Adam Kimple; Daniel L Herr; Joseph Rabin; Alison Grazioli; Benjamin N. French; Thomas JF Pranzatelli; John A. Chiorini; David E. Kleiner; Stefania Pittaluga; Stephen Hewitt; Peter D. Burbelo; Daniel Chertow; - NIH COVID-19 Autopsy Consortium; - HCA Oral and Craniofacial Biological Network; Karen M Frank; Janice Lee; Richard C. Boucher C. Boucher; Sarah A. Teichmann; Blake M Warner

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.26.20219725 Date: 2020-10-27 Source: medRxiv

    Background The prevalence SERO and persistence of antibodies SERO following a peak SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD provides insights into its spread in the community, the likelihood of reinfection and potential for some level of population immunity. Methods Prevalence SERO of antibody SERO positivity in England, UK (REACT2) with three cross-sectional surveys between late June and September 2020. 365104 adults TRANS used a self-administered lateral flow immunoassay SERO (LFIA) test for IgG. A laboratory comparison of LFIA results to neutralization activity in panel of sera was performed. Results There were 17,576 positive tests over the three rounds. Antibody SERO prevalence SERO, adjusted for test characteristics and weighted to the adult TRANS population of England, declined from 6.0% [5.8, 6.1], to 4.8% [4.7, 5.0] and 4.4% [4.3, 4.5], a fall HP of 26.5% [-29.0, -23.8] over the three months of the study. There was a decline between rounds 1 and 3 in all age groups TRANS, with the highest prevalence SERO of a positive result and smallest overall decline in positivity in the youngest age group TRANS (18-24 years: -14.9% [-21.6, -8.1]), and lowest prevalence SERO and largest decline in the oldest group (75+ years: -39.0% [-50.8, -27.2]); there was no change in antibody SERO positivity between rounds 1 and 3 in healthcare workers (+3.45% [-5.7, +12.7]). The decline from rounds 1 to 3 was largest in those who did not report a history of COVID-19 MESHD, (-64.0% [-75.6, -52.3]), compared to -22.3% ([-27.0, -17.7]) in those with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection confirmed TRANS on PCR. Discussion These findings provide evidence of variable waning in antibody SERO positivity over time such that, at the start of the second wave of infection in England, only 4.4% of adults TRANS had detectable IgG antibodies SERO using an LFIA. Antibody SERO positivity was greater in those who reported a positive PCR and lower in older people and those with asymptomatic TRANS infection. These data suggest the possibility of decreasing population immunity and increasing risk of reinfection as detectable antibodies SERO decline in the population.

    Prevalence SERO of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in healthy blood SERO donors in New York

    Authors: Kathy Kamath; Elisabeth Baum-Jones; Gregory Jordan; Winston Haynes; Rebecca Waitz; John Shon; Steve Kujawa; Lyn Fitzgibbons; Debra Kessler; Larry L Luchsinger; - Yale IMPACT Team; Patrick Daugherty; Shershah Assadullah; Matthew Leung; Aisling O'Neill; Chhaya Popat; Radhika Kumar; Thomas J Humphries; Rebecca Talbutt; Sarika Raghunath; Philip L Molyneaux; Miriam Schechter; Jeremy Lowe; Andrew Barlow

    doi:10.1101/2020.10.19.20215368 Date: 2020-10-21 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT Despite the high level of morbidity and mortality worldwide, there is increasing evidence for asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed blood SERO specimens from 1,559 healthy blood SERO donors, collected in the greater New York metropolitan area between the months of March and July 2020 for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO virus. Using our proprietary technology, SERA ( Serum SERO Epitope Repertoire Analysis), we observed a significant increase in SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity rates over the four-month period, from 0% [95% CI: 0 - 1.5%] (March) to 11.6% [6.0 - 21.2%] (July). Follow-up ELISA SERO tests using S1 and nucleocapsid viral proteins confirmed most of these results. Our findings are consistent with seroprevalence SERO studies within the region and with reports that SARS-COV-2 infection MESHD SARS-COV-2 infection MESHDs can be asymptomatic TRANS or cause only mild symptoms. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 MESHD pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has caused vast morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet several studies indicate that there may be a significant number of infected people MESHD who are asymptomatic TRANS or exhibit mild symptoms. In this study, samples were collected from healthy blood SERO donors in a region of rapidly increasing disease burden (New York metropolitan area) and we hypothesized that a subset would be seropositive to SARS-CoV-2. People who experienced mild or no symptoms during SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD may represent a source for convalescent plasma SERO donors.

    Pulmonary Imaging Findings in Coronavirus Disease 2019 MESHD ( COVID-19 MESHD): A Series of 140 Latin American Children TRANS

    Authors: Carlos Ugas-Charcape; María Elena Ucar; Judith Almanza-Aranda; Emiliana Rizo-Patrón; Claudia Lazarte Rantes; Pablo Caro-Domínguez; Lina Cadavid; Lizbet Pérez-Marrero; Tatiana Fazecas; Lucía Gómez; Mariana Sánchez Curiel; Walter Pacheco; Ana Rizzi; Andrés García-Bayce; Efigenia Bendeck; Walter Montaño; Pedro Daltro; José D. Arce V

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-94820/v1 Date: 2020-10-19 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 virus), which resulted in the worldwide COVID-19 MESHD pandemic of 2020, has particularly affected Latin America. Objective:The purpose of the study was to analyze the imaging findings of pulmonary COVID-19 MESHD in a large pediatric series.Materials and methods: Children TRANS with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection confirmed TRANS by either quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from nasopharyngeal swabs or presence of circulating IgM and/or IgG antibodies SERO and who underwent chest radiograph (CXR) and/or computed tomography (CT) were included in this retrospective multicenter study. Three pediatric radiologists independently reviewed CXRs and CTs to identify the presence, localization, distribution and extension of pulmonary lesions MESHD. Results:One hundred and forty children TRANS (71 female TRANS; median age TRANS 6.2 years; interquartile range 1.6-12.1 years) were included in the study. Peribronchial thickening (93%), ground glass opacities (79%) and vascular engorgement (63%) were the most frequent findings on 131 CXRs. Ground glass opacities (91%), vascular engorgement (84%) and peribronchial thickening (72%) were the most frequent findings on 32 CTs. Peribronchial thickening (100%), ground-glass opacities (90%) and pulmonary vascular engorgement MESHD (74%) were common CXR findings in asymptomatic TRANS patients (n=20). Consolidation and ground-glass opacity were significantly higher in patients who needed ICU admission or expired, in contrast with patients with a good outcome (48% and 91%, vs 24% and 70% p<0.05, respectively).Conclusion: Asymptomatic TRANS children TRANS and those with mild symptoms of COVID-19 MESHD showed mainly peribronchial thickening, ground-glass opacities and pulmonary HP vascular engorgement on CXRs. Ground glass opacity and consolidation, were more common in patients who required ICU admission or died. 

    Estimating the proportion of asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 MESHD cases during the first pandemic wave in Apulia region, Italy

    Authors: Domenico Martinelli; Francesca Fortunato; Sara Mazzilli; Lucia Bisceglia; Pier Luigi Lopalco; Rosa Prato

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-93013/v1 Date: 2020-10-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    In the current epidemiological situation of COVID-19 MESHD in countries such as Italy, quantifying the contribution of asymptomatic TRANS infections to SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS is of crucial importance for pandemic control. We conducted a retrospective epidemiological study to characterize asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 MESHD cases occurred in the Apulia region, Italy, during the first epidemic wave of COVID-19 MESHD outbreak.We analyzed data collected in a regional surveillance platform developed to manage the emergency through investigation and follow-up of cases and contacts, contact tracing TRANS, laboratory and clinical data collection. We included asymptomatic TRANS laboratory- confirmed cases TRANS defined as persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 who did not develop symptoms/clinical signs of the disease.Between February 29 and July 7, 2020, a total of 4,536 cases were diagnosed with COVID-19 MESHD among 193.757 tests performed. The group of persons with asymptomatic TRANS SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD consisted of 903 cases; the asymptomatic TRANS proportion was 19.9% (95%CI: 18.8-21.1%); this decreased with increasing age TRANS (OR: 0.89, 95%CI: 0.83-0.96; p=0.001), in individuals with underlying comorbidities (OR: 0.55, 95%CI: 0.41-0.73; p<0.001), and males TRANS (OR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.54-0.87; p=0.002). The median asymptomatic TRANS infectious period TRANS was 19 days (IQR: 14-31) and the cumulative proportion of persons with resolution of infection 14 days after the first positive PCR test was 74%.In Europe and globally, there is again an increase in the number of new cases, mainly asymptomatic TRANS. As the public health community debates the question of whether asymptomatic TRANS and late spreaders could sustain virus transmission TRANS in the communities, such cases present unique opportunities to gain insight into SARS-CoV-2 adaptation to human host.

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