Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Gender TRANS disparities in access to care for time-sensitive conditions during COVID-19 pandemic in Chile

    Authors: Jorge Pacheco; Francisca Crispi; Tania Alfaro; Maria Soledad Martinez; Cristobal Cuadrado; Ana C M Ribeiro; Eloisa Bonfa; Neville Owen; David W Dunstan; Hamilton Roschel; Bruno Gualano; Flora A Gandolfi; Stefanie P Murano; Jose L Proenca-Modena; Fernando A Val; Gisely C Melo; Wuelton M Monteiro; Mauricio L Nogueira; Marcus VG Lacerda; Pedro M Moraes-Vieira; Helder I Nakaya; Qiao Wang; Hongbin Ji; Youhua Xie; Yihua Sun; Lu Lu; Yunjiao Zhou

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.11.20192880 Date: 2020-09-11 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic reduction on the utilisation of healthcare services are reported in different contexts. Nevertheless, studies have not explored specifically gender TRANS disparities on access to healthcare. Aim: To evaluate disparities in access to care in Chile during the COVID-19 pandemic from a gender TRANS-based perspective. Methods: We conducted a quasi-experimental design using a difference-in-difference approach. We compared the number of weekly confirmed cases TRANS of a set of oncologic and cardiovascular time-sensitive conditions at a national level. We defined weeks 12 to 26 as an intervention period and the actual year as a treatment group. We selected this period because preventive interventions, such as school closures or teleworking, were implemented at this point. To test heterogeneity by sex, we included an interaction term between difference-in-difference estimator and sex. Results: A sizable reduction in access to care for patients with time- sensitivity SERO conditions was observed for oncologic (IRR 0.56; 95% CI 0.50-0.63) and cardiovascular diseases MESHD (IRR 0.64; 95% CI 0.62-0.66). Greater reduction occurred in women compared to men across diseases groups, particularly marked on myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD (0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.93), stroke HP stroke MESHD (IRR 0.88 IC95% 0.82-0.93), and colorectal cancer MESHD (IRR 0.79; 95% CI 0.69-0.91). Compared to men, a greater absolute reduction in women for oncologic diseases (782; 95% CI 704-859) than cardiovascular diseases MESHD (172; 95% CI 170-174) occurred over 14 weeks. Conclusion: We confirmed a large drop in new diagnosis for time-sensitive conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile. This reduction was greater for women. Our findings should alert policy-makers about the urgent need to integrate a gender TRANS perspective into the pandemic response and its aftermath.

    Impact of tocilizumab administration on mortality in severe COVID-19

    Authors: Andrew Tsai; Oumou Diawara; Ronald G Nahass; Luigi Brunetti

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.20114959 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background The novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic has placed a significant burden on hospitals and healthcare providers. The immune response to this disease is thought to lead to a cytokine storm, which contributes to the severity of illness. There is an urgent need to confirm whether the use of tocilizumab provides a benefit in individuals with COVID-19. Methods A single-center propensity-score matched cohort study, including all consecutive COVID-19 patients, admitted to the medical center who were either discharged from the medical center or expired between March 1, 2020, and May 5, 2020, was performed. Patients were stratified according to the receipt of tocilizumab for cytokine storm and matched to controls using propensity scores. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 132 patients were included in the matched dataset (tocilizumab=66; standard of care=66). Approximately 73% of the patients were male TRANS. Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD (55%), diabetes mellitus HP diabetes mellitus MESHD (31%), and chronic pulmonary disease MESHD (15%) were the most common comorbidities present. There were 18 deaths (27.3%) in the tocilizumab group and 18 deaths (27.3%) in the standard of care group (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.465 - 2.151; p=1.00). Advanced age TRANS, history of myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD, dementia HP dementia MESHD, chronic pulmonary disease MESHD, heart failure MESHD, and malignancy MESHD were significantly more common in patients who died. Interpretation The current analysis does not support the use of tocilizumab for the management of cytokine storm in patients with COVID-19. Use of this therapeutic agent should be limited to the context of a clinical trial until more evidence is available.

    Electrocardiographic findings of methanol toxicity MESHD: A cross-sectional study on 356 cases in Iran

    Authors: Mohammad Hossein Nikoo; Alireza Arjangzadeh; Maryam Pakfetrat; Shahrokh Sadeghi Boogar; Vahid Mohammadkarimi; Vahid Reza Ostovan; Zohre Khodamoradi; Jamshid Roozbeh; Mohammadreza Khalili; Farnaz Kamali Haghighi Shirazi; Paryia Kouhi; Seyyed Taghi Heydari

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-34297/v2 Date: 2020-06-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Methanol is widely used in industry; however, methanol poisoning is not common. In this regard, a number of outbreaks have been recently reported due to inappropriate processing of alcoholic beverages. Shiraz, a city located in the southern part of Iran, faced one of such outbreaks in 2020 during COVID-19 pandemic. There is no sufficient literature on the electrocardiographic findings in methanol toxicity MESHD. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature.Method: A total of 356 cases with methanol toxicity MESHD referred to Shiraz University of Medical Science Tertiary Hospitals (Faghihi and Namazi) in March and April, 2020. The clinical findings of blindness HP blindness MESHD and impaired level of consciousness, lab data such as arterial blood SERO gas, electrolytes, and creatinine, and the most common findings from ECGs were collected. Results: The most common ECG findings were J point elevation (68.8%), presence of U wave (59.2%), QTc prolongation MESHD (53.2% in males TRANS and 28.6% in females TRANS), and fragmented QRS (33.7%). An outstanding finding in this study was the presence of myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD in 5.3% of the cases. This finding, to the best of our knowledge, has only been reported in a few case reports. Brugada pattern (8.1%) and Osborn wave (3.7%) were the other interesting findings.In multivariate analysis, when confounding factors were adjusted, myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD, atrioventricular conduction disturbances MESHD, sinus tachycardia HP sinus tachycardia MESHD, and the prolonged QTC>500 msecond were four independent factors correlated with methanol toxicity MESHD severity measured with arterial blood SERO PH on arterial blood SERO gas measurements, with odds ratios of 12.82, 4.46, 2.32 and 3.15 (P<0.05 for all) , respectively.Conclusion: Electrocardiographic variations during methanol intoxication are remarkable and well-correlated with poisoning severity. Myocardial infarction HP Myocardial infarction MESHD was an egregious and yet a common concerning finding in this sample, which need to be ruled out in methanol toxicity MESHD.

    Electrocardiographic findings of methanol toxicity MESHD: A cross-sectional study on 356 cases in Iran

    Authors: Mohammad Hossein Nikoo; Alireza Arjangzadeh; Maryam Pakfetrat; Shahrokh Sadeghi Boogar; Vahid Mohammadkarimi; Vahid Reza Ostovan; Zohre Khodamoradi; Jamshid Roozbeh; Mohammadreza Khalili; Farnaz Kamali Haghighi Shirazi; Paryia Kouhi; Seyyed Taghi Heydari

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-34297/v3 Date: 2020-06-08 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background : Methanol is widely used in industry; however, methanol poisoning is not common. In this regard, a number of outbreaks have been recently reported due to inappropriate processing of alcoholic beverages. Shiraz, a city located in the southern part of Iran, faced one of such outbreaks in 2020 during COVID-19 pandemic. There is no sufficient literature on the electrocardiographic findings in methanol toxicity MESHD. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature. Method : A total of 356 cases with methanol toxicity MESHD referred to Shiraz University of Medical Science Tertiary Hospitals (Faghihi and Namazi) in March and April, 2020. The clinical findings of blindness HP blindness MESHD and impaired level of consciousness, lab data such as arterial blood SERO gas, electrolytes, and creatinine, and the most common findings from ECGs were collected. Results : The most common ECG findings were J point elevation (68.8%), presence of U wave (59.2%), QTc prolongation MESHD (53.2% in males TRANS and 28.6% in females TRANS), and fragmented QRS (33.7%). An outstanding finding in this study was the presence of myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD in 5.3% of the cases. This finding, to the best of our knowledge, has only been reported in a few case reports. Brugada pattern (8.1%) and Osborn wave (3.7%) were the other interesting findings. In multivariate analysis, when confounding factors were adjusted, myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD, atrioventricular conduction disturbances MESHD, sinus tachycardia HP sinus tachycardia MESHD, and the prolonged QTC>500 msecond were four independent factors correlated with methanol toxicity MESHD severity measured with arterial blood SERO PH on arterial blood SERO gas measurements, with odds ratios of 12.82, 4.46, 2.32 and 3.15 (P<0.05 for all) , respectively. Conclusion : Electrocardiographic variations during methanol intoxication are remarkable and well-correlated with poisoning severity. Myocardial infarction HP Myocardial infarction MESHD was an egregious and yet a common concerning finding in this sample, which need to be ruled out in methanol toxicity MESHD.

    Greater risk of severe COVID-19 in non-White ethnicities is not explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic, or behavioural factors, or by 25(OH)-vitamin D status: study of 1,326 cases from the UK Biobank

    Authors: Zahra Raisi-Estabragh; Celeste McCracken; Mae S Bethell; Jackie Cooper; Cyrus Cooper; Mark J Caulfield; Patricia B Munroe; Nicholas C Harvey; Steffen E Petersen

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.01.20118943 Date: 2020-06-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background We examined whether the greater severity of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) amongst men and non-White ethnicities is explained by cardiometabolic, socio-economic, or behavioural factors. Methods We studied 4,510 UK Biobank participants tested for COVID-19 (positive, n=1,326). Multivariate logistic regression models including age TRANS, sex, and ethnicity were used to test whether addition of: 1)cardiometabolic factors ( diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, high cholesterol, prior myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD, smoking, BMI); 2)25(OH)-vitamin D; 3)poor diet; 4)Townsend deprivation score; 5)housing (home type, overcrowding); or 6)behavioural factors (sociability, risk taking HP) attenuated sex/ethnicity associations with COVID-19 status. Results There was over-representation of men and non-White ethnicities in the COVID-19 positive group. Non-Whites had, on average, poorer cardiometabolic profile, lower 25(OH)-vitamin D, greater material deprivation, and were more likely to live in larger households and flats/apartments. Male TRANS sex, non-White ethnicity, higher BMI, Townsend deprivation score, and household overcrowding were independently associated with significantly greater odds of COVID-19. The pattern of association was consistent for men and women; cardiometabolic, socio-demographic and behavioural factors did not attenuate sex/ethnicity associations. Conclusions Sex and ethnicity differential pattern of COVID-19 is not adequately explained by variations in cardiometabolic factors, 25(OH)-vitamin D levels, or socio-economic factors. Investigation of alternative biological pathways and different genetic susceptibilities is warranted.

    NON-WHITE ETHNICITY, MALE TRANS SEX, AND HIGHER BODY MASS INDEX, BUT NOT MEDICATIONS ACTING ON THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019 (COVID-19) HOSPITALISATION: REVIEW OF THE FIRST 669 CASES FROM THE UK BIOBANK

    Authors: Zahra Raisi-Estabragh; Celeste McCracken; Maddalena Ardissino; Mae S Bethell; Jackie Cooper; Cyrus Cooper; Nicholas C Harvey; Steffen E Petersen

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.10.20096925 Date: 2020-05-15 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Cardiometabolic morbidity and medications, specifically Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs), have been linked with adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to investigate factors associated with COVID-19 positivity for the first 669 UK Biobank participants; compared with individuals who tested negative, and with the untested, presumed negative, rest of the population. Methods: We studied 1,474 participants from the UK Biobank who had been tested for COVID-19. Given UK testing policy, this implies a hospital setting, suggesting at least moderate to severe symptoms. We considered the following exposures: age TRANS, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, hypercholesterolaemia, ACEi/ARB use, prior myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD ( MI MESHD), and smoking. We undertook comparisons between: 1) COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 tested negative participants; and 2) COVID-19 tested positive and the remaining participants (tested negative plus untested, n=501,837). Logistic regression models were used to investigate univariate and mutually adjusted associations. Results: Among participants tested for COVID-19, non-white ethnicity, male TRANS sex, and greater BMI were independently associated with COVID-19 positive result. Non-white ethnicity, male TRANS sex, greater BMI, diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, prior MI MESHD, and smoking were independently associated with COVID-19 positivity compared to the remining cohort (test negatives plus untested). However, similar associations were observed when comparing those who tested negative for COVID-19 with the untested cohort; suggesting that these factors associate with general hospitalisation rather than specifically with COVID-19. Conclusions: Among participants tested for COVID-19 with presumed moderate to severe symptoms in a hospital setting, non-white ethnicity, male TRANS sex, and higher BMI are associated with a positive result. Other cardiometabolic morbidities confer increased risk of hospitalisation, without specificity for COVID-19. Notably, ACE/ARB use did not associate with COVID-19 status.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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