Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (4)

Pneumonia (2)

Chills (1)

Pain (1)

Cough (1)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    SARS-CoV-2 antigens expressed in plants detect antibody SERO responses in COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Mohau S Makatsa; Marius B Tincho; Jerome M Wendoh; Sherazaan D Ismail; Rofhiwa Nesamari; Francisco Pera; Scott de Beer; Anura David; Sarika Jugwanth; Maemu P Gededzha; Nakampe Mampeule; Ian Sanne; Wendy Stevens; Lesley Scott; Jonathan Blackburn; Elizabeth S Mayne; Roanne S Keeton; Wendy A Burgers

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20167940 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has swept the world and poses a significant global threat to lives and livelihoods, with over 16 million confirmed cases TRANS and at least 650 000 deaths MESHD from COVID-19 in the first 7 months of the pandemic. Developing tools to measure seroprevalence SERO and understand protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is a priority. We aimed to develop a serological assay SERO using plant-derived recombinant viral proteins, which represent important tools in less-resourced settings. Methods: We established an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) using the S1 and receptor-binding domain (RBD) portions of the spike protein from SARS-CoV-2, expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. We measured antibody SERO responses in sera from South African patients (n=77) who had tested positive by PCR for SARS-CoV-2. Samples were taken a median of six weeks after the diagnosis, and the majority of participants had mild and moderate COVID-19 disease MESHD. In addition, we tested the reactivity of pre-pandemic plasma SERO (n=58) and compared the performance SERO of our in-house ELISA SERO with a commercial assay. We also determined whether our assay could detect SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA in saliva. Results: We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins are readily detectable using recombinant plant-derived viral proteins, in patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR. Reactivity to S1 and RBD was detected in 51 (66%) and 48 (62%) of participants, respectively. Notably, we detected 100% of samples identified as having S1-specific antibodies SERO by a validated, high sensitivity SERO commercial ELISA SERO, and OD values were strongly and significantly correlated between the two assays. For the pre-pandemic plasma SERO, 1/58 (1.7%) of samples were positive, indicating a high specificity for SARS-CoV-2 in our ELISA SERO. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG correlated significantly with IgA and IgM responses. Endpoint titers of S1- and RBD-specific immunoglobulins ranged from 1:50 to 1:3200. S1-specific IgG and IgA were found in saliva samples from convalescent volunteers. Conclusions: We demonstrate that recombinant SARS-CoV-2 proteins produced in plants enable robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses. This assay can be used for seroepidemiological studies and to measure the strength and durability of antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2 in infected patients in our setting.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibodies SERO in Utsunomiya City, Greater Tokyo, after first pandemic in 2020 (U-CORONA): a household- and population-based study

    Authors: Nobutoshi Nawa; Jin Kuramochi; Shiro Sonoda; Yui Yamaoka; Yoko Nukui; Yasunari Miyazaki; Takeo Fujiwara

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20155945 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The number of confirmed cases TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections MESHD in Japan are substantially lower in comparison to the US and UK, potentially due to the under-implementation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Studies reported that more than half of the SARS-CoV-2 infections are asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS, confirming the importance for conducting seroepidemiological studies. Although the seroepidemiological studies in Japan observed a reported prevalence SERO of 0.10% in Tokyo, 0.17% in Osaka, and 0.03% in Miyagi, sampling bias was not considered. The study objective was to assess the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in a random sample of households in Utsunomiya City in Tochigi Prefecture, Greater Tokyo, Japan. Methods: We launched the Utsunomiya COVID-19 seROprevalence SERO Neighborhood Association (U-CORONA) Study to assess the seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Utsunomiya City. The survey was conducted between 14 June 2020 and 5 July 2020, in between the first and second wave of the pandemic. Invitations enclosed with a questionnaire were sent to 2,290 people in 1,000 households randomly selected from Utsunomiya basic resident registry. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The level of IgG antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by chemiluminescence immunoassay SERO analysis. Results: Among 2,290 candidates, 753 returned the questionnaire and 742 received IgG tests (32.4 % participation rate). Of the 742 participants, 86.8% were 18 years or older, 52.6% were women, 71.1% were residing within 10 km from the test clinic, and 89.2% were living with another person. The age TRANS and sex distribution, distance to clinic and police district were similar with those of non-participants, while the proportion of single-person households was higher among non-participants than participants (16.2% vs. 10.8%). We confirmed three positive cases through quantitative antibody testing SERO. No positive cases were found among the people who live in the same household as someone with positive. All cases were afebrile. The estimated unweighted and weighted prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were 0.40% (95% confidence interval: 0.08-1.18%) and 1.23% (95% confidence interval: 0.17-2.28%), respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests the importance of detecting all cases using PCR or antigen testing, not only at a hospital, but also in areas where people assemble. Further prospective studies using this cohort are needed to monitor SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO levels.

    SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey in Health Care Workers of the Veneto Region

    Authors: Mario Plebani; Andrea Padoan; Ugo Fedeli; Elena Schievano; Elena Vecchiato; Giuseppe Lippi; Giuliana Lo Cascio; Stefano Porru; Giorgio Palu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20160457 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses formidable challenges to all health care systems. Serological assays SERO may improve disease MESHD management when appropriately used, for better understanding the antibody SERO responses mounted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and for assessing its real prevalence SERO. Although testing the whole population is impratical, well-designed serosurveys in selected subpopulations in specific risk groups may provide valuable information. Aim: we evaluated the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in health care workers who underwent molecular testing with reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in the main hospitals of the Veneto Region by measuring specific antibodies SERO (Abs). Methods: both IgM and IgG antibodies SERO against SARS-Cov-2 S-antigen and N-protein were measured using a validated chemiluminescent analytical system (CLIA) called Maglumi 2000 Plus (New Industries Biomedical EngineeringCo., Ltd [Snibe], Shenzhen, China) Results: A total of 8285 health care workers were tested. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies SERO (IgM, IgG or both) were detectable in 378 cases (4.6%, 95% CI 4.1-5.0%). Seroconversion was observed in 4.4% women and 5% men, but the difference was not significant. Although detectable antibodies SERO were found in all severe COVID-19 patients (100%), lower seropositivity was found in mild disease MESHD (83%) and the lowest prevalence SERO (58%) was observed in asymptomatic TRANS subjects. Conclusion: Seroprevalence SERO surveys are of utmost importance for understanding the rate of population that has already developed antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. The present study has the statistical power to define precisely the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of health workers in our region, with its prevalence SERO (4.6%) reflecting a relatively low circulation. Symptomatic individuals or those hospitalized for medical care were 100% antibody SERO positive, whilst Abs were only detectable in 58% of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS.

    Community-level SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence SERO Survey in urban slum dwellers of Buenos Aires City, Argentina: a participatory research.

    Authors: Silvana Figar; Vanina Pagotto; Lorena Luna; Julieta Salto; Magdalena Wagner Manslau; Alicia Mistchenko; ANDREA GAMARNIK; Ana Maria Gomez Saldano; Fernan Quiros

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20153858 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: medRxiv

    Background By July 1st, the incidence rate of RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was 5.9% in Barrio Padre Mugica, one of the largest slums in Buenos Aires City. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 three months after the first case was reported. Methods Between June 10th and July 1st, a cross-sectional design was carried out on people over 14 years old, selected from a probabilistic sample of households. A finger prick sample was tested by ELISA SERO to detect IgG-class antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. Multilevel model was applied to understand sector, household and individual conditions associated with seroconvert. Results Prevalence SERO based on IgG was 53.4% (95%IC 52.8% to 54.1%). Among the IgG positive cases, 15% reported having compatible symptoms at some point in the past two months. There is evidence of within-household clustering effect (rho=0.52; 95% IC 0.36-0.67); living with a PCR- confirmed case TRANS doubled the chance of being SARS-CoV2 IgG positive (OR 2.13; 95% IC 1.17-3.85). The highest risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD was found in one of the most deprived areas of the slum, the Bajo autopista sector. Discussion High seroprevalence SERO is shown, for each symptomatic RT-qPCR-confirmed diagnosis, 9 people were IgG positive, indicating a high rate of undetected (probable asymptomatic) infections MESHD asymptomatic TRANS. Given that transmission TRANS among family members TRANS is a leading driver of the disease MESHD`s spread, it is unsurprising that crowded housing situations in slums are directly associated with higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD and consequently high seroprevalence SERO levels. This study contributes to the understanding of population immunity against SARS-CoV2, its relation to living conditions and viral spread, for future decision making.

    Antibody SERO dynamics to SARS-CoV-2 in Asymptomatic TRANS and Mild COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Qing Lei; Yang Li; Hongyan Hou; Feng Wang; Yandi Zhang; Danyun Lai; Banga Ndzouboukou Jo-Lewis; Zhaowei Xu; Bo Zhang; Hong Chen; Zhuqing Ouyang; Junbiao Xue; Xiaosong Lin; Yunxiao Zheng; Zhongjie Yao; Xuening Wang; Caizheng Yu; Jeremy Jiang; Hainan Zhang; Huan Qi; Shujuan Guo; Shenghai Huang; Ziyong Sun; Sheng-ce Tao; Xionglin Fan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.20149633 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Importance Asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 infections MESHD have a long duration of viral shedding and contribute substantially to disease MESHD transmission TRANS. However, the missing asymptomatic TRANS cases have been significantly overlooked because of imperfect sensitivity SERO of nucleic acid testing. We aimed to investigate the humoral immunity in asymptomatics TRANS, which will help us develop serological tests SERO and improve early identification, understand the humoral immunity to COVID-19, and provide more rational control strategies for the pandemic. Objective To better control the pandemic of COVID-19, dynamics of IgM and IgG responses to 23 proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and neutralizing antibody SERO in asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 infections MESHD after exposure time were investigated. Design, setting, and participants 63 asymptomatic TRANS individuals were screened by RT-qPCR and ELISA SERO for IgM and IgG from 11,776 personnel returning to work, and close contacts TRANS with the confirmed cases TRANS in different communities of Wuhan by investigation of clusters and tracing TRANS infectious sources. 63 healthy contacts with both negative results for NAT and antibodies SERO were selected as negative controls. 51 mild patients without any preexisting conditions were also screened as controls from 1056 patients during hospitalization in Tongji Hospital. A total of 177 participants were enrolled in this study and serial serum samples SERO (n=213) were collected. The research was conducted between 17 February 2020 and 28 April 2020. Serum SERO IgM and IgG profiles of 177 participants were further probed using a SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray. Neutralizing antibody SERO responses in different population were detected by a pseudotyped virus neutralization assay system. The dynamics of IgM and IgG antibodies SERO and neutralizing antibodies SERO were analyzed with exposure time or symptoms onset TRANS. Results Asymptomatics TRANS were classified into four subgroups based on NAT and serological tests SERO. In particular, only 19% had positive NAT results while approximately 81% detected positive IgM/IgG responses. Comparative SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray further demonstrated that there was a significantly difference of antibody SERO dynamics responding to S1 or N proteins among three populations, although IgM and IgG profiles could not be used to differentiate them. S1 specific IgM responses were elicited in asymptomatic TRANS individuals as early to the seventh day after exposure and peaked on days from 17d to 25d, which might be used as an early diagnostic biomarker and give an additional 36.5% seropositivity. Mild patients produced stronger both S1 specific IgM and neutralizing antibody SERO responses than asymptomatic TRANS individuals. Most importantly, S1 specific IgM/IgG responses and the titers of neutralizing antibody SERO in asymptomatic TRANS individuals gradually vanished in two months. Conclusions and relevance Our findings might have important implications for the definition of asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 infections MESHD, diagnosis, serological survey, public health and immunization strategies.

    A simple protein-based SARS-CoV-2 surrogate neutralization assay

    Authors: Kento T Abe; Zhijie Li; Reuben Samson; Payman Samavarchi-Tehrani; Emelissa J Valcourt; Heidi Wood; Patrick Budylowski; Alan Dupuis; Roxie C Girardin; Bhavisha Rathod; Karen Colwill; Allison McGeer; Samira Mubareka; Jennifer L. Gommerman; Yves Durocher; Mario A Ostrowski; Kathleen McDonough; Michael A. Drebot; Steven J. Drews; James M Rini; Anne-Claude Gingras

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.197913 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: bioRxiv

    With the COVID-19 pandemic surpassing 12M confirmed cases TRANS and 550K deaths MESHD worldwide, defining the key components of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is critical. Of particular importance is the identification of immune correlates of infection MESHD that would support public health decision-making on treatment approaches, vaccination strategies, and convalescent plasma SERO therapy. While ELISA SERO-based assays to detect and quantitate antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in patient samples have been developed, the detection of neutralizing antibodies SERO typically requires more demanding cell-based viral assays. Here, we present and validate a safe and efficient protein-based assay for the detection of serum SERO and plasma SERO antibodies SERO that block the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein receptor binding domain (RBD) with its receptor, angiotensin converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2). This test is performed on the same platform and in parallel with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay SERO ( ELISA SERO) for the detection of antibodies SERO against the RBD and serves as a surrogate neutralization assay.

    Joint Detection of Serum SERO IgM/IgG Antibody SERO is An Important Key to Clinical Diagnosis of SARS-COV-2 Infection MESHD

    Authors: Fang Hu; Xiaoling Shang; Meizhou Chen; Changliang Zhang

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20146902 Date: 2020-07-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: This study was aimed to investigate the application of SARS- COV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies SERO in diagnosis of COVID-19 infection MESHD. Method: This study enrolled a total of 178 patients at Huangshi Central Hospital from January to February, 2020. Among them, 68 patients were SARS-COV-2 infected confirmed with nucleic acid test (NAT) and CT imaging. 9 patients were in the suspected group (NAT negative) with fever MESHD fever HP and other respiratory symptoms. 101 patients were in the control group with other diseases MESHD and negative to SARS-COV-2 infection MESHD. After serum samples SERO were collected, SARS-COV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies were tested SERO by chemiluminescence immunoassay SERO (CLIA) for all patients. Results: The specificity of serum SERO IgM and IgG antibodies SERO to SARS-COV-2 were 99.01% (100/101) and 96.04% (97/101) respectively, and the sensitivity SERO were 88.24% (60/68) and 97.06% (66/68) respectively. The combined detection rate of SARS-COV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies SERO were 98.53% (67/68). Conclusion: Combined detection of serum SERO SARS-COV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies SERO had better sensitivity SERO compared with single IgM or IgG test, which can be used as an important diagnostic tool for SARS-COV-2 infection MESHD and a screening tool of potential SARS-COV-2 carriers TRANS in clinics, hospitals and accredited scientific laboratory.

    Prevalence SERO estimates of COVID-19 by web survey compared to inadequate testing

    Authors: David N Ku; Ben Ku; Traci Leong; Zixiang Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40294/v1 Date: 2020-07-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Current prevalence SERO of COVID-19 drives many policy decisions, but is hampered by ambiguities in testing and reporting. We propose an alternative method for estimating community prevalence SERO that is inexpensive and timely. We test the Hypothesis that the survey sampling provides a quantitative prevalence SERO that is similar to widespread genomic or serological testing SERO.Methods We have built a simple, web-based survey of signs and symptoms MESHD for COVID-19 based on six questions. No personally identifiable information is collected to maintain privacy. Sampling can be directed to a population of interest such as a company, or broadcast widely to get geographic sampling. Data reporting can be real-time and plotted onto zipcode maps. Rates of prevalence SERO were calculated from presumed COVID cases and respondents, with confidence intervals based on the Blaker method.Results The website was created quickly, and survey results were quantitatively useful after only a few days. Analyzing 3161 cases from CountCOVID.org, we found a community prevalence SERO of 7% in Georgia that was much greater than the reported confirmed cases TRANS. Our prevalence SERO estimate of 21% in New York City was similar to the reported 19.6% by surveillance antibody SERO serotesting. Our estimates are validated by five other community surveillance studies using genomic or antibody testing SERO.Conclusions Prevalence SERO and incidence of COVID-19 symptoms in the community can be estimated by a crowd-sourced website at considerably less expense than widespread testing.

    Antibody Testing SERO Documents the Silent Spread of SARS-CoV-2in New York Prior to the First Reported Case

    Authors: Kathrine Meyers; Lihong Liu; Wen-Hsuan Lin; Yang Luo; Michael Yin; Yumeng Wu; Sandeep Wontakal; Alex Rai; Francesca La Carpia; Sebastian Fernando; Mitra Dowlatshahi; Elad Elkayam; Ankur Garg; Leemor Joshua-Tor; John Wolk; Barbara Alpert; Marie-Laure Romney; Brianna Costabile; Edoardo Gelardi; Francesca Vallese; Oliver Clarke; Filippo Mancia; Anne-Catrin Uhlemann; Magdalena Sobieszczyk; Alan Perelson; Yaoxing Huang; Eldad Hod; David Ho

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-39880/v1 Date: 2020-07-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    We developed and validated serologic assays to determine SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence SERO in select patient populations in greater New York City area early during the epidemic. We tested “discarded” serum samples SERO from February 24 to March 29 for antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer and nucleocapsid protein. Using known durations for antibody SERO development, incubation period TRANS, serial interval TRANS, and reproductive ratio for this pandemic, we determined that introduction of SARS-CoV-2 into New York likely occurred between January 23 and February 4, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 spread silently for 4–5 weeks before the first community acquired infection MESHD was reported. A novel coronavirus emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China1,2 and devasted Hubei Province in early 2020 before spreading to every province within China and nearly every country in the world3. This pathogen, now termed severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global pandemic, with ~ 10 million cases and over 500,000 deaths MESHD reported through June 30, 20203. The first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the United States was identified on January 19, 2020 in a man who returned to the State of Washington from Wuhan4. In the ensuing months, the U.S. has become a hotspot of the pandemic, presently accounting for almost one third of the total caseload and over one fourth of the deaths3. The first confirmed case TRANS in New York was reported on March 1 in a traveler recently returned from Iran. The first community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was diagnosed on March 3 in a 50-year-old male TRANS who lived in New Rochelle and worked in New York City (https://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/covid/covid-19-data-archive.page.) In the ensuing 18 weeks, New York City has suffered a peak daily infection MESHD number of ~ 4,500 (Fig. 1a) and a cumulative caseload of ~ 400,000 to date. The time period when SARS-CoV-2 gained entry into this epicenter of the pandemic remains unclear.

    Estimation of Undetected Symptomatic and Asymptomatic TRANS cases of COVID-19 Infection MESHD and prediction of its spread in USA

    Authors: Ashutosh Mahajan; Ravi Solanki; Namitha Sivadas

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.21.20136580 Date: 2020-06-23 Source: medRxiv

    The reported COVID-19 cases in the USA have crossed over 2 million, and a large number of infected cases are undetected whose estimation can be done if country-wide antibody testing SERO is performed. In this work, we estimate this undetected fraction of the population by modeling and simulation approach. We propose a new epidemic model SIPHERD in which three categories of infection MESHD carriers TRANS Symptomatic, Purely Asymptomatic TRANS, and Exposed are considered with different transmission TRANS rates that are taken dependent on the lockdown conditions, and the detection rate of the infected carriers TRANS is taken dependent on the tests done per day. The model is first validated for Germany and South Korea and then applied for prediction of total number of confirmed, active and death MESHD, and daily new positive cases in the United States. Our study also demonstrates the possibility of a second wave of the infection MESHD if social distancing regulations are relaxed to a large extent. We estimate that around 12.7 million people are already infected, and in the absence of any vaccine, 17.7 million (range: 16.3-19.2) people, or 5.3% (range: 4.9-5.8) of the population will be infected by when the disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread ends in the USA. We find the Infection MESHD to Fatality Ratio to be 0.93% (range: 0.85-1.01).

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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