Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Disease (384)

Infections (370)

Coronavirus Infections (261)

Death (236)

Fever (153)


Human Phenotype

Fever (153)

Hypertension (141)

Cough (130)

Pneumonia (126)

Anxiety (64)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 951
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    COVID-19: Beliefs in misinformation in the Australian community

    Authors: Kristen Pickles; Erin Cvejic; Brooke Nickel; Tessa Copp; Carissa Bonner; Julie Leask; Julie Ayre; Carys Batcup; Samuel Cornell; Thomas Dakin; Rachael Dodd; Jennifer MJ Isautier; Kirsten J McCaffery

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168583 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To investigate prevalence SERO of beliefs in COVID-19 misinformation and examine whether demographic, psychosocial and cognitive factors are associated with these beliefs, and how they change over time. Study design: Prospective national longitudinal community online survey. Setting: Australian general public. Participants: Adults TRANS aged TRANS over 18 years (n=4362 baseline/Wave 1; n=1882 Wave 2; n=1369 Wave 3). Main outcome measure: COVID-19 misinformation beliefs. Results: Stronger agreement with misinformation beliefs was significantly associated with younger age TRANS, male TRANS gender TRANS, lower education, and primarily speaking a language other than English at home (all p<0.01). After controlling for these variables, misinformation beliefs were significantly associated (p<0.001) with lower digital health literacy, lower perceived threat of COVID-19, lower confidence in government, and lower trust in scientific institutions. The belief that the threat of COVID-19 is greatly exaggerated increased between Wave 1-2 (p=0.002), while belief that herd immunity benefits were being covered up decreased (p<0.001). Greatest support from a list of Australian Government identified myths was for those regarding hot temperatures killing the virus (22%) and Ibuprofen exacerbates COVID-19 (13%). Lower institutional trust and greater rejection of official government accounts were associated with greater support for COVID-19 myths after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Conclusion: These findings highlight important gaps in communication effectiveness. Stronger endorsement of misinformation was associated with male TRANS gender TRANS, younger age TRANS, lower education and language other than English spoken at home. Misinformation can undermine public health efforts. Public health authorities must urgently target groups identified in this study when countering misinformation and seek ways to enhance public trust of experts, governments, and institutions.

    Insights into the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: Lessons learned from a high-risk country

    Authors: Md. Hasanul Banna Siam; Md Mahbub Hasan; Enayetur Raheem; Md. Hasinur rahaman Khan; Mahbubul H Siddiqee; Mohammad Sorowar Hossain

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.05.20168674 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background South Asian countries including Bangladesh have been struggling to control the COVID-19 pandemic despite imposing months of lockdown and other public health measures (as of June 30, 2020). In-depth epidemiological information from these countries is lacking. From the perspective of Bangladesh, this study aims to understand the epidemiological features and gaps in public health preparedness. Method This study used publicly available data (8 March-30 June 2020) from the respective health departments of Bangladesh and Johns Hopkins University Coronavirus Resource Centre. Descriptive statistics was used to report the incidence, case fatality rates (CFR), and trend analysis. Spatial distribution maps were created using ArcGIS Desktop. Infection MESHD dynamics were analyzed via SIR models. Findings In 66 days of nationwide lockdown and other public health efforts, a total of 47,153 cases and 650 deaths MESHD were reported. However, the incidence was increased by around 50% within a week after relaxing the lockdown. Males TRANS were disproportionately affected in terms of infections MESHD (71%) and deaths MESHD (77%) than females TRANS. The CFR for males TRANS was higher than females TRANS (1.38% vs 1.01%). Over 50% of infected cases were reported among young adults TRANS (20-40-year age group TRANS). Geospatial analysis between 7 June 2020 and 20 June 2020 showed that the incidences increased 4 to 10-fold in 12 administrative districts while it decreased in the epicenter. As compared to the EU and USA, trends of the cumulative incidence were slower in South Asia with lower mortality. Conclusion Our findings on gaps in public health preparedness and epidemiological characteristics would contribute to facilitating better public health decisions for managing current and future pandemics like COVID-19 in the settings of developing countries.

    Safety of hot and cold site admissions within a high volume urology department in the United Kingdom at the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Luke Stroman; Beth Russell; Pinky Kotecha; Anastasia Kantarzi; Luis Ribeiro; Bethany Jackson; Vugar Ismaylov; Adeoye Oluwakanyinsola Debo-Aina; Findlay MacAskill; Francesca Kum; Meghana Kulkarni; Raveen Sandher; Anna Walsh; Ella Doerge; Katherine Guest; Yamini Kailash; Nick Simson; Cassandra R McDonald; Elsie Mensah; Li June Tay; Ramandeep Chalokia; Sharon Clovis; Elizabeth Eversden; Jane Cossins; Jonah Rusere; Grace Zisengwe; Louisa Fleure; Leslie Cooper; Kathryn Chatterton; Amelia Barber; Catherine Roberts; Thomasia Azavedo; Jeffrey Ritualo; Harold Omana; Liza Mills; Lily Studd; Oussama El Hage; Rajesh Nair; Sachin Malde; Arun Sahai; Archana Fernando; Claire Taylor; Ben Challacombe; Ramesh Thurairaja; Rick Popert; Jonathon Olsburgh; Paul Cathcart; Christian Brown; Marios Hadjipavlou; Ella Di Benedetto; Matthew Bultitude; Jonathon Glass; Tet Yap; Rhana Zakri; Majed Shabbir; Susan Willis; Kay Thomas; Tim O'Brien; Muhammad Shamim Khan; Prokar Dasgupta

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20154203 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Contracting COVID-19 peri-operatively has been associated with a mortality rate as high as 23%. Using hot and cold sites has led to a low rate of post-operative diagnosis of COVID-19 infection MESHD and allowed safe continuation of important emergency MESHD and cancer operations in our centre. Objective: The primary objective was to determine the safety of the continuation of surgical admissions and procedures during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic using hot and cold surgical sites. The secondary objective is to determine risk factors of contracting COVID-19 to help guide further prevention. Setting: A single surgical department at a tertiary care referral centre in London, United Kingdom. Participants: All consecutive patients admitted under the care of the urology team over a 3-month period from 1st March to 31st May 2020 over both hot acute admission sites and cold elective sites were included. Exposures: COVID-19 was prevalent in the community over the three months of the study at the height of the pandemic. The majority of elective surgery was carried out in a cold site requiring patients to have a negative COVID-19 swab 72 hours prior to admission and to self-isolate for 14 days pre-operatively, whilst all acute admissions were admitted to the hot site. Main outcomes and measures: COVID-19 was detected in 1.6% of post-operative patients. There was 1 (0.2%) post-operative mortality due to COVID-19. Results: A total of 611 patients, 451 (73.8%) male TRANS and 160 (26.2%) female TRANS, with a median age TRANS of 57 (interquartile range 44-70) were admitted under the surgical team. Of these, 101 (16.5%) were admitted on the cold site and 510 (83.5%) on the hot site. Surgical procedures were performed in 495 patients of which 8 (1.6%) contracted COVID-19 post-operatively with 1 (0.2%) post-operative mortality due to COVID-19. Overall, COVID-19 was detected in 20 (3.3%) patients with 2 (0.3%) deaths MESHD. On multivariate analysis, length of stay was associated with contracting COVID-19 in our cohort (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.13-1.39). Conclusions and Relevance: Continuation of surgical procedures using hot and cold sites throughout the COVID-19 pandemic was safe practice, although the risk of COVID-19 remained and is underlined by a post-operative mortality. Reducing length of stay may be able to reduce contraction of COVID-19.

    Social Behaviors Associated with a Positive COVID-19 Test Result

    Authors: Sidra Speaker; Christine Marie Doherty; Elizabeth R Pfoh; Aaron Dunn; Bryan Hair; Victoria Shaker; Lynn Daboul; Michael B Rothberg

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168450 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To compare behaviors of individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 relative to non-infected individuals. Methods: We sent COVID positive cases and age TRANS/ gender TRANS matched controls a survey regarding their social behaviors via MyChart (online patient portal). We called cases if they did not complete the electronic survey within two days. Data was collected from May-June 2020. Survey responses for cases without a close contact TRANS and controls were compared using Pearson chi-square or Fishers Exact tests as appropriate. Results: A total of 339 participants completed the survey (113 cases, 226 controls); 45 (40%) cases had known contact with COVID-19. Cases were more likely to have recently traveled TRANS (4% vs. 0%, p=0.01) or to work outside the home (40% vs. 25%, p=0.02). There was no difference in the rates of attending private or public gatherings, mask/glove use, hand-washing, cleaning surfaces and cleaning mail/groceries between cases and controls. Conclusions: Sixty percent of cases had no known contact with COVID-19, indicating ongoing community transmission TRANS and underlining the importance of contact tracing TRANS. The greater percentage of cases who work outside the home provides further evidence for social distancing.

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

    Outcome of COVID-19 with co-existing surgical emergencies MESHD in children TRANS: our initial experiences and recommendations

    Authors: Md Samiul Hasan; Md Ayub Ali; Umama Huq

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166371 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID 19 has changed the practice of surgery vividly all over the world. Pediatric surgery is not an exception. Prioritization protocols allowing us to provide emergency MESHD surgical care to the children TRANS in need while controlling the pandemic spread. The aim of this study is to share our experiences with the outcome of children TRANS with COVID 19 who had a co existing surgical emergency MESHD. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study. We reviewed the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data of all patients admitted in our surgery department through the emergency MESHD department and later diagnosed to have COVID 19 by RT PCR. The study duration was 3 months (April 2020 to June 2020). A nasopharyngeal swab was taken from all patients irrespective of symptoms to detect SARS CoV 2 by RT PCR with the purpose of detecting asymptomatic TRANS patients and patients with atypical symptoms. Emergency MESHD surgical services were provided immediately without delay and patients with positive test results were isolated according to the hospital protocol. We divided the test positive patients into 4 age groups TRANS for the convenience of data analysis. Data were retrieved from hospital records and analyzed using SPSS (version 25) software. Ethical permission was taken from the hospital ethical review board. Results: Total patients were 32. Seven (21.9%) of them were neonates. Twenty four (75%) patients were male TRANS. The predominant diagnosis was acute abdomen MESHD followed by infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis MESHD pyloric stenosis HP (IHPS), myelomeningocele HP, and intussusception MESHD intussusception HP. Only two patients had mild respiratory symptoms (dry cough MESHD cough HP). Fever MESHD Fever HP was present in 13 (40.6%) patients. Fourteen (43.8%) patients required surgical treatment. The mean duration of hospital stay was 5.5 days. One neonate with ARM died in the postoperative ward due to cardiac arrest HP. No patient had hypoxemia HP or organ failure. Seven health care workers (5.51%) including doctors & nurses got infected with SARS Co V2 during this period. Conclusion: Our study has revealed a milder course of COVID 19 in children TRANS with minimal infectivity even when present in association with emergency MESHD surgical conditions. This might encourage a gradual restart to mitigate the impact of COVID 19 on children TRANS surgery. Keywords: COVID 19, COVID 19 in children TRANS, Children TRANS Surgery, Surgical emergency MESHD, Surgery in COVID 19 positive patients.

    Clinical course and severity outcome indicators among COVID 19 hospitalized patients in relation to comorbidities distribution Mexican cohort

    Authors: Genny Carrillo; Nina Mendez Dominguez; Kassandra D Santos Zaldivar; Andrea Rochel Perez; Mario Azuela Morales; Osman Cuevas Koh; Alberto Alvarez Baeza

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165480 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: COVID-19 affected worldwide, causing to date, around 500,000 deaths MESHD. In Mexico, by April 29, the general case fatality was 6.52%, with 11.1% confirmed case TRANS mortality and hospital recovery rate around 72%. Once hospitalized, the odds for recovery and hospital death MESHD rates depend mainly on the patients' comorbidities and age TRANS. In Mexico, triage guidelines use algorithms and risk estimation tools for severity assessment and decision-making. The study's objective is to analyze the underlying conditions of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Mexico concerning four severity outcomes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort based on registries of all laboratory-confirmed patients with the COVID-19 infection MESHD that required hospitalization in Mexico. Independent variables were comorbidities and clinical manifestations. Dependent variables were four possible severity outcomes: (a) pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, (b) mechanical ventilation (c) intensive care unit, and (d) death MESHD; all of them were coded as binary Results: We included 69,334 hospitalizations of laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized patients to June 30, 2020. Patients were 55.29 years, and 62.61% were male TRANS. Hospital mortality among patients aged TRANS<15 was 9.11%, 51.99% of those aged TRANS >65 died. Male TRANS gender TRANS and increasing age TRANS predicted every severity outcome. Diabetes and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP predicted every severity outcome significantly. Obesity MESHD Obesity HP did not predict mortality, but CKD, respiratory diseases MESHD, cardiopathies were significant predictors. Conclusion: Obesity MESHD Obesity HP increased the risk for pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care admittance, but it was not a predictor of in-hospital death MESHD. Patients with respiratory diseases MESHD were less prone to develop pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, to receive mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit assistance, but they were at higher risk of in-hospital death MESHD.

    Ethnic minority groups in England and Wales - factors affecting the size and timing of elevated COVID-19 mortality: a retrospective cohort study linking Census and death MESHD records

    Authors: Daniel Ayoubkhani; Vahe Nafilyan; Chris White; Peter Goldblatt; Charlotte Gaughan; Louisa Blackwell; Nicky Rogers; Amitava Banerjee; Kamlesh Khunti; Myer Glickman; Ben Humberstone; Ian Diamond

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20167122 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: To estimate population-level associations between ethnicity and coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, and to investigate how ethnicity-specific mortality risk evolved over the course of the pandemic. Design: Retrospective cohort study using linked administrative data. Setting: England and Wales, deaths MESHD occurring 2 March to 15 May 2020. Participants: Respondents to the 2011 Census of England and Wales aged TRANS [≤]100 years and enumerated in private households, linked to death MESHD registrations and adjusted to account for emigration before the outcome period, who were alive on 1 March 2020 (n=47,872,412). Main outcome measure: Death MESHD related to COVID-19, registered by 29 May 2020. Statistical methods: We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for ethnic minority groups compared with the White population using Cox regression models, controlling for geographical, demographic, socio-economic, occupational, and self-reported health factors. HRs were estimated on the full outcome period and separately for pre- and post-lockdown periods in the UK. Results: In the age TRANS-adjusted models, people from all ethnic minority groups were at elevated risk of COVID-19 mortality; the HRs for Black males TRANS and females TRANS were 3.13 [95% confidence interval: 2.93 to 3.34] and 2.40 [2.20 to 2.61] respectively. However, in the fully adjusted model for females TRANS, the HRs were close to unity for all ethnic groups except Black (1.29 [1.18 to 1.42]). For males TRANS, COVID-19 mortality risk remained elevated for the Black (1.76 [1.63 to 1.90]), Bangladeshi/Pakistani (1.35 [1.21 to 1.49]) and Indian (1.30 [1.19 to 1.43]) groups. The HRs decreased after lockdown for all ethnic groups, particularly Black and Bangladeshi/Pakistani females TRANS. Conclusions: Differences in COVID-19 mortality between ethnic groups were largely attenuated by geographical and socio-economic factors, although some residual differences remained. Lockdown was associated with reductions in excess mortality risk in ethnic minority populations, which has major implications for a second wave of infection MESHD or local spikes. Further research is needed to understand the causal mechanisms underpinning observed differences in COVID-19 mortality between ethnic groups.

    A Study on Survival Scenario of COVID-19 patients in India: An Application of Survival Analysis on patient demographics

    Authors: Sampurna Kundu; Kirti; Debarghya Mandal

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20162115 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    The study of transmission TRANS dynamics of COVID-19, have depicted the rate, patterns and predictions of the pandemic cases. In order to combat the disease MESHD transmission TRANS in India, the Government had declared lockdown on the 25th of March. Even after a strict lockdown nationwide, the cases are increasing and have crossed 4.5 lakh positive cases. A positive point to be noted amongst all that the recovered cases are slowly exceeding the active cases. The survival of the patients, taking death MESHD as the event that varies over age groups TRANS and gender TRANS wise is noteworthy. This study aims in carrying out a survival analysis to establish the variability in survivorship among age groups TRANS and sex, at different levels, that is, national, state and district level. The open database of COVID-19 tracker (covid19india.org) of India has been utilized to fulfill the objectives of the study. The study period has been taken from the beginning of the first case which was on 30th Jan 2020 till 30th June. Due to the amount of under-reporting of data and dropping missing columns a total of 26,815 sample patients were considered. The entry point of each patient is different and event of interest is death MESHD in the study. Kaplan Meier survival estimation, Cox proportional hazard model and multilevel survival model has been used to perform survival analysis. Kaplan Meier survival function, shows that the probability of survival has been declining during the study period of five months. A significant variability has been observed in the age groups TRANS, as evident from all the survival estimates, with increasing age TRANS the risk of dying from COVID-19 increases. When Western and Central India show ever decreasing survival rate in the framed time period then Eastern , North Eastern and Southern India shows a slightly better picture in terms of survival. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Delhi, Rajasthan and West bengal showed alrmingly poor survival as well. This study has depicted a grave scenario of gradation of ever decreasing survival rates in various regions and shows the variability by age TRANS and gender TRANS.

    Aprepitant as a combinant with Dexamethasone reduces the inflammation MESHD via Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonism in severe to critical Covid-19 patients and potentiates respiratory recovery: A novel therapeutic approach

    Authors: Riffat Mehboob; Fridoon Ahmad; Ahad Qayyum; Muhammad Asim Rana; Muhammad Akram Tariq; Javed Akram

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20166678 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: Corona virus infection MESHD is a respiratory infection MESHD, compromising the normal breathing in critical patients by damaging the lungs. Researches are ongoing to find an efficient treatment strategy for this disease MESHD by either inactivating the virus or boosting the immune system of patient or by managing the cytokine storm. Aim: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of Substance P receptor Neurokinin 1 antagonist in Covid 19 patients against the usual treatments as controls. Patients and Methods: It is a randomized clinical trial, open label, having two arms, one receiving normal management and care while other receiving Neurokinin 1 Receptor antagonist, Aprepitant, in addition. Dexamethasone, a corticosteroid is also administered orally to both the groups. PCR positive, hospitalized patients with more than 18 years of age TRANS, both genders TRANS, moderate to critical phase were included. 18 patients were randomly allocated in both arms, having 10 in group A and 8 in group B. Lab investigations were performed in both the groups before and after the intervention. We report preliminary results for the comparison of Aprepitant 80 mg given once daily for 3 to 5 days vs routine management. The primary outcome was total in hospital days and duration of disease MESHD. Results: Mean age TRANS of patients in group A was 47.63 +12.07years while 60.90+ 9.75 years in group TRANS B. There were 3 males TRANS in group A and 8 in group B. There were 2 critical patients in group A and 5 in group B. Biochemical and hematological parameters in both groups didnot show much difference except the C reactive protein reduction in the intervention group, indicative of a reduced inflammation MESHD. Oxygen saturation also improved but more patients should be enrolled to get a statistically significant data. One patient was discharged from each group within 5 days and one patient expired in each. Conclusions: It is a pilot study but the findings give a strong clue for the therapeutic potential of Aprepitant. Patients who received a combination therapy of Aprepitant and Dexamethasone were recovered earlier and showed improved clinical outcomes, laboratory findings and reduced C reactive protein which is an inflammatory marker. We suggest here a study on larger sample size to get a deeper insight of its potential and efficacy. It may be more effective in severe to critical patients having respiratory difficulties.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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