Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    EARLY VIRAL CLEARANCE AMONG COVID-19 PATIENTS WHEN GARGLING WITH POVIDONE-IODINE AND ESSENTIAL OILS: A PILOT CLINICAL TRIAL

    Authors: NURUL AZMAWATI MOHAMED; NIZAM BAHAROM; WAN SHAHIDA WAN SULAIMAN; ZETTI ZAINOL RASHID; KON KEN WONG; UMI KALSOM ALI; SITI NORLIA OTHMAN; MUTTAQILLAH NAJIHAN ABD SAMAD; NAJMA KORI; PETRICK PERIYASAMY; NOR AZIZAN ZAKARIA; AGNI NHIRMAL KUMAR SUGUMAR; NUR EZZATY MOHAMMAD KAZMIN; XIONG KHEE CHEONG; SITI MARIYAM SANIMAN; ILINA ISAHAK; Kevin Wing; Peter Inglesby; Rohini Mathur; Henry Drysdale; Angel YS Wong; Helen I McDonald; Jonathan Cockburn; Harriet Forbes; John Parry; Frank Hester; Sam Harper; Liam Smeeth; Ian J Douglas; William G Dixon; Stephen JW Evans; Laurie Tomlinson; Ben Goldacre; Sacha Gnjatic; Noam Harpaz; Silvio Danese; Adeeb Rahman; Nikhil A Kumta; Alessio Aghemo; Francesca Petralia; Harm van Bakel; Adolfo Garcia-Sastre; Saurabh Mehandru

    doi:10.1101/2020.09.07.20180448 Date: 2020-09-09 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Gargling had been reported to have significant roles in the prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections HP respiratory tract infections MESHD. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of regular gargling to eliminate SARS-CoV-2 in the oropharynx and nasopharynx. Methodology: This pilot, open labeled, randomized, parallel study compared the effect of 30 seconds, 3 times/day gargling using 1% povidone-iodine (PVP-I), essential oils and tap water on SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance among COVID-19 patients in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Progress was monitored by day 4,6 and 12 PCR (Ct value), gargling and symptoms diary as well as clinical observations. Results: Five confirmed Stage 1 COVID-19 patients were recruited for each arm. The age TRANS range was from 22 to 56 years old. The majority were males TRANS. Two respondents had co-morbidities, which were asthma HP asthma MESHD and obesity HP obesity MESHD. Viral clearance was achieved at day 6 in 100%, 80%, 20% and 0% for 1% PVP-I, essential oils, tap water and control group respectively. Analysis of 1% PVP-I group versus control group showed significant p-value for comparison of PCR results on Day 4, Day 6 and Day 12. Conclusions: This preliminary study showed that gargling with 1% PVP-I and essential oils show great potential to be part of the treatment and management of Stage 1 COVID-19. Larger studies are required to ascertain the benefit of gargling for different stages of COVID-19 patients. This study was registered in clinicaltrial.gov (NCT04410159).

    A common androgen synthesis variant is associated with COVID susceptibility

    Authors: Jeffrey M. McManus; Navin Sabharwal; Peter Bazeley; Nima Sharifi; Andre Wattiaux; David Henry; Catalina Pardo-Roa; Erick Salinas; Maria J Avendano; Fabiola Perazzo; Luis A Diaz; Sebastian Valderrama; Marcos Ortega; Adriana Toro; Viviana Montecinos; Arnoldo Riquelme; Rafael A. Medina

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.27.20183004 Date: 2020-09-01 Source: medRxiv

    A sex discordance in COVID exists, with males TRANS disproportionately affected. More broadly, sex differences in infectious and inflammatory processes are well known, with women tending to mount stronger immune responses than men. Although there is evidence that sex hormone signaling is immunomodulatory, including downregulation of immune/inflammatory responses by androgens, the existence of numerous other physiologic differences between the sexes leads to great uncertainty in attributing worse infectious disease MESHD outcomes in men to androgen signaling. No definitive genetic data exist to support androgen-mediated immune suppression for viral susceptibility, nor for adrenal androgens. Here we show an association between inheritance of the common adrenal-permissive missense-encoding variant HSD3B1(1245C), that enables androgen synthesis from adrenal precursors10, and susceptibility to COVID. The adrenal-permissive HSD3B1(1245C) has previously been linked to suppression of inflammation MESHD in severe asthma HP asthma MESHD. In analysis of COVID test results from the UK Biobank, we show that in older ([≥] 70 years of age TRANS) subjects, the adrenal-permissive variant is associated with a greater chance of being COVID-positive. The effect increases with the number of HSD3B1(1245C) alleles inherited and is greater in females TRANS such that increasing androgen synthesis confers risk approaching males TRANS. Our study suggests that a common androgen synthesis variant regulates immune susceptibility to COVID infection MESHD as well as potentially other immune and inflammatory processes.

    Clinical Characteristics, Comorbidities, Initial Management and Outcome of COVID-19 Infected Patients Admitted to Intensive Care Unit in Somalia: A National Retrospective Study.

    Authors: Mohamed Farah Yusuf Mohamud; Abdullahi Said Hashi; Abdikarim Hussein Mohamed; Ali Mohamed Yusuf; Ibrahim Hussein Ali; Mohamed Abdi Ahmed

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-66767/v1 Date: 2020-08-27 Source: ResearchSquare

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics, morbidities, management, and outcomes of COVID-19 Infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Somalia.Material MESHD and methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of laboratory 60 confirmed patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) admitted to an ICU from March 28, to May 28, 2020.The sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, exposure history, clinical manifestations (symptoms and signs), laboratory findings, treatment, and outcomes were collected from medical records.Results: Most of the patients admitted to ICU were men over 59 years of age TRANS, and nearly half had diabetes MESHD followed by hypertension HP hypertension MESHD chronic kidney disease HP and asthma HP asthma MESHD. The most clinical presentations were dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD (91.2%), Fever HP Fever MESHD (81.1%), (68.75%), Fatigue HP and myalgia HP myalgia MESHD (25%), and Altered level of conscious (16.6%). Among 48 patients admitted to the ICU, about 24 (50%) patients had required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, and 11(29.9%) patients needed noninvasive ventilation, while 13(27.08%) patients treated with high-flow oxygen therapy >15 L/min (Table 3). Corticosteroids were administered to most patients (85.4%), while 77.1% of the patients received inhaled bronchodilators and morethan half of the patients administered antibiotics. 58.3% of the patients had received Oseltamivir, while 22.9% received Vasopressors.Conclusion This study represents the first description of critically ill MESHD patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to ICU in Somalia. The study identified that elder age TRANS, male TRANS gender TRANS, and diabetic MESHD and hypertensive MESHD comorbidities as independent risk factors of poor outcomes for patients admitted to the ICU (p<0.005).

    Artificial Intelligence Based Study on Analyzing of Habits and with History of Diseases MESHD of Patients for Prediction of Recurrence of Disease Due to COVID-19

    Authors: Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Shawni Dutta

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0542.v1 Date: 2020-08-25 Source: Preprints.org

    A patient will visit physicians when he/she feels ill. This illness is not for COVID-19 but it is a general tendency of human being to visit doctor probably it can not be controlled by general drug. When a patient comes to a doctor, the doctor examines him/her after knowing his/her problem. The physician always asks him/her about some questions related to him/her daily life. For example, if a young male TRANS patient comes to a doctor with a symptom of fever HP fever MESHD and cough HP cough MESHD, the first question doctor asked him that he has a habit of smoking. Then doctor asks him whether this type of symptom appeared often to him previously or not. If the answers of both questions are yes, then the first one is habit and the second one is that he may suffering from some serious disease MESHD or a disease due to the weather. The aim of this paper is to consider habit of the patient as well as he/she has been affected by a critical disease. This information is used to build a model that will predict whether there is any possibility of his/her being affected by COVID-19. This research work contributes to tackle the pandemic situation occurred due to Corona Virus Infectious Disease MESHD, 2019 (Covid-19). Outbreak of this disease happens based on numerous factors such as past health records and habits of patients. Health records include diabetes tendency MESHD, cardiovascular disease MESHD existence, pregnancy, asthma HP asthma MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD; chronic renal disease MESHD may contribute to this disease occurrence. Past lifestyles such as tobacco, alcohol consumption may be analyzed. A deep learning based framework is investigated to verify the relationship between past health records, habits of patients and covid-19 occurrence. A stacked Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) based model is proposed in this paper that identifies whether a patient can be infected by this disease or not. The proposed predictive system is compared against existing benchmark Machine Learning classifiers such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Decision Tree (DT).

    Machine Learning and Meta-Analysis Approach to Identify Patient Comorbidities and Symptoms that Increased Risk of Mortality in COVID-19

    Authors: Sakifa Aktar; Ashis Talukder; Md. Martuza Ahamad; A. H. M. Kamal; Jahidur Rahman Khan; Md. Protikuzzaman; Nasif Hossain; Julian M. W. Quinn; Mathew A. Summers; Teng Liaw; Valsamma Eapen; Mohammad Ali Moni

    id:2008.12683v1 Date: 2020-08-21 Source: arXiv

    Background: Providing appropriate care for people suffering from COVID-19, the disease caused by the pandemic SARS-CoV-2 virus is a significant global challenge. Many individuals who become infected have pre-existing conditions that may interact with COVID-19 to increase symptom severity and mortality risk. COVID-19 patient comorbidities are likely to be informative about individual risk of severe illness and mortality. Accurately determining how comorbidities are associated with severe symptoms and mortality would thus greatly assist in COVID-19 care planning and provision. Methods: To assess the interaction of patient comorbidities with COVID-19 severity and mortality we performed a meta-analysis of the published global literature, and machine learning predictive analysis using an aggregated COVID-19 global dataset. Results: Our meta-analysis identified chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD ( COPD MESHD), cerebrovascular disease MESHD ( CEVD MESHD), cardiovascular disease MESHD ( CVD MESHD), type 2 diabetes MESHD, malignancy MESHD, and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD as most significantly associated with COVID-19 severity in the current published literature. Machine learning classification using novel aggregated cohort data similarly found COPD MESHD, CVD MESHD, CKD, type 2 diabetes MESHD, malignancy MESHD and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, as well as asthma HP, as the most significant features for classifying those deceased versus those who survived COVID-19. While age TRANS and gender TRANS were the most significant predictor of mortality, in terms of symptom-comorbidity combinations, it was observed that Pneumonia HP Pneumonia MESHD- Hypertension HP, Pneumonia HP Pneumonia MESHD-Diabetes and Acute Respiratory Distress HP Respiratory Distress MESHD Syndrome ( ARDS MESHD)- Hypertension HP Hypertension MESHD showed the most significant effects on COVID-19 mortality. Conclusions: These results highlight patient cohorts most at risk of COVID-19 related severe morbidity and mortality which have implications for prioritization of hospital resources.

    The Effects of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Severe Asthma HP Asthma MESHD in Patients Taking Biologic Therapy and Air Pollution in Riyadh 

    Authors: Mohammd Khan; Rajkumar Rajendram; , Basma Al-Ghamdi; Emad Al-Jahdaly; Abdullah AL-Harbi; Hajar Hayyan; Mostafa Mohammad Obaidi; Hamdan H. Al-Jahdali

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-62903/v1 Date: 2020-08-20 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background:The curfews and lockdowns imposed during the COVID 19 pandemic may decreased volume of traffic and reduced air pollution. In addition, social distancing measures may contribute to reduce i nfection MESHDand asthma HP sthma MESHDexacerbation.Objective:To assess asthma HP control and asthma HP sthma MESHDmedication use among sever asthmatics on biologics before and after COVID-19 pandemicMethod:This is a cross-sectional survey study of patients with severe asthma HP sthma MESHDreceiving biologic therapy at King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC-R), Saudi Arabia. We looked at the effects of the COVID19 lockdown on this cohort of sever asthmatics on biologic therapy from March till June 2020 over a period of 12 weeks. We investigated changes in patients symptoms and asthma HP sthma MESHDcontrol using the asthma HP control test (ACT) score and other parameters including, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, use of oral prednisolone, changes in inhaler therapy, frequency of bronchodilators use and patient perception of their symptoms before and after the lockdown period. Results:A total of 56, Female TRANS 39;(69%0; mean age TRANS ± SD 47.4 ± 13.8 years. The duration of bronchial asthma HP since diagnosis range from 4-30 years. Most patients had been treated with Omalizumab (47; 84%); the rest received Mepolizumab (7; 12.5%) and Dupilumab (2; 3.6%). All these patients had been on biologic therapy for 5 months, range from 5 to 120 months. Most of the patients (45; 80.4%) agreed that their symptoms of asthma HP had improved with biologic therapy. Most of the patients felt overall asthma HP symptoms is better after curfew and lockdown 28 (50%).   Less use of bronchodilators post curfew reported in 38% of the patients. Asthma HP control (≥20) using ACT score was significantly higher among patients in post curfew and lockdown period compared to pre curfew period 34(61.7%) and 23 (41%), (p.0.001) respectively.Conclusion: Asthma HP control was better post curfew and lockdown. Decrease in air pollution and social distances may be contribute factor.

    ACE2 Expression is elevated in Airway Epithelial Cells from aged TRANS and male TRANS donors but reduced in asthma HP

    Authors: Peter Wark; Prabuddha Pathinyake; Gerard Kaiko; Kristy Nichol; Ayesha Ali; Ling Chen; Erika Suntanto; Luke Garrat; Sukhwinder S Sohal; Wenying Lu; Matthew Eapen; Christopher Oldmeadow; Nathan Bartlett; Andrew Reid; Punnam Veerati; Alan Hsu; Thomas Iosifides; Stephen Stick; Philip M Hansbro; Anthony Kicic

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.26.20162248 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Rationale: COVID-19 is complicated by acute lung injury MESHD, and death MESHD in some individuals. It is caused by SARS-CoV-2 that requires the ACE2 receptor and serine proteases to enter airway epithelial cells (AECs). Objective: To determine what factors are associated with ACE2 expression particularly in patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD ( COPD MESHD). Methods: We obtained upper and lower AECs from 145 people from two independent cohorts, aged TRANS 2-89, Newcastle (n=115), and from Perth (n= 30) Australia. The Newcastle cohort was enriched with people with asthma HP asthma MESHD (n=37) and COPD MESHD (n=38). Gene expression for ACE2 and other genes potentially associated with SARS-CoV-2 cell entry were assessed by quantitative PCR, protein expression was confirmed with immunohistochemistry on endobronchial biopsies and cultured AECs. Results: Increased gene expression of ACE2 was associated with older age TRANS (p=0.02) and male TRANS sex (p=0.03), but not pack-years smoked. When we compared gene expression between adults TRANS with asthma HP asthma MESHD, COPD MESHD and healthy controls, mean ACE2 expression was lower in asthma HP (p=0.01). Gene expression of furin, a protease that facilitates viral endocytosis, was also lower in asthma HP asthma MESHD (p=0.02), while ADAM-17, a disintegrin that cleaves ACE2 from the surface was increased (p=0.02). ACE2 protein levels were lower in endobronchial biopsies from asthma HP asthma MESHD patients. Conclusions: Increased ACE2 expression occurs in older people and males TRANS. Asthma HP Asthma MESHD patients have reduced expression. Altered ACE2 expression in the lower airway may be an important factor in virus tropism and may in part explain susceptibility factors and why asthma HP asthma MESHD patients are not over-represented in those with COVID-19 complications.

    Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization: COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Authors: Jean Y. Ko; Melissa L. Danielson; Machell Town; Gordana Derado; Kurt J. Greenland; Pam Daily Kirley; Nisha B. Alden; Kimberly Yousey-Hindes; Evan J. Anderson; Patricia A. Ryan; Sue Kim; Ruth Lynfield; Salina M. Torres; Grant R. Barney; Nancy M. Bennett; Melissa Sutton; H. Keipp Talbot; Mary Hill; Aron J. Hall; Alicia M. Fry; Shikha Garg; Lindsay Kim; - COVID-NET Investigation Group

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.27.20161810 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Identification of risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization is needed to guide prevention and clinical care. Objective: To examine if age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions is independently associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: 70 counties within 12 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) and a population-based sample of non-hospitalized adults TRANS residing in the COVID-NET catchment area from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Participants: U.S. community-dwelling adults TRANS ([≥]18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, March 1- June 23, 2020. Measurements: Adjusted rate ratios (aRR) of hospitalization by age TRANS, sex, race/ethnicity and underlying medical conditions ( hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, coronary artery disease MESHD, history of stroke HP stroke MESHD, diabetes MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD [BMI [≥]30 kg/m2], severe obesity HP obesity MESHD [BMI[≥]40 kg/m2], chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, asthma HP asthma MESHD, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD). Results: Our sample included 5,416 adults TRANS with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Adults TRANS with (versus without) severe obesity HP obesity MESHD (aRR:4.4; 95%CI: 3.4, 5.7), chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD (aRR:4.0; 95%CI: 3.0, 5.2), diabetes MESHD (aRR:3.2; 95%CI: 2.5, 4.1), obesity HP obesity MESHD (aRR:2.9; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.5), hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (aRR:2.8; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.4), and asthma HP asthma MESHD (aRR:1.4; 95%CI: 1.1, 1.7) had higher rates of hospitalization, after adjusting for age TRANS, sex, and race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for the presence of an individual underlying medical condition, higher hospitalization rates were observed for adults TRANS [≥]65 years, 45-64 years (versus 18-44 years), males TRANS (versus females TRANS), and non-Hispanic black and other race/ethnicities (versus non-Hispanic whites). Limitations: Interim analysis limited to hospitalizations with underlying medical condition data. Conclusion: Our findings elucidate groups with higher hospitalization risk that may benefit from targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.

    An  Approach for Measuring Spatial Similarity MESHD Among COVID-19 Epicenters

    Authors: Neda Kaffash Charandabi; Abolghasem Sadeghi-Niaraki; Soo-Mi Choi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-49216/v1 Date: 2020-07-26 Source: ResearchSquare

    The world has been embroiled in a new epidemic known as COVID-19 since the beginning of 2020. Most countries and territories around the world are affected by the disease, and some cities have become known as epicenters due to high outbreak. The similarity of these cities can be examined within the Geographic Information System ( GIS MESHD), based on various criteria. This study investigated the similarities between the eight cities of Wuhan, Tehran, Bergamo, Madrid, Paris, Daegu, New York, and Berlin in terms of the COVID-19 situation (target) in those locations based on socio-economic factors, weather, and demographic criteria. First, the factor and target layers were prepared in ArcGIS®10.6 software. For socio-economic data (such as: supermarkets, hospitals, metro stations etc.), the distance maps were classified with a fuzzy membership function. Weather and demographic criteria were also stored in the tables after normalization in the range of zero to one. In next step, the similar cities were identified using the similarity model and different distance metrics (Manhattan, Euclidean, Minkowski, Mahalanobis, Chebyshev, and Correlation). The results were aggregated using the Copeland method, due to the different outcomes of each metric. The most similar city was identified for each selected city and its similarity level was determined based on the criteria. Results indicated that pairs of similar cities are: Wuhan-Berlin, Tehran-Berlin, Daegu-Wuhan, Bergamo-Madrid, Paris-Mardid MESHD, and New York-Paris with a minimum and maximum similarity rate of 82.85% and 92.36%. For similar cities, the most similar factors among the socio-economic criteria are the distance from bus and metro stations; among weather, criteria are humidity and pressure; and among demographic criteria are male TRANS and female TRANS population ratios, literacy ratio, death ratio from asthma HP asthma MESHD and cancer MESHD with a minimum and maximum difference of 0% and 64.94%.

    The impact of COVID-19 on patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD: A Big Data analysis

    Authors: Jose Luis Izquierdo; Carlos Almonacid; Yolanda Gonzalez; Carlos Del Rio-Bermudez; Julio Ancochea; Remedios Cardenas; Joan B Soriano

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20161596 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    Background: From the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, an association between the severity of COVID-19 and the presence of certain medical chronic conditions has been suggested. However, unlike influenza and other viruses, the burden of the disease in patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD has been less evident. Objective: This study aims at a better understanding of the burden of COVID-19 in patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD and the impact of asthma HP, its related comorbidities, and treatment on the prognosis of COVID-19. Methods: We analyzed clinical data from patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD from January 1st to May 10th, 2020 using big data analytics and artificial intelligence through the SAVANA Manager clinical platform. Results: Out of 71,192 patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD, 1,006 (1.41%) suffered from COVID-19. Compared to asthmatic individuals without COVID-19, patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD and COVID-19 were significantly older (55 vs. 42 years), predominantly female TRANS (66% vs. 59%), had higher prevalence SERO of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, dyslipidemias MESHD, diabetes MESHD, and obesity HP obesity MESHD, and smoked more frequently. Contrarily, allergy HP allergy MESHD-related factors such as rhinitis HP rhinitis MESHD and eczema HP eczema MESHD were less frequent in asthmatic patients with COVID-19 (P < .001). Higher prevalence SERO of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, dyslipidemia MESHD, diabetes MESHD, and obesity HP obesity MESHD was also confirmed in those patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD and COVID-19 who required hospital admission. The percentage of individuals using inhaled corticosteroids ( ICS MESHD) was lower in patients who required hospitalization due to COVID-19, as compared to non-hospitalized patients (48.3% vs. 61.5%; OR: 0.58: 95% CI 0.44-0.77). During the study period, 865 (1.21%) patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD were being treated with biologics. Although these patients showed increased severity and more comorbidities at the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) level, their hospital admission rates due to COVID-19 were relatively low (0.23%). COVID-19 increased inpatient mortality in asthmatic patients (2.29% vs 0.54%; OR 2.29: 95% CI 4.35-6.66). Conclusion: Our results indicate that the number of COVID-19 cases in patients with asthma HP has been low, although higher than the observed in the general population. Patients with asthma HP asthma MESHD and COVID-19 were older and were at increased risk due to comorbidity-related factors. ICS and biologics are generally safe and may be associated with a protective effect against severe COVID-19 infection MESHD.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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