Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 18
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    Layoffs, Inequity and COVID-19: A Longitudinal Study of the Journalism Jobs Crisis in Australia from 2012 to 2020

    Authors: Nik Dawson; Sacha Molitorisz; Marian-Andrei Rizoiu; Peter Fray

    id:2008.12459v1 Date: 2020-08-28 Source: arXiv

    In Australia and beyond, journalism is reportedly an industry in crisis, a crisis exacerbated by COVID-19. However, the evidence revealing the crisis is often anecdotal or limited in scope. In this unprecedented longitudinal research, we draw on data from the Australian journalism jobs market from January 2012 until March 2020. Using Data Science and Machine Learning techniques, we analyse two distinct data sets: job advertisements (ads) data comprising 3,698 journalist job ads from a corpus of over 6.7 million Australian job ads; and official employment data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Having matched and analysed both sources, we address both the demand for and supply of journalists in Australia over this critical period. The data show that the crisis is real, but there are also surprises. Counter-intuitively, the number of journalism job ads in Australia rose from 2012 until 2016, before falling HP into decline. Less surprisingly, for the entire period studied the figures reveal extreme volatility, characterised by large and erratic fluctuations. The data also clearly show that COVID-19 has significantly worsened the crisis. We can also tease out more granular findings, including: that there are now more women than men journalists in Australia, but that gender TRANS inequity is worsening, with women journalists getting younger and worse-paid just as men journalists are, on average, getting older and better-paid; that, despite the crisis besetting the industry, the demand for journalism skills MESHD has increased; and that the skills sought by journalism job ads increasingly include social media and generalist communications.

    Validation of Saliva and Self-Administered Nasal Swabs for COVID-19 Testing

    Authors: Alvin Kuo Jing Teo; Yukti Choudhury; Iain Beehuat Tan; Chae Yin Cher; Shi Hao Chew; Zi Yi Wan; Lionel Tim Ee Cheng; Lynette Lin Ean Oon; Min Han Tan; Kian Sing Chan; Li Yang Hsu; Ramgyan Yadav; Ashish Timalsina; Chetan Nidhi Wagle; Brij Kumar Das; Ramesh Kunwar; Binaya Chalise; Deepak Raj Bhatta; Mukesh Adhikari; Michael Gale; Daniel J Campbell; David Rawlings; Marion Pepper

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.13.20173807 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background Active cases of COVID-19 has primarily been diagnosed via RT-PCR of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs. Saliva and self-administered nasal (SN) swabs can be collected safely without trained staff. We aimed to test the sensitivity SERO of naso-oropharyngeal saliva and SN swabs compared to NP swabs in a large cohort of migrant workers in Singapore. Methods We recruited 200 male TRANS adult TRANS subjects: 45 with acute respiratory infection MESHD, 104 asymptomatic TRANS close contacts TRANS, and 51 confirmed COVID-19 cases. Each subject underwent NP swab, SN swab and saliva collection for RT-PCR testing at 1 to 3 timepoints. We additionally used a direct-from-sample amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) workflow to establish phylogeny. Results Of 200 subjects, 91 and 46 completed second and third rounds of testing, respectively. Of 337 sets of tests, there were 150 (44.5%) positive NP swabs, 127 (37.7%) positive SN swabs, and 209 (62.0%) positive saliva. Test concordance between different sample sites was good, with a kappa statistic of 0.616 for NP and SN swabs, and 0.537 for NP and saliva. In confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 subjects, the likelihood of a positive test from any sample fell HP beyond 14 days of symptom onset TRANS. NGS was conducted on 18 SN and saliva samples, with phylogenetic analyses demonstrating lineages for all samples tested were Clade O (GISAID nomenclature) and lineage B.6 (PANGOLIN nomenclature). Conclusion This study supports saliva as a sensitive and less intrusive sample for COVID-19 diagnosis and further delineates the role of oropharyngeal secretions in increasing the sensitivity SERO of testing. However, SN swabs were inferior as an alternate sample type. Our study also provides evidence that a straightforward next-generation sequencing workflow can provide direct-from-sample phylogenetic analysis for public health decision-making.

    Who is Left Behind? Altruism of Giving, Happiness and Mental MESHD Health during the Covid-19 Period in the UK

    Authors: Eleftherios Giovanis; Oznur Ozdamar

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-53072/v1 Date: 2020-08-03 Source: ResearchSquare

    The UK government has decided to implement lockdown measures in the end of March 2020 as a response to the outbreak and spread of the Covid-19 pandemic. As a consequence, households have experienced job losses and a significant drop in their finances and living standards. During these unprecedented and difficult times, people provide financial assistance to those who are in need and have to cope with falls HP in their living standards. In this study we are interested to investigate the subjective well-being (SWB), which is expressed by mental health and components of general happiness, of the givers rather than of receivers. We apply a difference-in-differences (DiD) framework to investigate the impact of altruism on the givers’ SWB in the UK. Altruism is denoted by transfers made to adult TRANS children TRANS, parents TRANS, siblings, and friends TRANS. Using the DiD estimator and the estimated coefficient of the household income we calculate the implicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for altruism. We perform various regressions by gender TRANS and racial-ethnic background using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS). The analysis shows that altruistic behaviours impact different domains of SWB between men and women, as well as, among people with different racial-ethnic background. 

    Sleepless in Lockdown: unpacking differences in sleep loss MESHD during the coronavirus pandemicin the UK

    Authors: Jane Falkingham; Maria Evandrou; Min Qin; Athina Vlachantoni

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.19.20157255 Date: 2020-07-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Covid-19 has been shown to be having a disproportionate impact on the health of individuals from different ethnic groups and those employed in certain occupations, whilst the indirect impacts of Covid-19, including the closure of schools and business and the move to home working, fall HP disproportionately on the young and on women. These factors may in turn impact upon sleep health. Research on sleep deprivation during the pandemic crisis to date has been limited. The present study aimed to explore the levels and social determinants of self-reported sleep loss among the general population during the Covid-19 pandemic in the UK, with a particular focus on ethnic and gender TRANS disparities. Methods: Newly available national representative survey data from Understanding Society COVID19 Study collected during April 2020 were analysed. These data were linked to Wave 9 of Understanding Society conducted in 2018/19, providing information about the respondents prior to the outbreak of the pandemic. Cross-sectional analysis provided prevalence SERO estimates, whilst analysis of the linked longitudinal data provided incidence estimates. The analytical sample included 15,360 respondents aged TRANS 16 and above; among these, 12,206 reported no problem of sleep loss MESHD before the epidemic. Results: Prevalence SERO and incidence rates of perceived sleep loss were 24.7% and 20.2% respectively. Women (at the level of 31.8% and 27.0%) and individuals from Black, Asian, and minority ethnic (BAME) communities (at the level of 32.0% and 24.6%) were more vulnerable to sleep deprivation MESHD due to the pandemic. Multivariate regression analysis shows that being female TRANS, the presence of young children TRANS in the household, perceived financial difficulties and being a Covid-19-related key worker were all predictive of sleep loss MESHD. Once these covariates were controlled for the bivariate relationship between ethnicity and sleep loss MESHD was reversed, reflecting the complex interaction between the coronavirus epidemic and ethnicity. Conclusions: The pandemic has widened the disparity of sleep deprivation MESHD across different groups, with women with young children TRANS, key workers and people of BAME heritage all experiencing difficulty in sleeping, which in turn may negatively affect mental and physical health and well-being.

    Estimating the burden of COVID-19 on mortality, life expectancy and lifespan inequality in England and Wales: A population-level study

    Authors: Jose Manuel Aburto; Ridhi Kashyap; Jonas Scholey; Colin Angus; John Ermisch; Melinda Mills; Jennifer Beam Dowd

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.16.20155077 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mortality, life expectancy and lifespan inequality in the first half of 2020 (from week 1 to week 26 starting June 22) in England and Wales. Design: Demographic analysis of all-cause mortality from week 1 through week 26 of 2020 using publicly available death registration data from the Office for National Statistics. Setting and population: England and Wales population by age TRANS and sex in 2020. Main outcome measure: Age TRANS and sex-specific excess mortality risk and deaths above a baseline adjusted for seasonality in the first half of 2020. We additionally provide estimates of life expectancy at birth and lifespan inequality defined as the standard deviation in age TRANS at death. Results: We estimate that there have been 53,937 (95% Prediction Interval: 53,092, 54,746) excess deaths in the first half of 2020, 54% of which occurred in men. Excess deaths increased sharply with age TRANS and men experienced elevated risks of death MESHD in all age groups TRANS. Life expectancy at birth dropped 1.7 and 1.9 years for females TRANS and males TRANS relative to the 2019 levels, respectively. Lifespan inequality also fell HP over the same period. Conclusions: Quantifying excess deaths and their impact on life expectancy at birth provides a more comprehensive picture of the full COVID-19 burden on mortality. Whether mortality will return to - or even fall HP below - the baseline level remains to be seen as the pandemic continues to unfold and diverse interventions are put in place.

    Clinical utility of targeted SARS-CoV-2 serology testing to aid the diagnosis and management of suspected missed, late or post-COVID-19 infection syndromes: results from a pilot service

    Authors: Nicola Sweeney; Blair Merrick; Suzanne Pickering; Rui Pedro Galao; Alina Botgros; Harry D. Wilson; Adrian W. Signell; Gilberto Betancor; Mark Kia Ik Tan; John Ramble; Neophytos Kouphou; Sam Acors; Carl Graham; Jeffrey Seow; Eithne MacMahon; Stuart J. D. Neil; Michael H. Malim; Katie Doores; Sam Douthwaite; Rahul Batra; Gaia Nebbia; Jonathan D. Edgeworth

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20150540 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: Determine indications and clinical utility of SARS-CoV-2 serology testing in adults TRANS and children TRANS. Design: Prospective evaluation of initial three weeks of a daily Monday to Friday pilot SARS-CoV-2 serology service for patients. Setting: Early post 'first-wave' SARS-CoV-2 transmission TRANS period at single centre London teaching hospital that provides care to the local community, as well as regional and national referral pathways for specialist services. Participants: 110 (72 adults TRANS, 38 children TRANS, age TRANS range 0-83 years, 52.7% female TRANS (n=58)). Interventions: Patient serum SERO from vetted referrals tested on CE marked and internally validated lateral flow immunoassay SERO (LFIA) (SureScreen Diagnostics) detecting antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO spike proteins, with result and clinical interpretation provided to the direct care team. Main outcome measures: Performance SERO characteristics, source and nature of referrals, feasibility and clinical utility of the service, particularly the benefit for clinical decision-making. Results: The LFIA was deemed suitable for clinical advice and decision making following evaluation with 310 serum samples SERO from SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive patients and 300 pre-pandemic samples, giving a sensitivity SERO and specificity of 96.1% and 99.3% respectively. For the pilot, 115 referrals were received leading to 113 tests performed on 108 participants (sample not available for two participants); paediatrics (n=35), medicine (n=69), surgery (n=2) and general practice (n=2). 43.4% participants (n=49) had detectable antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO. There were three main indications for serology; new acute presentations potentially triggered by recent COVID-19 infection e.g. PIMS-TS (n=26) and pulmonary embolism HP pulmonary embolism MESHD (n=5), potential missed diagnoses in context of a recent compatible illness (n=40), and making infection control and immunosuppression treatment decisions in persistently SARS-CoV-2 RNA PCR positive individuals (n=6). Conclusions: This study shows acceptable performance SERO characteristics, feasibility and clinical utility of a SARS-CoV-2 serology service using a rapid, inexpensive and portable assay for adults TRANS and children TRANS presenting with a range of clinical indications. Results correlated closely with a confirmatory in-house ELISA SERO. The study showed the benefit of introducing a serology service where there is a reasonable pre-test probability, and the result can be linked with clinical advice or intervention. Experience thus far is that the volume of requests from hospital referral routes are manageable within existing clinical and laboratory services; however, the demand from community referrals has not yet been assessed. Given recent evidence for a rapid decline in antibodies SERO, particularly following mild infection MESHD, there is likely a limited window of opportunity to realise the benefit of serology testing for individuals infected during the 'first-wave' before they potentially fall HP below a measurable threshold. Rapidly expanding availability of serology services for NHS patients will also help understand the long-term implications of serostatus and prior infection MESHD in different patient groups, particularly before emergence of any 'second-wave' outbreak or introduction of a vaccination programme.

    A false alarm of COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD in lung cancer: a case report of anti-PD-1 related pneumonitis MESHD and literature review

    Authors: Ying Dai; Ying Dai; Sha Liu; Sha Liu; Zhiyan Zhao; Zhiyan Zhao; Xiaqiu Li; Xiaqiu Li; Yiruo Zhang; Yiruo Zhang; Pingping Liu; Pingping Liu; Yingying Du; Yingying Du

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-41095/v1 Date: 2020-07-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The fatal toxicity MESHD of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents is pneumonitis MESHD. The diagnosis consists of the history of immunotherapy, clinical symptoms and presentation of computed tomography (CT) imaging. The typical CT findings include ground-glass opacities. Based on the similar radiographic feature with 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD, clinicians are cautious to evaluate diagnosis especially in COVID-19 epidemic areas. Case presentation: Herein we report a 67-year-old male TRANS patient with advanced non-small cell lung cancer MESHD developed pneumonitis MESHD post Sintilimab injection. The dyspnea HP dyspnea MESHD appeared at the 15th day of close contact TRANS with his son who returned from Wuhan, but not accompanied with fever HP fever MESHD. The chest CT indicated peripherally subpleural lattice opacities at the inferior right lung lobe and bilateral thoracic infusion. The real-time reverse-transcription polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) from double swab samples within 72 hours remained negative. The patient was thereafter treated with prednisolone and antibiotics for over two weeks. Thereafter the chest CT demonstrated the former lesion almost absorbed, in line with prominently falling HP CRP level. The anti-PD-1 related pneumonitis MESHD with bacterial infection MESHD was diagnosed finally based on the clinical evidence and good response to the prednisolone and antibiotics. Conclusion: Both ani-PD-1 related pneumonitis MESHD and COVID-19 pneumonia HP harbor the common clinical symptom and the varied features of CT imaging. Differential diagnosis was based on the epidemiological and immunotherapy histories, RT-PCR tests. The response to glucocorticoid can indirectly help the diagnosis.

    Cross-national study of worrying, loneliness, and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparison between individuals with and without infection MESHD in the family

    Authors: Tore Bonsaksen; Janni Leung; Mariyana Schoultz; Hilde Thygesen; Daicia Price; Mary Ruffolo; Amy Østertun Geirdal

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-34850/v1 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, strict national policies regarding public behavior were implemented in countries throughout the world, including Europe, America and Australia. Social distancing became the main policy for public behavior, in effect imposing radical changes in people’s everyday life. Thus, mental health may be affected at the general population level and not only among those who have been infected by the disease MESHD or have witnessed family members TRANS or close ones fall HP ill.Methods A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Norway, UK, USA and Australia during April/May 2020. Participants (n = 3810) were recruited via social media postings by the researchers and the involved universities. Differences between those with and without infection MESHD in the family were investigated with chi-square tests and independent t-tests. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess associations between sociodemographic variables and psychological outcomes (worry, loneliness and mental health) in both groups.Results Compared to their counterparts, participants with infection MESHD in the family reported higher levels of worries about themselves (p < 0.05) and their family members TRANS (p < 0.001), and had poorer mental health (p < 0.05). However, the effect sizes related to the differences were small. The largest effect (d = 0.24) concerned worries about their immediate family. Poorer psychological outcomes were observed in those who were younger, female TRANS, unemployed, living alone and had lower levels of edcuation, yet with small effect sizes.Conclusions In view of the small differences between those with and without infection MESHD, we generally conclude that the mental health effects of the COVID-19 situation are not limited to those who have been infected MESHD or have had infection MESHD within the family, but extend to the general population.

    Cross-national study of worrying, loneliness, and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparison between individuals with and without infection MESHD in the family

    Authors: Tore Bonsaksen; Janni Leung; Mariyana Schoultz; Hilde Thygesen; Daicia Price; Mary Ruffolo; Amy Østertun Geirdal

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-34850/v2 Date: 2020-06-12 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, strict national policies regarding public behavior were implemented in countries throughout the world, including Europe, America and Australia. Social distancing became the main policy for public behavior, in effect imposing radical changes in people’s everyday life. Thus, mental health may be affected at the general population level and not only among those who have been infected by the disease MESHD or have witnessed family members TRANS or close ones fall HP ill. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Norway, UK, USA and Australia during April/May 2020. Participants (n = 3810) were recruited via social media postings by the researchers and the involved universities. Differences between those with and without infection MESHD in the family were investigated with chi-square tests and independent t-tests. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess associations between sociodemographic variables and psychological outcomes (worry, loneliness and mental health) in both groups. Results: Compared to their counterparts, participants with infection MESHD in the family reported higher levels of worries about themselves (p < 0.05) and their family members TRANS (p < 0.001), and had poorer mental health (p < 0.05). However, the effect sizes related to the differences were small. The largest effect (d = 0.24) concerned worries about their immediate family. Poorer psychological outcomes were observed in those who were younger, female TRANS, unemployed, living alone and had lower levels of edcuation, yet with small effect sizes. Conclusions: In view of the small differences between those with and without infection MESHD, we generally conclude that the mental health effects of the COVID-19 situation are not limited to those who have been infected MESHD or have had infection MESHD within the family, but extend to the general population.

    Changes in health promoting behavior during COVID-19 physical distancing: Utilizing WHOOP data to Examine Trends in Sleep, Activity, and Cardiovascular Health.

    Authors: Emily R Capodilupo; Dean J Miller

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.07.20124685 Date: 2020-06-09 Source: medRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic incited global and unprecedented restrictions on the behavior of society. The aims of this study were to quantify changes to sleep/wake behavior and exercise patterns (e.g., exercise frequency, modality, and intensity), and the subsequent impact on physiological markers of health (e.g., total sleep duration, social jet lag, resting heart rate, and heart rate variability) with the introduction of physical distancing mandates and recommendations. A retrospective analysis of 50,000 subscribers to the WHOOP platform (mean age TRANS = 36.6 {+/-} 10.5; 11,956 females TRANS, 38,044 males TRANS) was conducted covering the period from January 1st, 2020 through May 15th, 2020. In order to make robust comparisons, this time period was separated into a 68 day baseline period and a 67 day physical distancing period - with a total of 6.3 million sleeps and 4.9 million exercise sessions analyzed. As compared to baseline, during physical distancing, all subjects analyzed in this study dedicated more time to sleep (+0.21 hours), fell HP asleep earlier (-0.43 hours), woke up earlier (-0.29 hours), obtained more sleep (+0.19 hours) and reduced social jet lag (-0.23 hours). Subjects also increased exercise frequency by an average of 1.1% and increased exercise intensity by spending an average of 1.8% more time in the three highest heart rate zones. These changes to sleep and exercise behavior may have contributed to the observed lowered resting heart rate (-0.9 beats per minute) and increased heart rate variability HP (+1.3 milliseconds) during physical distancing. A potential explanation for these results is that decreases in business hours-based commitments during physical distancing may have resulted in increased opportunity to engage in exercise and prioritize sleep. Therefore, as the COVID-19 pandemic eases, maintenance of certain aspects of physical distancing (e.g., flexibility to work from home) may result in a healthier population.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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