Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Clinical and intestinal histopathological findings in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 patients with hematochezia HP hematochezia MESHD

    Authors: Margaret Cho; Weiguo Liu; Sophie Balzora; Yvelisse Suarez; Deepthi Hoskoppal; Neil D Theise; Wenqing Cao; Suparna A Sarkar

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164558 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Gastrointestinal ( GI MESHD) symptoms of SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 in the form of anorexia HP anorexia MESHD, nausea, vomiting HP nausea, vomiting MESHD vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain HP abdominal pain MESHD and diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD are usually preceeded by respiratory manifestations and are associated with a poor prognosis. Hematochezia HP Hematochezia MESHD is an uncommon clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease and we hypothesize that older patients with significant comorbidites ( obesity HP obesity MESHD and cardiovascular) and prolonged hospitalization are suspectible to ischemic injury MESHD to the bowel. We reviewed the clinical course, key laboratory data including acute phase reactants, drug/medication history in two elderly TRANS male TRANS patients admitted for COVID-19 respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD. Both patients had a complicated clinical course and suffered from hematochezia HP hematochezia MESHD and acute blood SERO blood MESHD loss anemia HP requiring blood SERO transfusion around day 40 of their hospitalization. Colonoscopic impressions were correlated with the histopathological findings in the colonic biopies and changes compatible with ischemia MESHD to nonspecific acute inflammation MESHD, edema HP edema MESHD and increased eosinophils in the lamina propria were noted.Both patients were on anticoagulants, multiple antibiotics and antifungal agents due to respiratory infections MESHD at the time of lower GI bleeding MESHD. Hematochezia HP Hematochezia MESHD resolved spontaneously with supportive care. Both patients eventually recovered and were discharged. Elderly TRANS patients with significant comorbid conditions are uniquely at risk for ischemic injury MESHD to the bowel. Hypoxic conditions MESHD due to COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD and respiratory failure HP respiratory failure MESHD, compounded by preexisting cardiovascular complications, and/or cytokine storm orchestrated by the viral infection leading to alteration in coagulation profile and/or drug/medication injury can be difficult to distinguish in these critically ill patients. Presentation of hematochezia HP hematochezia MESHD may further increase the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 patients, and prompt consultation and management by gastroenterology is therefore warranted.

    Prior diagnoses and medications as risk factors for COVID-19 in a Los Angeles Health System

    Authors: Timothy S Chang; Yi Ding; Malika K Freund; Ruth Johnson; Tommer Schwarz; Julie M Yabu; Chad Hazlett; Jeffrey N Chiang; Ami Wulf; - UCLA Health Data Mart Working Group; Daniel H Geschwind; Manish J Butte; Bogdan Pasaniuc

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.03.20145581 Date: 2020-07-04 Source: medRxiv

    With the continuing coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic coupled with phased reopening, it is critical to identify risk factors associated with susceptibility and severity of disease in a diverse population to help shape government policies, guide clinical decision making, and prioritize future COVID-19 research. In this retrospective case-control study, we used de-identified electronic health records (EHR) from the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Health System between March 9th, 2020 and June 14th, 2020 to identify risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility (severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD respiratory distress HP syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR test positive), inpatient admission, and severe outcomes (treatment in an intensive care unit or intubation). Of the 26,602 individuals tested by PCR for SARS-CoV-2, 992 were COVID-19 positive (3.7% of Tested), 220 were admitted in the hospital (22% of COVID-19 positive), and 77 had a severe outcome (35% of Inpatient). Consistent with previous studies, males TRANS and individuals older than 65 years old had increased risk of inpatient admission. Notably, individuals self-identifying as Hispanic or Latino constituted an increasing percentage of COVID-19 patients as disease severity escalated, comprising 24% of those testing positive, but 40% of those with a severe outcome, a disparity that remained after correcting for medical co-morbidities. Cardiovascular disease MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, and renal disease MESHD were premorbid risk factors present before SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing associated with COVID-19 susceptibility. Less well-established risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility included pre-existing dementia HP dementia MESHD (odds ratio (OR) 5.2 [3.2-8.3], p=2.6 x 10-10), mental health conditions ( depression MESHD OR 2.1 [1.6-2.8], p=1.1 x 10-6) and vitamin D deficiency MESHD (OR 1.8 [1.4-2.2], p=5.7 x 10-6). Renal diseases MESHD including end-stage renal disease MESHD and anemia HP anemia MESHD due to chronic renal disease MESHD were the predominant premorbid risk factors for COVID-19 inpatient admission. Other less established risk factors for COVID-19 inpatient admission included previous renal transplant (OR 9.7 [2.8-39], p=3.2x10-4) and disorders of the immune system (OR 6.0 [2.3, 16], p=2.7x10-4). Prior use of oral steroid medications was associated with decreased COVID-19 positive testing risk (OR 0.61 [0.45, 0.81], p=4.3x10-4), but increased inpatient admission risk (OR 4.5 [2.3, 8.9], p=1.8x10-5). We did not observe that prior use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers increased the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, being admitted to the hospital, or having a severe outcome. This study involving direct EHR extraction identified known and less well-established demographics, and prior diagnoses and medications as risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility and inpatient admission. Knowledge of these risk factors including marked ethnic disparities observed in disease severity should guide government policies, identify at-risk populations, inform clinical decision making, and prioritize future COVID-19 research.

    Anemia HP Anemia MESHD and iron metabolism in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Authors: Petek Eylul Taneri; Sergio Alejandro Gomez-Ochoa; Erand Llanaj; Peter Francis Raguindin; Lydia Z. Rojas; Beatrice Minder Wyssmann; Doris Kopp-Heim; Wolf E. Hautz; Michele F. Eisenga; Oscar H. Franco; Marija Glisic; Taulant Muka

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.04.20122267 Date: 2020-06-05 Source: medRxiv

    Iron metabolism and anemia HP anemia MESHD may play an important role in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MESHD in Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). If confirmed, this has important implications for the more than 1.62 billion people estimated to have anemia HP anemia MESHD globally. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate biomarkers of anemia HP anemia MESHD and iron metabolism (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin, soluble transferrin receptor, hepcidin, haptoglobin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, erythropoietin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrine, and prevalence SERO of anemia HP anemia MESHD) in patients diagnosed with COVID-19, and explore their prognostic value. Six bibliographic databases were searched up to May 5th 2020. We included 56 unique studies, with data from 14,044 COVID-19 patients (59 years median age TRANS). Pooled mean hemoglobin and ferritin levels in COVID-19 patients across all ages TRANS were 130.41 g/L (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 128.42; 132.39) and 673.91 ng/mL (95% CI, 420.98; 926.84), respectively. Hemoglobin levels decreased with advancing age TRANS and increasing percentage of comorbid and critically ill MESHD patients, while levels of ferritin increased with increasing male TRANS proportion and mean hemoglobin levels. Compared to moderate cases, severe cases had lower pooled mean hemoglobin [weighted mean difference (WMD), -4.21 (95% CI -6.63; -1.78)] and higher ferritin [WMD, -730.55 ng/mL (95% CI 413.24; 1047.85)]. A significant difference in mean ferritin level of 1027.23 ng/mL (95% CI 819.53; 1234.94) was found between survivors and non-survivors, but not in hemoglobin levels. No studies provided information on anemia HP anemia MESHD or other biomarkers of interest. Future studies should explore the impact of iron metabolism and anemia HP anemia MESHD and in the pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of COVID-19.

    Clinical features of COVID-19 patients in Abdul Wahab Sjahranie Hospital, Samarinda, Indonesia MESHD

    Authors: Swandari Paramita; Ronny Isnuwardana; Marwan Marwan; Donny Irfandi Alfian; David Hariadi Masjhoer

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.27.20114348 Date: 2020-06-02 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD. Indonesia officially established the first COVID-19 confirmation case in early March 2020. East Kalimantan has been determined as a candidate for the new capital of Indonesia since 2019. This makes Abdul Wahab Sjahranie Hospital Samarinda as the largest hospital there has been designated as the main referral hospital for COVID-19 patients in East Kalimantan. We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics of these patients. Methods All patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 by RT-PCR were admitted to Abdul Wahab Sjahranie Hospital in Samarinda. We retrospectively collected and analyzed data on patients with standardized data collection from medical records. Results By May 8, 2020, 18 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Most of the infected MESHD patients were men (16 [88.9%] patients); less than half had underlying diseases (7 [38.9%] patients). Common symptoms at the onset TRANS of illness were cough HP (16 [88.9%] patients), sore throat (8 [44.4%] patients), and fever HP fever MESHD (8 [44.4%] patients). Laboratory findings of some patients on admission showed anemia HP anemia MESHD. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were increased in 10 (55.6%) of 18 patients. On admission, abnormalities in chest x-ray images were detected in 6 (33.3%) patients who had pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. The mean duration from the first hospital admission to discharge was 33.1 days. Discussion The majority of COVID-19 patients are male TRANS. COVID-19 comorbidities were found in several patients. The main clinical symptoms of COVID-19 in this study were cough HP cough MESHD, sore throat, and fever HP fever MESHD. The abnormal laboratory finding in COVID-19 patients is anemia HP anemia MESHD, an increase in AST and ALT levels, and chest x-ray images of pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. All patients are in mild condition. The average length of hospital admission patients to discharge is more than 30 days. Conclusion Although all patients are in mild condition, the inability of a local laboratory to check for positive confirmation of COVID-19 makes the admission period of the patient in the hospital very long. The availability of RT-PCR tests at Abdul Wahab Sjahranie Hospital Samarinda will greatly assist the further management of COVID-19 patients.

    The Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR) and routine hematological parameters of COVID-19 Patient : A perspective of the Indian scenario from a frontline pilot study of 32 COVID-19 cases in a Tertiary Care Institute of North India

    Authors: Neema Tiwari; Devajit Nath; Jyotsna Madan; Savitri Singh; Prashant Bajpai; Ujjwal Madan

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.29.20102913 Date: 2020-06-01 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction The coronavirus disease MESHD 2019(COVID-19) is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 and is declared as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Various hematological parameters alteration has been documented in the Chinese literature in SARS-Cov-2 infection MESHD. However, there is a need for research to evaluate the pattern of the hematological parameters of COVID-19 patients in the Indian population. Aims & Objectives: The objective of the study is to see the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR), and other hematological parameters alteration of COVID-19 patients along with their clinical course in the Indian scenario. Methods: A single-center prospective study of 32 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to Super Speciality Pediatric Hospital & Post Graduate Teaching Institute NOIDA, from March to April, were enrolled for the study. The demographic data, the clinical status of the patients during admission and follow up, baseline, and follow up hematological findings were recorded. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out, and relevant findings were presented. Results: Demographic characterization shows a mean age TRANS of 37.7 years, male TRANS (41.9%), female TRANS (58.1%)with the majority of patients are mildly symptomatic to asymptomatic TRANS(93%). The CBC values and NLR, PLR at baseline between the male TRANS and the female TRANS patients, are not showing any statistically significant difference as the 95% C.I. A statistically significant increment in the lab parameters is observed in follow-up visits. Conclusion: The majority of the patients are younger and have mild clinical presentation with female TRANS predominance. Pediatric cases have mild symptomology. Baseline CBC findings show mild neutrophilia HP, lymphopenia HP lymphopenia MESHD, eosinopenia, and normal to mild thrombocytopenia HP thrombocytopenia MESHD. An increase in CBC parameters, NLR was noted in follow up cases. Anemia HP Anemia MESHD was not noted in baseline CBC and in the follow-up group. A onetime PLR is not indicative of disease progression. Key words: Corona virus,COVID-19,CBC,NLR,PLR

    COVID-19 transmission risk TRANS factors

    Authors: Alessio Notari; Giorgio Torrieri

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.08.20095083 Date: 2020-05-12 Source: medRxiv

    We analyze risk factors correlated with the initial transmission TRANS growth rate of the recent COVID-19 pandemic in different countries. The number of cases follows in its early stages an almost exponential expansion; we chose as a starting point in each country the first day with 30 cases and we used 12 days, capturing thus the early exponential growth. We looked then for linear correlations of the exponents with other variables, for a sample of 126 countries. We find a positive correlation, faster spread of COVID-19 , with high confidence level with the following variables, with respective p-value: low Temperature (4x10 -7), high ratio of old vs. working- age TRANS people (3x10 -6), life expectancy (8x10 -6), number of international tourists (1x10 -5), earlier epidemic starting date (2x10 -5), high level of physical contact in greeting habits (6x10 -5), lung cancer MESHD prevalence SERO (6x10 -5), obesity HP obesity MESHD in males TRANS (1x10 -4), share of population in urban areas (2x10 -4), cancer MESHD prevalence SERO (3x10 -4), alcohol consumption (0.0019), daily smoking prevalence SERO (0.0036), UV index (0.004, smaller sample, 73 countries), low Vitamin D serum SERO levels (0.002-0.006, smaller sample, 50 countries). There is highly significant correlation also with blood SERO type: positive correlation with types RH- (2x10 -5) and A+ (2x10 -3), negative correlation with B+ (2x10 -4). We also find positive correlation with moderate confidence level (p-value of 0.02-0.03) with: CO2/SO emissions, type-1 diabetes MESHD in children TRANS, low vaccination coverage for Tuberculosis MESHD (BCG). Several of the above variables are correlated with each other and so they are likely to have common interpretations. Other variables are found to have a counterintuitive negative correlation, which may be explained due their strong negative correlation with life expectancy: slower spread of COVID-19 is correlated with high death-rate due to pollution, prevalence SERO of anemia HP anemia MESHD and hepatitis HP hepatitis MESHD B, high blood SERO pressure in females TRANS. We also analyzed the possible existence of a bias: countries with low GDP-per capita, typically located in warm regions, might have less intense testing and we discuss correlation with the above variables.

    Effect of underlying comorbidities on the infection MESHD and severity of COVID-19 in South Korea

    Authors: Wonjun Ji; Kyungmin Huh; Minsun Kang; Jinwook Hong; Gi Hwan Bae; Rugyeom Lee; Yewon Na; Hyoseon Choi; SeonYeong Gong; Yoon-Hyeong Choi; Kwang-Pil Ko; Jeong-Soo Im; Jaehun Jung

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.08.20095174 Date: 2020-05-11 Source: medRxiv

    ABSTRACT Background: The coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) pandemic is an emerging threat worldwide. It is still unclear how comorbidities affect the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD and severity of COVID-19. Methods: A nationwide retrospective case-control study of 65,149 individuals, aged TRANS 18 years or older, whose medical cost for COVID-19 testing were claimed until April 8, 2020. The diagnosis of COVID-19 and severity of COVID-19 infection were identified from the reimbursement data using diagnosis codes and based on whether respiratory support was used, respectively. Odds ratios were estimated using multiple logistic regression, after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, region, healthcare utilization, and insurance status. Results: The COVID-19 group (5,172 of 65,149) was younger and showed higher proportion of females TRANS. 5.6% (293 of 5,172) of COVID-19 cases were severe. The severe COVID-19 group had older patients and a higher male TRANS ratio than the non-severe group. Cushing syndrome MESHD (Odds ratio range (ORR) 2.059-2.358), chronic renal disease MESHD (ORR 1.292-1.604), anemia HP anemia MESHD (OR 1.132), bone marrow dysfunction MESHD (ORR 1.471-1.645), and schizophrenia HP schizophrenia MESHD (ORR 1.287-1.556) showed significant association with infection MESHD of COVID-19. In terms of severity, diabetes MESHD (OR 1.417, 95% CI 1.047-1.917), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (OR 1.378, 95% CI 1.008-1.883), heart failure MESHD (ORR 1.562-1.730), chronic lower respiratory disease MESHD (ORR 1.361-1.413), non-infectious lower digestive system disease (ORR 1.361-1.418), rheumatoid arthritis HP rheumatoid arthritis MESHD (ORR 1.865-1.908), substance use (ORR 2.790-2.848), and schizophrenia HP schizophrenia MESHD (ORR 3.434-3.833) were related with severe COVID-19. Conclusions: We identified several comorbidities associated with COVID-19. Health care workers should be more careful when diagnosing and treating COVID-19 when the patient has the above-mentioned comorbidities. Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Comorbidity, Risk factor, Severity

    A multi-centered, retrospective, descriptive study on 107 dead patients with COVID-19

    Authors: chong zhang; Minhao Wu; Xiaobin Zhu; meng wu; yufan zhu; kun li; zhouming deng; yuanlong xie; lin cai

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-20836/v1 Date: 2020-04-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Since the emergence of Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, it has caused thousands of deaths MESHD. As the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 around the world, the number of deaths will definitely continue to increase. We aimed to further describe the clinical characteristics of dead cases with COVID-19 through a large sample and multi-centered study and to find some clinical predictors for the deterioration of COVID-19 during the process.   Methods One hundred and seven patients (16 patients from Lei Shen-Shan Hospital, 54 patients from Seventh Hospital of Wuhan and 37 patients from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University) with COVID-19 were enrolled in our research from Jan 22 to Feb 29, 2020. The demographic, clinical, radiological, laboratory and treatment data of all cases were analysed.   Results Of the 107 dead patients with COVID-19, 71 (66.4%) were male TRANS and 36 (33.6%) were female TRANS. The mean age TRANS of the patients was 71.2 ± 12.1 years. 82 (76.6%) of patients had chronic diseases. The mean duration from admission to death was 9 (IQR,5-14) days. Respiratory functional damage was the most common one followed by heart and kidney. Hematuria HP was found in 36(33.6%) patients. 89(83.2%) patients’ albumin levels were decreased. 68(63.6%) patients had anemia HP. concerning laboratory results, 55 (69.6%) and 56 (70.1%) patients have the elevated white blood SERO cells and elevated Neutrophils during the process; only 43 (54.4%) have the decreased Lymphocytes; The values of platelets and haemoglobin decreased in 64(81.0%) and 58 (73.4%) patients. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase elevated in near half of patients, while almost 80% of patients have the decreased albumin. The elevated blood SERO urea nitrogen and cystatin C were manifested in about 70% of patients. Procalcitonin was elevated in 38 (71.7%) patients.   Conclusions In conclusion, the older men with chronic diseases are more likely to die from COVID-19. Apart from that, more attention should be pay on timely treatment, coinfections, malnutrition HP, and dysfunction of kidney and coagulation. The rising values (white blood SERO cell, blood SERO urea nitrogen, cystatin C, PCT and PT) and the decreased values (PLT, Hb and albumin) maybe meaningful for predict the poor prognosis.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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