Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) USING IN ANTALYA 112 EMERGENCY AMBULANCE SERVICES DURING OUTBREAK

    Authors: MEHMET FATIH GULSEN; MUNEVVER KURT; ISIL KALELI; AYHAN ULASTI

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.16.20129171 Date: 2020-06-19 Source: medRxiv

    A new type of Coronavirus (SARS CoV2) which was identified on January 7th, 2020; which caused disease named COVID 19 caused by this virus. The first confirmed COVID 19 (+) case in Turkey was detected on March 11th, 2020. The first COVID-19 case in Antalya was detected on March 14th, 2020 and transferred by an Antalya 112 emergency ambulance to hospital. The aim of this descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study which is conducted between the dates of March 14th, 2020 and May 31st, 2020, is to evaluate the level of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) usage, the risk analysis results and follow up measures of Antalya 112 ambulance teams during COVID-19 outbreak. There were 5344 possible and 787 confirmed COVID-19 (+) positive ambulance cases between the dates of study conducted. The majority of these cases were male TRANS (62%) and over the age TRANS of 65 (47%). The majority of cases were result in transferred to healthcare facilities (75.48%). The total 2361 ambulance team workers were taken to risk HP analysis measurements and then followed-up procedures. The majority of ambulance team members were assessed with no risk available. The Level 4 PPE (N95/FPP, Goggle/face protection, Gloves, Apron/coverall) were used most commonly (84.50%). The HCWs who use Level-4 PPE for confirmed COVID-19 (+) cases, were assessed no risk exposed. The using mask on patient and the level of PPE usage showed negative correlation with risk level of HCWs. There are only 2 HCWs diagnosed with COVID 19 by CT scan. The follow up procedures of two HCWs has been finalized, and both of them cured, follow ups ended. The studies about easy use, hightech PPE with maximum protection, are recommended for further investigations. Keywords: COVID 19, Ambulance Services, Personal Protective Equipment

    Greater risk of severe COVID-19 in non-White ethnicities is not explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic, or behavioural factors, or by 25(OH)-vitamin D status: study of 1,326 cases from the UK Biobank

    Authors: Zahra Raisi-Estabragh; Celeste McCracken; Mae S Bethell; Jackie Cooper; Cyrus Cooper; Mark J Caulfield; Patricia B Munroe; Nicholas C Harvey; Steffen E Petersen

    doi:10.1101/2020.06.01.20118943 Date: 2020-06-02 Source: medRxiv

    Background We examined whether the greater severity of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) amongst men and non-White ethnicities is explained by cardiometabolic, socio-economic, or behavioural factors. Methods We studied 4,510 UK Biobank participants tested for COVID-19 (positive, n=1,326). Multivariate logistic regression models including age TRANS, sex, and ethnicity were used to test whether addition of: 1)cardiometabolic factors ( diabetes MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, high cholesterol, prior myocardial infarction HP myocardial infarction MESHD, smoking, BMI); 2)25(OH)-vitamin D; 3)poor diet; 4)Townsend deprivation score; 5)housing (home type, overcrowding); or 6)behavioural factors (sociability, risk taking HP) attenuated sex/ethnicity associations with COVID-19 status. Results There was over-representation of men and non-White ethnicities in the COVID-19 positive group. Non-Whites had, on average, poorer cardiometabolic profile, lower 25(OH)-vitamin D, greater material deprivation, and were more likely to live in larger households and flats/apartments. Male TRANS sex, non-White ethnicity, higher BMI, Townsend deprivation score, and household overcrowding were independently associated with significantly greater odds of COVID-19. The pattern of association was consistent for men and women; cardiometabolic, socio-demographic and behavioural factors did not attenuate sex/ethnicity associations. Conclusions Sex and ethnicity differential pattern of COVID-19 is not adequately explained by variations in cardiometabolic factors, 25(OH)-vitamin D levels, or socio-economic factors. Investigation of alternative biological pathways and different genetic susceptibilities is warranted.

    Medical students perceptions and motivations in time of COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Patricia Tempski; Fernanda M Arantes-Costa; Renata Kobayasi; Marina AM Siqueira; Matheus M Torsani; Bianca QRC Amaro; Maria Eduarda FM Nascimento; Saulo L Siqueira; Itamar S Santos; Milton A Martins

    doi:10.1101/2020.05.28.20115956 Date: 2020-05-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: There has been a rapid increase in the number of cases of COVID19 in Latin America, Africa and Asia, in many countries that have an insufficient number of physicians and other health care personnel, and the need for the inclusion of medical students as part of the health teams is a very important issue. It has been recommended that medical students work as volunteers, have appropriate training, do not undertake any activity beyond their level of competence, have continuous supervision and adequate personal protective equipment. However, motivation of medical students must be evaluated in order to make volunteering a more evidence-based initiative. The aim of our study was to evaluate motivation of medical students to be part of the health team to help in the COVID19 pandemic. Methods and Findings: We developed a questionnaire specifically to evaluate medical students perceptions about participating in care of patients with suspected infection MESHD due to coronavirus during the COVID19 pandemic. The questionnaire had two parts: a) individual characteristics, year and geographic location of medical school; b) twenty eight statements responded on a 5 point Likert scale (totally agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree and totally disagree). To develop the questionnaire, we performed consensus meetings of a group of faculty and medical students. The questionnaire was sent to student organizations of 257 medical schools in Brazil and answered by 10,433 students. We used multinomial logistic regression models to analyse the data. Statements with greater odds ratios for participation of medical students in COVID19 pandemic were related to sense of purpose or duty (It is the duty of the medical student to put himself at the service of the population in the pandemic), altruism (I am willing to take risks HP by participating in practical in the context of pandemic), perception of good performance SERO and professional identity (I will be a better health professional for having experienced the pandemic). Males TRANS had higher odds ratios than females TRANS (1.36 [95% CI: 1.24 to 1.49] to 1.68 [95% CI: 1.47 to 1.91]). Conclusions: Medical students are motivated by sense of purpose or duty, altruism, perception of good performance SERO and values of professionalism more than their interest in learning. These results have implications in the developing of programs of volunteering and in the design of health force policies in the present pandemic and in future health emergencies.

    Predictors of adherence to public health instructions during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Yehuda Pollak; Haym Dayan; Rachel Shoham; Itai Berger

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20076620 Date: 2020-04-28 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Identifying risk factors for adherence to public health instructions for the COVID-19 pandemic may be crucial for controlling the rate of transmission TRANS and the pandemic's health and economic impacts. Objective: To determine sociodemographic, health-related, risk-related, and instruction-related factors that predict non-adherence to instructions for the COVID-19 pandemic. Design: Cross-sectional survey in Israel collected between March 28 and April 10, 2020. Setting: Population-based study. Participants: A convenience sample completed an online survey. Exposures: Sociodemographic, health-related, risk-related, and instruction-related characteristics of the participants that have been linked to adherence to medical instructions. Main Outcome and Measure: Non-adherence to instructions defined by a mean score of less than 4 on a 1 to 5 adherence scale consisting of 19 instruction items. Results: Among 654 participants (413 [64.8%] female TRANS, age TRANS 40.14 [15.23] years), 28.7% were defined as non-adherents. Non-adherence was associated with male TRANS gender TRANS [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.54, CI 1.03-2.31], not having children TRANS [aOR = 1.73, 1.13-2.65], smoking [aOR = 2.27, CI 1.42-3.62], high levels of ADHD MESHD symptoms [aOR = 1.55, CI 1.07-2.25], high levels of past risk-taking HP behavior [aOR = 1.41, CI 1.10-1.81], as well as by current high psychological distress [aOR = 1.51, CI 1.14-2.01], low perceived risk of COVID-19 [aOR = 1.52, CI 1.22-1.89], low exposure to the instructions [aOR = 1.45, CI 1.14-1.82], and low perceived efficacy of the instructions [aOR = 1.47, CI 1.16-1.85]. Adjusted OR of age TRANS, economic status, physical health status, and exposure to media did not reach the significance level. Conclusions and Relevance People with the above characteristics may have increased risk for non-adherence to public health instructions. There appears to be a need for setting out and communicating instructions to specifically targeted at-risk populations.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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