Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Disease (511)

Infections (216)

Coronavirus Infections (158)

Death (137)

Fever (101)


Human Phenotype

Fever (101)

Hypertension (86)

Cough (82)

Pneumonia (81)

Fatigue (40)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Population perspective comparing COVID-19 to all and common causes of death MESHD in seven European countries

    Authors: Bayanne Olabi; Jayshree Bagaria; Sunil Bhopal; Gwenetta Curry; Nazmy Villarroel; Raj Bhopal

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.07.20170225 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Mortality statistics on the COVID-19 pandemic have led to widespread concern and fear. To contextualise these data, we compared mortality related to COVID-19 with all and common causes of death MESHD, stratifying by age TRANS and sex. We also calculated deaths MESHD as a proportion of the population by age TRANS and sex. Methods: COVID-19 related mortality and population statistics from seven European countries were extracted: England and Wales, Italy, Germany, Spain, France, Portugal and Netherlands. Available data spanned 14-16 weeks since the first recorded deaths MESHD in each country, except Spain, where only comparable stratified data over an 8-week time period was available. The Global Burden of Disease MESHD database provided data on all deaths MESHD and those from pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, cardiovascular disease MESHD combining ischaemic heart disease MESHD and stroke MESHD stroke HP, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP, cancer, road traffic accidents and dementia MESHD dementia HP. Findings: Deaths MESHD related to COVID-19, while modest overall, varied considerably by age TRANS. Deaths MESHD as a percentage of all cause deaths MESHD during the time period under study ranged from <0.01% in children TRANS in Germany, Portugal and Netherlands, to as high as 41.65% for men aged TRANS over 80 years in England and Wales. The percentage of the population who died from COVID-19 was less than 0.2% in every age group TRANS under the age TRANS of 80. In each country, over the age TRANS of 80, these proportions were: England and Wales 1.27% males TRANS, 0.87% females TRANS; Italy 0.6% males TRANS, 0.38% females TRANS; Germany 0.13% males TRANS, 0.09% females TRANS; France 0.39% males TRANS, 0.2% females TRANS; Portugal 0.2% males TRANS, 0.15% females TRANS; and Netherlands 0.6% males TRANS, 0.4% females TRANS. Interpretation: Mortality rates from COVID-19 remains low including when compared to other common causes of death MESHD and will likely decline further while control measures are maintained. These data may help people contextualise their risk and policy makers in decision-making.

    Epidemiological Characteristics of COVID-19 under Government-mandated Control Measures in Inner Mongolia, China

    Authors: Sha Du; Haiwen Lu; Yuenan Su; Shufeng Bi; Jing Wu; Wenrui Wang; Xinhui Yu; Min Yang; Huiqiu Zheng; Xuemei Wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57472/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundThere were 75 local confirmed cases TRANS during the COVID-19 epidemic followed by an outbreak of Wuhan in Inner Mongolia. The aims of our study were to provide reference to control measures of COVID-19 and scientific information for supporting government decision-making for serious infectious disease MESHD, in remote regions with relatively insufficient medical resources like Inner Mongolia.MethodsThe data published by Internet were summarized in order to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19. The basic reproductive number (R TRANS 0 ), incubation period TRANS, time from illness onset to confirmed and the duration of hospitalization were analyzed. The composition of imported and local secondary cases TRANS and the mild/common and severe/critical cases among different ages TRANS, genders TRANS and major clinical symptoms were compared.ResultsIn 2020, from January 23 to February 19 (less than 1 month), 75 local cases of COVID-19 were confirmed in Inner Mongolia. Among them, the median age TRANS was 45 years old (34.0, 57.0), and 61.1% were male TRANS and 33 were imported (44.0%). 29 (38.7%) were detected through close contact TRANS tracking, more than 80.0% were mild/common cases. The fatality rate was 1.3% and the basic reproductive number (R TRANS 0 ) was estimated to be 2.3. The median incubation period TRANS was 8.5 days (6.0~12.0) and the maximum incubation period TRANS reached 28 days. There was a statistically difference in the incubation period TRANS between imported and local secondary cases TRANS ( P <0.001). The duration of hospitalization of patients with incubation period TRANS <8.5 days was higher than that of patients with incubation period TRANS ≥8.5 days (30.0 vs. 24.0 days).ConclusionIn Inner Mongolia, an early and mandatory control strategy by government associated with the rapidly reduced incidence of COVID-19, by which the epidemic growth was controlled completely. And the fatality rate of COVID-19 was relatively low.

    Assessment of Musculoskeletal Pain MESHD Pain HP, Fatigue MESHD Fatigue HP and Grip Strength in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19

    Authors: Sansin Tuzun; Aslinur Keles; dilara okutan; Tugbay Yildiran; Deniz Palamar

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-56548/v1 Date: 2020-08-10 Source: ResearchSquare

    IMPORTANCE Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging disease MESHD that was declared as a pandemic by WHO. Although there are many retrospective studies to present clinical aspects of the COVID-19, still the involvement of the musculoskeletal system has not been deeply investigated.OBJECTIVE To classify the symptoms of musculoskeletal system in COVID-19 patients, to evaluate myalgia MESHD myalgia HP, arthralgia MESHD arthralgia HP and physical/ mental fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, to assess handgrip muscle strength, and to examine the relationship of these parameters with the severity and laboratory values of the disease MESHD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This cross-sectional study was performed at the IUC-Cerrahpaşa Pandemic Clinic. Hospitalized 150 adults TRANS with laboratory and radiological confirmation of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) according to WHO interim guidance were included in the study. Data were recorded from May 15,2020, to June 30, 2020.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Demographic data, comorbidities, musculoskeletal symptoms, laboratory findings and CT scans were recorded. To determine the disease MESHD severity 2007 idsa/ats guidelines for community acquired pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP was used. Myalgia MESHD Myalgia HP severity was calculated by numerical rating scale (NRS). Visual analog scale and Chalder Fatigue MESHD Fatigue HP Scale (CFS) were used for fatigue MESHD fatigue HP severity determination. Handgrip strength (HGS) was measured by Jamar hand dynamometer.RESULTS 103 patients (68.7%) were nonsevere and 47 patients (31.3%) were severe. The most common musculoskeletal symptom was fatigue MESHD fatigue HP (133 [85.3%]), followed by myalgia MESHD myalgia HP (102 [68.0%]), arthralgia MESHD arthralgia HP (65 [43.3%]) and back pain MESHD back pain HP (33 [22.0%]). Arthralgia MESHD Arthralgia HP, which was mostly notable at wrist (25 [16.7%]), ankle (24 [16.0%]) and knee (23 [15.3%]) joints, showed significant correlation with disease MESHD severity. There was severe myalgia MESHD myalgia HP according to NRS regardless of disease MESHD severity. The physical fatigue MESHD fatigue HP severity score was significantly higher in severe cases, whereas no relationship was found with mental fatigue MESHD fatigue HP score. Female patients with severe infection HP infection MESHD had lower grip strength with a mean value of 18.26 kg (P= .010) in dominant hand, whereas no relationship was found between disease MESHD severity and grip strength in male TRANS patients, but the mean values in both genders TRANS and in decades appears below the specified normative values. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level and lymphocyte count were significantly correlated with lower grip strength. LDH, C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer levels were above the normal range in patients with myalgia MESHD myalgia HP, arthralgia MESHD arthralgia HP and fatigue MESHD fatigue HP. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Musculoskeletal symptoms are quite common aside from other multi-systemic symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Arthralgia MESHD Arthralgia HP, which is related to the disease MESHD severity, should be considered apart from myalgia MESHD myalgia HP. COVID-19 patients have severe ischemic myalgia MESHD myalgia HP regardless of the disease MESHD activity. Although there is a muscle weakness MESHD muscle weakness HP in all patients, the loss of muscle function is related with the disease MESHD activity especially in women. Muscular involvement in coronavirus disease MESHD is a triangle of myalgia MESHD myalgia HP, physical fatigue MESHD fatigue HP, and functional impairment.

    Self-blame regret, fear of COVID-19 and mental health during post-peak pandemic

    Authors: Hacer Belen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-56485/v1 Date: 2020-08-09 Source: ResearchSquare

    The novel Coronavirus pandemic caused strong negative emotions including fear, and stress and impacted in mental health of individuals worldwide. One of the emotions linked with mental health and infectious disease MESHD is self-blame regret. Thus, current study investigated the role of fear of COVID-19 and perceived stress in the relationship between self-blame regret and depression. A community sample of 352 individuals in Turkey (71 % female TRANS and 29 % males TRANS), ranged between in age18 and 63 (M= 28.90±8.90), completed fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19S), perceived stress (PSS-10), DASS-21 scales and responded to one item concerning the self-blame regret. Results demonstrated that self-blame regret is positively correlated with fear of COVID-19, perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Moreover, serial multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that both fear of COVID-19 and perceived stress mediated in the relationship between self-blame regret and depression. Findings and implications are discussed.

    Characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to Swedish intensive care units for COVID-19 during the first 60 days of the 2020 pandemic: a registry-based, multicenter, observational study.

    Authors: Michelle S Chew; Patrik Blixt; Rasmus Ahman; Lars Engerstrom; Henrik Andersson; Ritva Kiiski Berggren; Anders Tegnell; Sarah McIntyre

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169599 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background The mortality of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 is unclear due to variable censoring and substantial proportions of undischarged patients at follow-up. Nationwide data have not been previously reported. We studied the outcomes of Swedish patients at 30 days after ICU admission. Methods We conducted a registry-based cohort study of all adult TRANS patients admitted to Swedish ICUs from 6 March-6 May, 2020 with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 disease MESHD and complete 30-day follow-up. Data including baseline characteristics, comorbidities, intensive care treatments, organ failures and outcomes were collected. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. A multivariable model was used to determine the independent association between potential predictor variables and the primary outcome. Results A total of 1563 patients were identified. Median ICU length of stay was 12 (5-21) days, and fifteen patients remained in ICU at the time of follow-up. Median age TRANS was 61 (52-69), median Simplified Acute Physiology Score III (SAPS III) was 53 (46-59), and 66.8% had at least one comorbidity. Median PaO2/FiO2 on admission was 97.5 (75.0-140.6) mmHg, 74.7% suffered from moderate to severe acute respiratory distress HP syndrome MESHD (ARDS). The 30-day all-cause mortality was 26.7%. The majority of deaths MESHD occurred during ICU admission. Age TRANS, male TRANS sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.5 [1.1-2.1]), SAPS III score (aOR 1.3 [1.2-1.4]), severe ARDS (aOR 3.1 [2.0-4.8], specific COVID-19 pharmacotherapy (aOR 1.4 [1.0-1.9]), and CRRT (aOR 2.2 [1.6-3.0]), were associated with increased mortality. With the exception of chronic lung disease HP lung disease MESHD, the presence of comorbidities was not independently associated with mortality. Conclusions Thirty-day mortality rate in COVID-19 patients admitted to Swedish intensive care units is generally lower than previously reported. Mortality appears to be driven by age TRANS, baseline disease MESHD severity, the degree of organ failure and ICU treatment, rather than preexisting comorbidities.

    SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in decedents in a large, urban medical examiner's office

    Authors: Andrew F. Brouwer; Jeffrey L Myers; Emily T Martin; Kristine E Konopka; Adam S Lauring; Marisa C Eisenberg; Paul R Lephart; Teresa Nguyen; Andrea Jaworski; Carl J Schmidt

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20162883 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic. Given the challenges in implementing widespread SARS-CoV-2 testing, there is increasing interest in alternative surveillance strategies. Methods: We tested nasopharyngeal swabs from 821 decedents in the Wayne County Medical Examiner's office for SARS-CoV-2. All decedents were assessed by a COVID-19 checklist, and decedents flagged by the checklist (237) were preferentially tested. A random sample of decedents not flagged by the checklist were also tested (584). We statistically analyzed the characteristics of decedents ( age TRANS, sex, race, and manner of death MESHD), differentiating between those flagged by the checklist and not and between those SARS-CoV-2 positive and not. Results: Decedents were more likely to be male TRANS (70% vs 48%) and Black (55% vs 36%) than the catchment population. Seven-day average percent positivity among flagged decedents closely matched the trajectory of percent positivity in the catchment population, particularly during the peak of the outbreak (March and April). After a lull in May to mid-June, new positive tests in late June coincided with increased case detection in the catchment. We found large racial disparities in test results: despite no statistical difference in the racial distribution between those flagged and not, SARS-CoV-2 positive decedents were substantially more likely to be Black (89% vs 51%). SARS-CoV-2 positive decedents were also more likely to be older and to have died of natural causes, including of COVID-19 disease MESHD. Conclusions: Disease MESHD surveillance through medical examiners and coroners could supplement other forms of surveillance and may serve as a possible early outbreak warning sign.

    Clinical and intestinal histopathological findings in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 patients with hematochezia HP

    Authors: Margaret Cho; Weiguo Liu; Sophie Balzora; Yvelisse Suarez; Deepthi Hoskoppal; Neil D Theise; Wenqing Cao; Suparna A Sarkar

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.29.20164558 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 in the form of anorexia MESHD anorexia HP, nausea MESHD nausea, vomiting HP, vomiting MESHD, abdominal pain MESHD abdominal pain HP and diarrhea MESHD diarrhea HP are usually preceeded by respiratory manifestations and are associated with a poor prognosis. Hematochezia HP is an uncommon clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease MESHD and we hypothesize that older patients with significant comorbidites ( obesity MESHD obesity HP and cardiovascular) and prolonged hospitalization are suspectible to ischemic injury to the bowel. We reviewed the clinical course, key laboratory data including acute phase reactants, drug/medication history in two elderly TRANS male TRANS patients admitted for COVID-19 respiratory failure HP. Both patients had a complicated clinical course and suffered from hematochezia HP and acute blood SERO loss anemia MESHD anemia HP requiring blood SERO transfusion around day 40 of their hospitalization. Colonoscopic impressions were correlated with the histopathological findings in the colonic biopies and changes compatible with ischemia MESHD to nonspecific acute inflammation MESHD, edema MESHD edema HP and increased eosinophils in the lamina propria were noted.Both patients were on anticoagulants, multiple antibiotics and antifungal agents due to respiratory infections MESHD at the time of lower GI bleeding. Hematochezia HP resolved spontaneously with supportive care. Both patients eventually recovered and were discharged. Elderly TRANS patients with significant comorbid conditions are uniquely at risk for ischemic injury to the bowel. Hypoxic conditions due to COVID-19 pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP and respiratory failure HP, compounded by preexisting cardiovascular complications, and/or cytokine storm orchestrated by the viral infection MESHD leading to alteration in coagulation profile and/or drug/medication injury can be difficult to distinguish in these critically ill patients. Presentation of hematochezia HP may further increase the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19 patients, and prompt consultation and management by gastroenterology is therefore warranted.

    Perceptions and Behavioral Adoptions of the Preventive Strategies from Person-to-Person Transmission TRANS of COVID-19 among the Public in China: An Online Cross-Sectional Survey

    Authors: Xian Zhu; Yong Gan; Bo Wu; Qinyong Gou; Daikun Zheng; Chenglu Liu; Chang Xu; Zhou Tao; Hong Xu; Qian Long

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-54686/v1 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The strategies adopted to prevent spreading of COVID-19 are quarantine, social distancing and isolation of infected cases. This study investigates perceptions and behavioral adoptions of COVID-19 prevention strategies among the Chinese public and identified factors predicting individual health behavior.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey between 22 February and 5 March, 2020. We approached to urban residents aged TRANS over 18 years through snowball sampling method using the Chinese social media. The Health Belief Model was adopted to guide the analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine impacts of modifying factors (including demographic and socio-economic characteristics) and individual beliefs on individual health behavior.Results: of 5675 valid questionnaires, 95.8% of the respondents well understood the preventive measures from COVID-19 transmission TRANS, while 79.9% of the respondents adopted the behavior advised. 45.7% of the respondents perceived severity of the disease MESHD, 75.6% of the respondents perceived benefits of social constraints measures and 62.7% reported anxiety HP during the epidemic. After adjusting for modifying factors and individual beliefs, those who were female TRANS, had better income and good knowledge on preventive measures, perceived benefits on social constraint measures and did not feel anxiety HP were more likely to adopt behaviors advised.Conclusions: The Chinese public highly accepted and adopted behaviors advised to slow down the COVID-19 epidemic. People with low income or feeling anxiety HP were less likely to adopt the behavior advised. The policy support should target on the social vulnerable groups. The psychological support should be disseminated through different means, and the consultation should be provided to those who are in need.

    Clinical course and severity outcome indicators among COVID 19 hospitalized patients in relation to comorbidities distribution Mexican cohort

    Authors: Genny Carrillo; Nina Mendez Dominguez; Kassandra D Santos Zaldivar; Andrea Rochel Perez; Mario Azuela Morales; Osman Cuevas Koh; Alberto Alvarez Baeza

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165480 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: COVID-19 affected worldwide, causing to date, around 500,000 deaths MESHD. In Mexico, by April 29, the general case fatality was 6.52%, with 11.1% confirmed case TRANS mortality and hospital recovery rate around 72%. Once hospitalized, the odds for recovery and hospital death MESHD rates depend mainly on the patients' comorbidities and age TRANS. In Mexico, triage guidelines use algorithms and risk estimation tools for severity assessment and decision-making. The study's objective is to analyze the underlying conditions of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Mexico concerning four severity outcomes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort based on registries of all laboratory-confirmed patients with the COVID-19 infection MESHD that required hospitalization in Mexico. Independent variables were comorbidities and clinical manifestations. Dependent variables were four possible severity outcomes: (a) pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, (b) mechanical ventilation (c) intensive care unit, and (d) death MESHD; all of them were coded as binary Results: We included 69,334 hospitalizations of laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized patients to June 30, 2020. Patients were 55.29 years, and 62.61% were male TRANS. Hospital mortality among patients aged TRANS<15 was 9.11%, 51.99% of those aged TRANS >65 died. Male TRANS gender TRANS and increasing age TRANS predicted every severity outcome. Diabetes and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP predicted every severity outcome significantly. Obesity MESHD Obesity HP did not predict mortality, but CKD, respiratory diseases MESHD, cardiopathies were significant predictors. Conclusion: Obesity MESHD Obesity HP increased the risk for pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care admittance, but it was not a predictor of in-hospital death MESHD. Patients with respiratory diseases MESHD were less prone to develop pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, to receive mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit assistance, but they were at higher risk of in-hospital death MESHD.

    Aprepitant as a combinant with Dexamethasone reduces the inflammation MESHD via Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonism in severe to critical Covid-19 patients and potentiates respiratory recovery: A novel therapeutic approach

    Authors: Riffat Mehboob; Fridoon Ahmad; Ahad Qayyum; Muhammad Asim Rana; Muhammad Akram Tariq; Javed Akram

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166678 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Corona virus infection MESHD is a respiratory infection MESHD, compromising the normal breathing in critical patients by damaging the lungs. Researches are ongoing to find an efficient treatment strategy for this disease MESHD by either inactivating the virus or boosting the immune system of patient or by managing the cytokine storm. Aim: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of Substance P receptor Neurokinin 1 antagonist in Covid 19 patients against the usual treatments as controls. Patients and Methods: It is a randomized clinical trial, open label, having two arms, one receiving normal management and care while other receiving Neurokinin 1 Receptor antagonist, Aprepitant, in addition. Dexamethasone, a corticosteroid is also administered orally to both the groups. PCR positive, hospitalized patients with more than 18 years of age TRANS, both genders TRANS, moderate to critical phase were included. 18 patients were randomly allocated in both arms, having 10 in group A and 8 in group B. Lab investigations were performed in both the groups before and after the intervention. We report preliminary results for the comparison of Aprepitant 80 mg given once daily for 3 to 5 days vs routine management. The primary outcome was total in hospital days and duration of disease MESHD. Results: Mean age TRANS of patients in group A was 47.63 +12.07years while 60.90+ 9.75 years in group TRANS B. There were 3 males TRANS in group A and 8 in group B. There were 2 critical patients in group A and 5 in group B. Biochemical and hematological parameters in both groups didnot show much difference except the C reactive protein reduction in the intervention group, indicative of a reduced inflammation MESHD. Oxygen saturation also improved but more patients should be enrolled to get a statistically significant data. One patient was discharged from each group within 5 days and one patient expired in each. Conclusions: It is a pilot study but the findings give a strong clue for the therapeutic potential of Aprepitant. Patients who received a combination therapy of Aprepitant and Dexamethasone were recovered earlier and showed improved clinical outcomes, laboratory findings and reduced C reactive protein which is an inflammatory marker. We suggest here a study on larger sample size to get a deeper insight of its potential and efficacy. It may be more effective in severe to critical patients having respiratory difficulties.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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