Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence

There are no seroprevalence terms in the subcorpus

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    Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop severe and fatal respiratory disease MESHD

    Authors: Joseph Golden; Curtis Cline; Xiankun Zeng; Aura Garrison; Brian Carey; Eric Mucker; Lauren White; Joshua Shamblin; Rebecca Brocato; Jun Liu; April Babka; Hypaitia Rauch; Jeffrey M Smith; Bradley Hollidge; Collin Fitzpatrick; Catherine Badger; Jay Hooper

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.09.195230 Date: 2020-07-09 Source: bioRxiv

    ABSTRACTThe emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has created an international health crisis. Small animal models mirroring SARS-CoV-2 human disease are essential for medical countermeasure (MCM) development. Mice are refractory to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD due to low affinity binding to the murine angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein. Here we evaluated the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in male TRANS and female TRANS mice expressing the human ACE2 gene under the control of the keratin 18 promotor. In contrast to non-transgenic mice, intranasal exposure of K18-hACE2 animals to two different doses of SARS-CoV-2 resulted in acute disease MESHD including weight loss HP weight loss MESHD, lung injury MESHD, brain infection MESHD and lethality. Vasculitis HP Vasculitis MESHD was the most prominent finding in the lungs of infected MESHD mice. Transcriptomic analysis from lungs of infected animals revealed increases in transcripts involved in lung injury MESHD and inflammatory cytokines. In the lower dose challenge groups, there was a survival advantage in the female TRANS mice with 60% surviving infection whereas all male TRANS mice succumbed to disease. Male TRANS mice that succumbed to disease had higher levels of inflammatory transcripts compared to female TRANS mice. This is the first highly lethal murine infection MESHD model for SARS-CoV-2. The K18-hACE2 murine model will be valuable for the study of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and the assessment of MCMs.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.View Full Text

    Self-reported food choices before and during COVID-19 lockdown

    Authors: Ellen Siobhan Mitchell; Qiuchen Yang; Heather Behr; Laura Deluca; Paul Schaffer

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.15.20131888 Date: 2020-06-17 Source: medRxiv

    Stressful situations can cause changes in individual food choices, most notably, choices of highly rewarding foods that are high in fat or sugar. Few studies have examined how a population's food choices change during a country-wide stress-inducing event such as the beginning of the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders in the United States. Food data from a digital behavior change weight loss HP program, which includes an interface for logging meals, were analyzed to assess self-reported food choices from March 5-March 11 ("pre-COVID") and during the first week of the COVID-19 lockdown (March 12-March 18; "during-COVID"). The final sample consisted of 381,564 participants: 318,076 (83.4%) females TRANS, the majority who were aged TRANS 45-65 years (45.2%). Results indicate that self-reported servings of fresh fruit and vegetable intake decreased from pre- to during-COVID, while intake of red meat and starchy vegetables increased. More men than women increased their intake of red meat and processed meat. There was less overall change in fruit and vegetable consumption in participants aged TRANS 66 and older, compared to younger participants ( aged TRANS 18-35). The percentage of older participants who reported lean meat and starchy vegetable intake increased, but these groups had a negligible change in younger subjects. More subjects aged TRANS 18-35 years reduced their intake of caffeine, desserts, lean meat and salads compared to older participants. No changes were observed in terms of snack or alcoholic beverage intake logged. In conclusion, this study of 381,564 US participants revealed that intake of particular food groups were altered during the first weeks of COVID lockdown.

    Mucin 4 Protects Female TRANS Mice from Coronavirus Pathogenesis

    Authors: Jessica A Plante; Kenneth Plante; Lisa Gralinski; Anne Beall; Martin T. Ferris; Daniel Bottomly; Richard R Green; Shannon McWeeney; Mark T. Heise; Ralph S. Baric; Vineet D. Menachery

    doi:10.1101/2020.02.19.957118 Date: 2020-02-20 Source: bioRxiv

    Using incipient lines of the Collaborative Cross (CC), a murine genetic reference population, we previously identified a quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with low SARS-CoV titer MESHD. In this study, we integrated sequence information and RNA expression of genes within the QTL to identify mucin 4 (Muc4) as a high priority candidate for controlling SARS-CoV titer MESHD in the lung. To test this hypothesis, we infected Muc4-/- mice and found that female TRANS, but not male TRANS, Muc4-/- mice developed more weight loss HP weight loss MESHD and disease following infection MESHD with SARS-CoV MESHD. Female TRANS Muc4-/- mice also had more difficulty breathing despite reduced lung pathology; however, no change in viral titers was observed. Comparing across viral families, studies with chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne arthralgic virus, suggests that Muc4s impact on viral pathogenesis may be widespread. Although not confirming the original titer QTL, our data identifies a role for Muc4 in the SARS-CoV disease MESHD and viral pathogenesis. ImportanceGiven the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2, this work suggest that Muc4 expression plays a protective role in female TRANS mice not conserved in male TRANS mice following SARS-CoV infection. With the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak continuing, treatments that modulate or enhance Muc4 activity may provide an avenue for treatment and improved outcomes. In addition, the work highlights the importance of studying host factors including host genetics and biological sex as key parameters influencing infection and disease outcomes.

The ZB MED preprint Viewer preVIEW includes all COVID-19 related preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv, from ChemRxiv, from ResearchSquare, from arXiv and from Preprints.org and is updated on a daily basis (7am CET/CEST).
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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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