Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (10)

Cough (9)

Hypertension (4)

Fatigue (4)

Pneumonia (3)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 83
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    Children TRANS with COVID-19 like symptoms in Italian Pediatric Surgeries: the dark side of the coin

    Authors: Gianfranco Trapani; Vassilios Fanos; Enrico Bertino; Giulia Maiocco; Osama Al Jamal; Michele Fiore; VIncenzo Bembo; Domenico Careddu; Lando Barberio; Luisella Zanino; Giuseppe Verlato

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20149757 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    BACKGROUND: Symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS are nonspecific and shared with other common acute viral illnesses ( fever MESHD fever HP, respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms, and cutaneous signs), thus making clinical differential diagnosis tricky. In Italy, first line management of pediatric care is handed over to Primary Care Pediatricians (PCPs), who were not allowed to directly perform diagnostic tests during the recent COVID-19 outbreak. Without a confirmatory diagnosis, PCPs could only collect information on ''COVID-19 like symptoms'' rather than identify typical COVID-19 symptoms. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence SERO of COVID-19 like symptoms in outpatient children TRANS, during Italian lockdown. To provide PCPs a risk score to be used in clinical practice during the differential diagnosis process. METHODS: A survey was submitted to 50 PCPs (assisting 47,500 children TRANS) from 7 different Italian regions between the 4th of March and the 23rd of May 2020 (total and partial lockdown period). COVID-19 like symptoms in the assisted children TRANS were recorded, as well as presence of confirmed/suspected cases in children TRANS's families, which was taken as proxy of COVID-19. Multivariable logistic regression was accomplished to estimate the risk of having suspected/ confirmed cases TRANS in families, considering symptoms as potential determinants. RESULTS: 2,300 children TRANS (4.8% of overall survey population) fell HP ill with COVID-19 like symptoms, 3.1% and 1.7% during total and partial lockdown period respectively. The concurrent presence of fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, cough MESHD cough HP, and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP in children TRANS, in absence of sore throat/ earache MESHD and abnormal skin signs, represents the maximum risk level of having a suspected/ confirmed case TRANS of COVID-19 at home. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of children TRANS presenting COVID-19 like symptoms at home has been remarkable also during the total lockdown period. The present study identified a pattern of symptoms which could help, in a cost-effective perspective, PCPs in daily clinical practice to define priorities in addressing children TRANS to the proper diagnostic procedure.

    Seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibodies SERO in Utsunomiya City, Greater Tokyo, after first pandemic in 2020 (U-CORONA): a household- and population-based study

    Authors: Nobutoshi Nawa; Jin Kuramochi; Shiro Sonoda; Yui Yamaoka; Yoko Nukui; Yasunari Miyazaki; Takeo Fujiwara

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20155945 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The number of confirmed cases TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections MESHD in Japan are substantially lower in comparison to the US and UK, potentially due to the under-implementation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Studies reported that more than half of the SARS-CoV-2 infections are asymptomatic MESHD asymptomatic TRANS, confirming the importance for conducting seroepidemiological studies. Although the seroepidemiological studies in Japan observed a reported prevalence SERO of 0.10% in Tokyo, 0.17% in Osaka, and 0.03% in Miyagi, sampling bias was not considered. The study objective was to assess the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 in a random sample of households in Utsunomiya City in Tochigi Prefecture, Greater Tokyo, Japan. Methods: We launched the Utsunomiya COVID-19 seROprevalence SERO Neighborhood Association (U-CORONA) Study to assess the seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Utsunomiya City. The survey was conducted between 14 June 2020 and 5 July 2020, in between the first and second wave of the pandemic. Invitations enclosed with a questionnaire were sent to 2,290 people in 1,000 households randomly selected from Utsunomiya basic resident registry. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The level of IgG antibodies SERO to SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by chemiluminescence immunoassay SERO analysis. Results: Among 2,290 candidates, 753 returned the questionnaire and 742 received IgG tests (32.4 % participation rate). Of the 742 participants, 86.8% were 18 years or older, 52.6% were women, 71.1% were residing within 10 km from the test clinic, and 89.2% were living with another person. The age TRANS and sex distribution, distance to clinic and police district were similar with those of non-participants, while the proportion of single-person households was higher among non-participants than participants (16.2% vs. 10.8%). We confirmed three positive cases through quantitative antibody testing SERO. No positive cases were found among the people who live in the same household as someone with positive. All cases were afebrile. The estimated unweighted and weighted prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD were 0.40% (95% confidence interval: 0.08-1.18%) and 1.23% (95% confidence interval: 0.17-2.28%), respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests the importance of detecting all cases using PCR or antigen testing, not only at a hospital, but also in areas where people assemble. Further prospective studies using this cohort are needed to monitor SARS-CoV-2 antibody SERO levels.

    Population Risk Factors for COVID-19 Deaths MESHD in Nigeria at Subnational Level

    Authors: Zubaida Hassan; Muhammad Jawad Hashim; Gulfaraz Khan

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0621.v1 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: Preprints.org

    Nigeria is the most populous country in the African continent. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for COVID-19 prevalence SERO and deaths MESHD in all 6 geopolitical regions and 37 states in Nigeria. We analyzed the data retrieved from various sources, including Nigeria CDC, Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics, Unicef-Nigeria multiple indicator cluster survey and the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington. We examined 4 clinical risk factors ( prevalence SERO of TB, HIV, smoking and BCG vaccination coverage) and 5 sociodemographic factors ( age TRANS ≥65, population density, literacy rate, unemployment and GDP per capita). Multivariate modeling was conducted using generalized linear model. Our analysis showed that the incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases differed widely across the 37 states, from 0.09 per 100,000 in Kogi to 83.7 in Lagos. However, more than 70% of confirmed cases TRANS were concentrated in just 7 states: Lagos, Abuja, Oyo, Kano, Edo, Rivers and Delta. Case mortality rate (CMR) per million population also varied considerably, with Lagos, Abuja and Edo having CMR above 9. On bivariate analysis, higher CMR correlated positively with GDP and to a lesser extent with TB and population density. On multivariate analysis, which is more definitive, states with higher HIV prevalence SERO and BCG coverage had lower CMR, while high GDP states had a greater CMR. This study indicates that COVID-19 has disproportionately affected certain states in Nigeria. Population susceptibility factors include higher economic development but not literacy or unemployment. Death MESHD rates were mildly lower in states with higher HIV prevalence SERO and BCG vaccination coverage.

    SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey in Health Care Workers of the Veneto Region

    Authors: Mario Plebani; Andrea Padoan; Ugo Fedeli; Elena Schievano; Elena Vecchiato; Giuseppe Lippi; Giuliana Lo Cascio; Stefano Porru; Giorgio Palu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20160457 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses formidable challenges to all health care systems. Serological assays SERO may improve disease MESHD management when appropriately used, for better understanding the antibody SERO responses mounted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and for assessing its real prevalence SERO. Although testing the whole population is impratical, well-designed serosurveys in selected subpopulations in specific risk groups may provide valuable information. Aim: we evaluated the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in health care workers who underwent molecular testing with reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in the main hospitals of the Veneto Region by measuring specific antibodies SERO (Abs). Methods: both IgM and IgG antibodies SERO against SARS-Cov-2 S-antigen and N-protein were measured using a validated chemiluminescent analytical system (CLIA) called Maglumi 2000 Plus (New Industries Biomedical EngineeringCo., Ltd [Snibe], Shenzhen, China) Results: A total of 8285 health care workers were tested. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies SERO (IgM, IgG or both) were detectable in 378 cases (4.6%, 95% CI 4.1-5.0%). Seroconversion was observed in 4.4% women and 5% men, but the difference was not significant. Although detectable antibodies SERO were found in all severe COVID-19 patients (100%), lower seropositivity was found in mild disease MESHD (83%) and the lowest prevalence SERO (58%) was observed in asymptomatic TRANS subjects. Conclusion: Seroprevalence SERO surveys are of utmost importance for understanding the rate of population that has already developed antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. The present study has the statistical power to define precisely the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of health workers in our region, with its prevalence SERO (4.6%) reflecting a relatively low circulation. Symptomatic individuals or those hospitalized for medical care were 100% antibody SERO positive, whilst Abs were only detectable in 58% of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS.

    Community-level SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence SERO Survey in urban slum dwellers of Buenos Aires City, Argentina: a participatory research.

    Authors: Silvana Figar; Vanina Pagotto; Lorena Luna; Julieta Salto; Magdalena Wagner Manslau; Alicia Mistchenko; ANDREA GAMARNIK; Ana Maria Gomez Saldano; Fernan Quiros

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20153858 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: medRxiv

    Background By July 1st, the incidence rate of RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was 5.9% in Barrio Padre Mugica, one of the largest slums in Buenos Aires City. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 three months after the first case was reported. Methods Between June 10th and July 1st, a cross-sectional design was carried out on people over 14 years old, selected from a probabilistic sample of households. A finger prick sample was tested by ELISA SERO to detect IgG-class antibodies SERO against SARS-CoV-2. Multilevel model was applied to understand sector, household and individual conditions associated with seroconvert. Results Prevalence SERO based on IgG was 53.4% (95%IC 52.8% to 54.1%). Among the IgG positive cases, 15% reported having compatible symptoms at some point in the past two months. There is evidence of within-household clustering effect (rho=0.52; 95% IC 0.36-0.67); living with a PCR- confirmed case TRANS doubled the chance of being SARS-CoV2 IgG positive (OR 2.13; 95% IC 1.17-3.85). The highest risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD was found in one of the most deprived areas of the slum, the Bajo autopista sector. Discussion High seroprevalence SERO is shown, for each symptomatic RT-qPCR-confirmed diagnosis, 9 people were IgG positive, indicating a high rate of undetected (probable asymptomatic) infections MESHD asymptomatic TRANS. Given that transmission TRANS among family members TRANS is a leading driver of the disease MESHD`s spread, it is unsurprising that crowded housing situations in slums are directly associated with higher risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD and consequently high seroprevalence SERO levels. This study contributes to the understanding of population immunity against SARS-CoV2, its relation to living conditions and viral spread, for future decision making.

    Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD: case series in Sinaloa

    Authors: Giordano Perez Gaxiola; Rosalino Flores Rocha; Julio Cesar Valadez Vidarte; Melissa Hernandez Alcaraz; Gilberto Herrera Mendoza; Miguel Alejandro Del Real Lugo

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20146332 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus may affect both adults TRANS and children TRANS. Although the disease MESHD, named COVID-19, has a lower prevalence SERO in infancy and has been described as mild, the clinical characteristics may vary and there is a possibility of complications. Objectives: To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric cases confirmed TRANS in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, during the first three months of the pandemic, and of children TRANS admitted with COVID-19 to a secondary hospital. Methods: This case series includes all patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD infection confirmed TRANS confirmed by PCR testing, identified in the state epidemiological surveillance system between March 1 and May 31, 2020. Confirmed patients admitted to the Sinaloa Pediatric Hospital (HPS) during the same dates are also described. Results: Fifty one children TRANS with SARS-CoV-2 were included, 10 of the admitted to HPS. The median age TRANS was 10 years. The more frequent symptoms were fever MESHD fever HP (78%), cough MESHD cough HP (67%) and headache MESHD headache HP (57%). Most cases were mild or asymptomatic TRANS. Three patients with comorbidities died. Only 4 of 10 patients identified in HPS had been admitted with the diagnosis of possible COVID-19. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in children TRANS was mostly mild or asymptomatic TRANS, but with a wide range of clinical presentations.

    Wastewater SARS-CoV-2 Concentration and Loading Variability from Grab and 24-Hour Composite Samples

    Authors: Kyle Curtis; David Keeling; Kathleen Yetka; Allison Larson; Raul Gonzalez

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150607 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: medRxiv

    The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) requires a significant, coordinated public health response. Assessing case density and spread of infection MESHD is critical and relies largely on clinical testing data. However, clinical testing suffers from known limitations, including test availability and a bias towards enumerating only symptomatic individuals. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has gained widespread support as a potential complement to clinical testing for assessing COVID-19 infections MESHD at the community scale. The efficacy of WBE hinges on the ability to accurately characterize SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in wastewater. To date, a variety of sampling schemes have been used without consensus around the appropriateness of grab or composite sampling. Here we address a key WBE knowledge gap by examining the variability of SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in wastewater grab samples collected every 2 hours for 72 hours compared with corresponding 24-hour flow-weighted composite samples. Results show relatively low variability (mean for all assays = 741 copies 100 mL-1, standard deviation = 508 copies 100 mL-1) for grab sample concentrations, and good agreement between most grab samples and their respective composite (mean deviation from composite = 159 copies 100 mL-1). When SARS-CoV-2 concentrations are used to calculate viral load, the discrepancy between grabs (log10 difference = 12.0) or a grab and its associated composite (log10 difference = 11.8) are amplified. A similar effect is seen when estimating carrier TRANS prevalence SERO in a catchment population with median estimates based on grabs ranging 62-1853 carriers TRANS. Findings suggest that grab samples may be sufficient to characterize SARS-CoV-2 concentrations, but additional calculations using these data may be sensitive to grab sample variability and warrant the use of flow-weighted composite sampling. These data inform future WBE work by helping determine the most appropriate sampling scheme and facilitate sharing of datasets between studies via consistent methodology.

    Reconstructing the global dynamics of under-ascertained COVID-19 cases and infections MESHD

    Authors: Nick Golding; Timothy W Russell; Sam Abbott; Joel Hellewell; Carl A B Pearson; Kevin van Zandvoort; Christopher I Jarvis; Hamish Gibbs; Yang Liu; Rosalind M Eggo; John W Edmunds; Adam J Kucharski

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20148460 Date: 2020-07-08 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Asymptomatic TRANS or subclinical SARS-CoV-2 infections MESHD are often unreported, which means that confirmed case TRANS counts may not accurately reflect underlying epidemic dynamics. Understanding the level of ascertainment (the ratio of confirmed symptomatic cases to the true number of symptomatic individuals) and undetected epidemic progression is crucial to informing COVID-19 response planning, including the introduction and relaxation of control measures. Estimating case ascertainment over time allows for accurate estimates of specific outcomes such as seroprevalence SERO, which is essential for planning control measures. Methods: Using reported data on COVID-19 cases and fatalities globally, we estimated the proportion of symptomatic cases (i.e. any person with any of fever MESHD fever HP >= to 37.5C, cough MESHD cough HP, shortness of breath, sudden onset of anosmia HP, ageusia MESHD or dysgeusia MESHD illness) that were reported in 210 countries and territories, given those countries had experienced more than ten deaths MESHD. We used published estimates of the case fatality ratio (CFR) as an assumed baseline. We then calculated the ratio of this baseline CFR to an estimated local delay-adjusted CFR to estimate the level of under-ascertainment in a particular location. We then fit a Bayesian Gaussian process model to estimate the temporal pattern of under-ascertainment. Results: We estimate that, during March 2020, the median percentage of symptomatic cases detected across the 84 countries which experienced more than ten deaths MESHD ranged from 2.38% (Bangladesh) to 99.6% (Chile). Across the ten countries with the highest number of total confirmed cases TRANS as of 6th July 2020, we estimated that the peak number of symptomatic cases ranged from 1.4 times (Chile) to 17.8 times (France) larger than reported. Comparing our model with national and regional seroprevalence SERO data where available, we find that our estimates are consistent with observed values. Finally, we estimated seroprevalence SERO for each country. Despite low case detection in some countries, our results that adjust for this still suggest that all countries have had only a small fraction of their populations infected as of July 2020. Conclusions: We found substantial under-ascertainment of symptomatic cases, particularly at the peak of the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, in many countries. Reported case counts will therefore likely underestimate the rate of outbreak growth initially and underestimate the decline in the later stages of an epidemic. Although there was considerable under-reporting in many locations, our estimates were consistent with emerging serological data, suggesting that the proportion of each country's population infected with SARS-CoV-2 worldwide is generally low.

    Reopening universities during the COVID-19 pandemic: A testing strategy to minimize active cases and delay outbreaks

    Authors: Lior Rennert; Corey Andrew Kalbaugh; Lu Shi; Christopher McMahan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.06.20147272 Date: 2020-07-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: University campuses present an ideal environment for viral spread and are therefore at extreme risk of serving as a hotbed for a COVID-19 outbreak. While active surveillance throughout the semester such as widespread testing, contact tracing TRANS, and case isolation, may assist in detecting and preventing early outbreaks, these strategies will not be sufficient should a larger outbreak occur. It is therefore necessary to limit the initial number of active cases at the start of the semester. We examine the impact of pre-semester NAT testing on disease MESHD disease spread TRANS spread in a university setting. Methods: We implement simple dynamic transmission TRANS models of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD to explore the effects of pre-semester testing strategies on the number of active infections MESHD and occupied isolation beds throughout the semester. We assume an infectious period TRANS of 3 days and vary R0 TRANS to represent the effectiveness of disease MESHD mitigation strategies throughout the semester. We assume the prevalence SERO of active cases at the beginning of the semester is 5%. The sensitivity SERO of the NAT test is set at 90%. Results: If no pre-semester screening is mandated, the peak number of active infections MESHD occurs in under 10 days and the size of the peak is substantial, ranging from 5,000 active infections MESHD when effective mitigation strategies ( R0 TRANS = 1.25) are implemented to over 15,000 active infections MESHD for less effective strategies ( R0 TRANS = 3). When one NAT test is mandated within one week of campus arrival, effective ( R0 TRANS = 1.25) and less effective ( R0 TRANS = 3) mitigation strategies delay the onset of the peak to 40 days and 17 days, respectively, and result in peak size ranging from 1,000 to over 15,000 active infections MESHD. When two NAT tests are mandated, effective ( R0 TRANS = 1.25) and less effective ( R0 TRANS = 3) mitigation strategies delay the onset of the peak through the end of fall HP semester and 20 days, respectively, and result in peak size ranging from less than 1,000 to over 15,000 active infections MESHD. If maximum occupancy of isolation beds is set to 2% of the student population, then isolation beds would only be available for a range of 1 in 2 confirmed cases TRANS ( R0 TRANS = 1.25) to 1 in 40 confirmed cases TRANS ( R0 TRANS = 3) before maximum occupancy is reached. Conclusion: Even with highly effective mitigation strategies throughout the semester, inadequate pre-semester testing will lead to early and large surges of the disease MESHD and result in universities quickly reaching their isolation bed capacity. We therefore recommend NAT testing within one week of campus return. While this strategy is sufficient for delaying the timing of the outbreak, pre-semester testing would need to be implemented in conjunction with effective mitigation strategies to reduce the outbreak size.

    Prevalence SERO estimates of COVID-19 by web survey compared to inadequate testing

    Authors: David N Ku; Ben Ku; Traci Leong; Zixiang Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-40294/v1 Date: 2020-07-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Current prevalence SERO of COVID-19 drives many policy decisions, but is hampered by ambiguities in testing and reporting. We propose an alternative method for estimating community prevalence SERO that is inexpensive and timely. We test the Hypothesis that the survey sampling provides a quantitative prevalence SERO that is similar to widespread genomic or serological testing SERO.Methods We have built a simple, web-based survey of signs and symptoms MESHD for COVID-19 based on six questions. No personally identifiable information is collected to maintain privacy. Sampling can be directed to a population of interest such as a company, or broadcast widely to get geographic sampling. Data reporting can be real-time and plotted onto zipcode maps. Rates of prevalence SERO were calculated from presumed COVID cases and respondents, with confidence intervals based on the Blaker method.Results The website was created quickly, and survey results were quantitatively useful after only a few days. Analyzing 3161 cases from CountCOVID.org, we found a community prevalence SERO of 7% in Georgia that was much greater than the reported confirmed cases TRANS. Our prevalence SERO estimate of 21% in New York City was similar to the reported 19.6% by surveillance antibody SERO serotesting. Our estimates are validated by five other community surveillance studies using genomic or antibody testing SERO.Conclusions Prevalence SERO and incidence of COVID-19 symptoms in the community can be estimated by a crowd-sourced website at considerably less expense than widespread testing.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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