Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (33)

Cough (27)

Pneumonia (26)

Fatigue (11)

Hypertension (10)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 1 - 10 records in total 115
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    Epidemiological Characteristics of COVID-19 under Government-mandated Control Measures in Inner Mongolia, China

    Authors: Sha Du; Haiwen Lu; Yuenan Su; Shufeng Bi; Jing Wu; Wenrui Wang; Xinhui Yu; Min Yang; Huiqiu Zheng; Xuemei Wang

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-57472/v1 Date: 2020-08-11 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundThere were 75 local confirmed cases TRANS during the COVID-19 epidemic followed by an outbreak of Wuhan in Inner Mongolia. The aims of our study were to provide reference to control measures of COVID-19 and scientific information for supporting government decision-making for serious infectious disease MESHD, in remote regions with relatively insufficient medical resources like Inner Mongolia.MethodsThe data published by Internet were summarized in order to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19. The basic reproductive number (R TRANS 0 ), incubation period TRANS, time from illness onset to confirmed and the duration of hospitalization were analyzed. The composition of imported and local secondary cases TRANS and the mild/common and severe/critical cases among different ages TRANS, genders TRANS and major clinical symptoms were compared.ResultsIn 2020, from January 23 to February 19 (less than 1 month), 75 local cases of COVID-19 were confirmed in Inner Mongolia. Among them, the median age TRANS was 45 years old (34.0, 57.0), and 61.1% were male TRANS and 33 were imported (44.0%). 29 (38.7%) were detected through close contact TRANS tracking, more than 80.0% were mild/common cases. The fatality rate was 1.3% and the basic reproductive number (R TRANS 0 ) was estimated to be 2.3. The median incubation period TRANS was 8.5 days (6.0~12.0) and the maximum incubation period TRANS reached 28 days. There was a statistically difference in the incubation period TRANS between imported and local secondary cases TRANS ( P <0.001). The duration of hospitalization of patients with incubation period TRANS <8.5 days was higher than that of patients with incubation period TRANS ≥8.5 days (30.0 vs. 24.0 days).ConclusionIn Inner Mongolia, an early and mandatory control strategy by government associated with the rapidly reduced incidence of COVID-19, by which the epidemic growth was controlled completely. And the fatality rate of COVID-19 was relatively low.

    Clinical course and severity outcome indicators among COVID 19 hospitalized patients in relation to comorbidities distribution Mexican cohort

    Authors: Genny Carrillo; Nina Mendez Dominguez; Kassandra D Santos Zaldivar; Andrea Rochel Perez; Mario Azuela Morales; Osman Cuevas Koh; Alberto Alvarez Baeza

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20165480 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Introduction: COVID-19 affected worldwide, causing to date, around 500,000 deaths MESHD. In Mexico, by April 29, the general case fatality was 6.52%, with 11.1% confirmed case TRANS mortality and hospital recovery rate around 72%. Once hospitalized, the odds for recovery and hospital death MESHD rates depend mainly on the patients' comorbidities and age TRANS. In Mexico, triage guidelines use algorithms and risk estimation tools for severity assessment and decision-making. The study's objective is to analyze the underlying conditions of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Mexico concerning four severity outcomes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort based on registries of all laboratory-confirmed patients with the COVID-19 infection MESHD that required hospitalization in Mexico. Independent variables were comorbidities and clinical manifestations. Dependent variables were four possible severity outcomes: (a) pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, (b) mechanical ventilation (c) intensive care unit, and (d) death MESHD; all of them were coded as binary Results: We included 69,334 hospitalizations of laboratory-confirmed and hospitalized patients to June 30, 2020. Patients were 55.29 years, and 62.61% were male TRANS. Hospital mortality among patients aged TRANS<15 was 9.11%, 51.99% of those aged TRANS >65 died. Male TRANS gender TRANS and increasing age TRANS predicted every severity outcome. Diabetes and hypertension MESHD hypertension HP predicted every severity outcome significantly. Obesity MESHD Obesity HP did not predict mortality, but CKD, respiratory diseases MESHD, cardiopathies were significant predictors. Conclusion: Obesity MESHD Obesity HP increased the risk for pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care admittance, but it was not a predictor of in-hospital death MESHD. Patients with respiratory diseases MESHD were less prone to develop pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP, to receive mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit assistance, but they were at higher risk of in-hospital death MESHD.

    COVID-19 pandemic in Djibouti: epidemiology and the response strategy followed to contain the virus during the first two months, 17 March to 16 May 2020

    Authors: Mohamed Elhakim; Saleh Banoita Tourab; Ahmed Zouiten

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.03.20167692 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: First cases of COVID-19 were reported from Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and it progressed rapidly. On 30 January, WHO declared the new disease MESHD as a PHEIC, then as a Pandemic on 11 March. By mid-March, the virus spread widely; Djibouti was not spared and was hit by the pandemic with the first case detected on 17 March. Djibouti worked with WHO and other partners to develop a preparedness and response plan, and implemented a series of intervention measures. MoH together with its civilian and military partners, closely followed WHO recommended strategy based on four pillars: testing, isolating, early case management, and contact tracing TRANS. From 17 March to 16 May, Djibouti performed the highest per capita tests in Africa and isolated, treated and traced the contacts TRANS of each positive case, which allowed for a rapid control of the epidemic. Methods: COVID-19 data included in this study was collected through MoH Djibouti during the period from 17 March to 16 May 2020. Results: A total of 1,401 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 were included in the study with 4 related deaths MESHD (CFR: 0.3%) and an attack rate TRANS of 0.15%. Males TRANS represented (68.4%) of the cases, with the age group TRANS 31-45 years old (34.2%) as the most affected. Djibouti conducted 17,532 tests, and was considered as a champion for COVID-19 testing in Africa with 18.2 tests per 1000 habitant. All positive cases were isolated, treated and had their contacts traced TRANS, which led to early and proactive diagnosis of cases and in turn yielded up to 95-98% asymptomatic TRANS cases. Recoveries reached 69% of the infected cases with R0 TRANS (0.91). The virus was detected in 4 regions in the country, with the highest percentage in the capital (83%). Conclusion: Djibouti responded to COVID-19 pandemic following an efficient and effective strategy, using a strong collaboration between civilian and military health assets that increased the response capacities of the country. Partnership, coordination, solidarity, proactivity and commitment were the pillars to confront COVID-19 pandemic.

    Reflecting on the first two COVID-19 deaths MESHD in Uganda: a public health case study

    Authors: Joseph Kawuki; Quraish Sserwanja; Nathan Obore; Johnson Wang; Joseph Lau

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52459/v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective: COVID-19 being a rapidly evolving pandemic, early lessons from the first deaths MESHD must be learnt to help feed into the public health guidelines. This study, therefore, aims to present the first two deaths MESHD due to COVID-19 in Uganda and their public health relevance.Cases: The first case was a 34-year female TRANS and support staff at a health center II. She first presented with COVID-19 like symptoms before dying on 21st July 2020. The second case was an 80 years old female TRANS, who also presented with COVID-19 like symptoms before dying on 24th July 2020. The postmortem samples of both cases were confirmed TRANS positive for COVID-19. Conclusion: This study identifies a need for timely identification and testing of COVID-19 suspects, strengthening of health center capacity, as well as more awareness for effective prevention and control of COVID-19.

    A Comprehensive Evaluation of Early Predictors of Disease Progression MESHD in Patients with COVID-19: A Case Control Study

    Authors: Qiang Tang; Yanwei Liu; Yingfeng Fu; Ziyang Di; Kailiang Xu; Bo Tang; Hui Wu; Maojun Di

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-50527/v1 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19) has become an unprecedented public health crisis with nearly 16 million confirmed cases TRANS and 630,000 deaths MESHD worldwide. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological and treatment data of COVID-19 patients consecutively enrolled from January 18 to May 15, 2020, in Taihe and Jinzhou central hospital. Results: Of all 197 patients, the median age TRANS was 66.5 years (IQR 7-76), and 120 (60.9%) patients were males TRANS. We identified 88 (44.7%) of 197 COVID-19 patients as the disease progression MESHD (aggravation) cases. The aggravation cases tend to have more medical comorbidity: hypertension MESHD hypertension HP (34.1%), diabetes (30.7%), and presented with dyspnea MESHD dyspnea HP (34.1%), neutrophilia HP (60.2%), and lymphocytopenia (73.9%), compared with those without. And the patients with disease progression MESHD showed significantly higher level of Fibrinogen (Fbg), D-dimer, IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and serum SERO ferritin, and were more prone to develop organ damage in the liver, kidney, and heart (P<0.05). Multivariable regression showed that advanced age TRANS, comorbidities, lymphopenia MESHD lymphopenia HP, and elevated level of Fbg, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Cardiac troponin (CTnI), IL-6, serum SERO ferritin were the significant predictors of disease progression MESHD. Further, we investigated antibody SERO responses to SARS-CoV-2 and found that the levels of IgM and IgG were significantly higher in the disease progression MESHD cases compared to non-progression cases from 3 weeks after symptom onset TRANS. In addition, the disease progression MESHD group tended to peak later and has a more vigorous IgM/IgG response against SARS-CoV-2. Further, we performed Kaplan-Meier analysis and found that 61.6% of patients had not experienced ICU transfer or survival from hospital within 25 days from admission.Conclusions: Investigating the potential factors of advanced age TRANS, comorbidities and elevated level of IL-6, serum SERO ferritin and Kaplan-Meier analysis enables early identification and management of patients with poor prognosis. Detection of the dynamic antibody SERO may offer vital clinical information during the course of SARS-CoV-2 and provide prognostic value for patients infection MESHD.  

    Predicting Critical State after COVID-19 Diagnosis Using Real-World Data from 20152 Confirmed US Cases TRANS

    Authors: Mike Domenik Rinderknecht; Yannick Klopfenstein

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.24.20155192 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    The global COVID-19 pandemic caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has led to over 10 million confirmed cases TRANS, half a million deaths MESHD, and is challenging healthcare systems worldwide. With limited medical resources, early identification of patients with a high risk of progression to severe disease MESHD or a critical state is crucial. We present a prognostic model predicting critical state within 28 days following COVID-19 diagnosis trained on data from US electronic health records (EHR) within IBM Explorys, including demographics, comorbidities, symptoms, laboratory test results, insurance types, and hospitalization. Our entire cohort included 20152 COVID-19 cases, of which 3160 patients went into critical state or died. Random, stratified train-test splits were repeated 100 times to obtain a distribution of performance SERO. The median and interquartile range of the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC) and the precision recall SERO curve (PR AUC) were 0.863 [0.857, 0.866] and 0.539 [0.526, 0.550], respectively. Optimizing the decision threshold lead to a sensitivity SERO of 0.796 [0.775, 0.821] and a specificity of 0.784 [0.769, 0.805]. Good model calibration was achieved, showing only minor tendency to over-forecast probabilities above 0.6. The validity of the model was demonstrated by the interpretability analysis confirming existing evidence on major risk factors (e.g., higher age TRANS and weight, male TRANS gender TRANS, diabetes, cardiovascular disease MESHD disease, and chronic kidney HP kidney disease MESHD). The analysis also revealed higher risk for African Americans and "self-pay patients". To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest dataset based on EHR used to create a prognosis model for COVID-19. In contrast to large-scale statistics computing odds ratios for individual risk factors, the present model combining a rich set of covariates can provide accurate personalized predictions enabling early treatment to prevent patients from progressing to a severe or critical state.

    Epidemiological investigation and prevention control analysis of longitudinal distribution of COVID-19 in Henan province, China

    Authors: Xianguang Yang; Xuelin Chen; Cuihong Ding; Zhibo Bai; Jingyi Zhu; Gege Sun; Guoying Yu

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.25.20161844 Date: 2020-07-27 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To analyze the vertical distribution of six cities in Henan Province,China from January 21, 2020 to June17, 2020: Xinyang City (including Gushi County), Nanyang City (including Dengzhou City), Zhumadian City (including XincaiCounty), Zhengzhou City (including Gongyi City), Puyang City and Anyang City (including Hua County) corona virus disease MESHD 2019(COVID-19) epidemiological characteristics and local prevention and control measures.Methods: Data were collected and analyzed through the COVID-19 information published on the official websites of health commissions of Henan Province and six cities.Results: As of June 17, 2020, the cumulative incidence rate of COVID-19 in Henan province was 1.33/100,000, the cumulative cure rate was 98.27%, the cumulative mortality rate was 1.73%, the age TRANS range of diagnosed cases was 5days-85years old, and the male TRANS to female TRANS ratio was 1.09:1.The confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 in Henan province were mainly imported cases from Hubei, accounting for 87.74%, of which the highest number was 70.50% in Zhumadian. The contact cases and local cases increased in a fluctuating manner over time.Significance: In this paper, epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in Henan province from the outbreak to the effective control within 60 days were analyzed, and effective and distinctive prevention and control measures in various cities were summarized, so as to provide a favorable reference for the further formulation and implementation of epidemic prevention and control and a valuable theoretical basis for effectively avoiding the second outbreak.

    Factors Associated with COVID-19 Mitigation Behavior among US Adults TRANS

    Authors: Debra Lemke; Klaus Lemke

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.20.20157925 Date: 2020-07-25 Source: medRxiv

    In January 2020, the US declared the coronavirus outbreak a public health emergency MESHD and subsequently the CDC issued guidelines for personal mitigation behavior, such as mask-wearing, hand-washing, and social-distancing. We examine individual socio-economic factors that potentially predict mitigation compliance using public data. We hypothesize that health risk factors, presence of symptoms, and psychological wellbeing predict mitigation behavior. Understanding what factors are associated with mitigation behavior will be important for policy makers in their efforts to curb the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic prompted strong mitigation behavior by adults TRANS, especially among females TRANS, non-whites, urban dwellers, and the psychological unwell. Other positive predictors were post-secondary education and higher income. Health symptoms and clinical risk factors did not predict increased mitigation practices, nor did age TRANS 65+ and proximity to infected persons. Our study findings are congruent with a report that pointed to a lack of increased pandemic mitigation practices in households with confirmed infections TRANS infections MESHD and health risks. Our results also point to lower levels of psychological resilience, lower socio-economic status, and non-urban location as potential explanatory factors for lack of mitigation behavior.

    COVID-19: A Data-Driven Mean-Field-Type Game Perspective

    Authors: Hamidou Tembine

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.23.20160853 Date: 2020-07-24 Source: medRxiv

    In this article, a class of mean-field-type games with discrete-continuous state spaces is considered. We establish Bellman systems which provide sufficiency conditions for mean-field-type equilibria in state-and-mean-field-type feedback form. We then derive unnormalized master adjoint systems (MASS). The methodology is shown to be flexible enough to capture multi-class interaction in epidemic propagation in which multiple authorities are risk-aware atomic decision-makers and individuals are risk-aware non-atomic decision-makers. Based on MASS, we present a data-driven modelling and analytics for mitigating Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). The model integrates untested cases, age TRANS-structure, decision-making, gender TRANS, pre-existing health conditions, location, testing capacity, hospital capacity, mobility map on local areas, in-city, inter-cities, and international. It shown that the data-driven model can capture most of the reported data on COVID-19 on confirmed cases TRANS, deaths MESHD, recovered, number of testing and number of active cases in 66+ countries. The model also reports non-Gaussianity and non-exponential properties in 15+ countries.

    Disparity in the quality of COVID-19 data reporting across India

    Authors: Varun Vasudevan; Abeynaya Gnanasekaran; Varsha Sankar; Siddarth A. Vasudevan; James Zou

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.19.20157248 Date: 2020-07-21 Source: medRxiv

    Background. Transparent and accessible reporting of COVID-19 data is critical for public health efforts. Each state and union territory (UT) of India has its own mechanism for reporting COVID-19 data, and the quality of their reporting has not been systematically evaluated. We present a comprehensive assessment of the quality of COVID-19 data reporting done by the Indian state and union territory governments. This assessment informs the public health efforts in India and serves as a guideline for pandemic data reporting by other governments. Methods. We designed a semi-quantitative framework to assess the quality of COVID-19 data reporting done by the states and union territories of India. This framework captures four key aspects of public health data reporting - availability, accessibility, granularity, and privacy. We then used this framework to calculate a COVID-19 Data Reporting Score (CDRS, ranging from 0 to 1) for 29 states based on the quality of COVID-19 data reporting done by the state during the two-week period from 19 May to 1 June, 2020. States that reported less than 10 total confirmed cases TRANS as of May 18 were excluded from the study. Findings. Our results indicate a strong disparity in the quality of COVID-19 data reporting done by the state governments in India. CDRS varies from 0.61 (good) in Karnataka to 0.0 (poor) in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, with a median value of 0.26. Only ten states provide a visual representation of the trend in COVID-19 data. Ten states do not report any data stratified by age TRANS, gender TRANS, comorbidities or districts. In addition, we identify that Punjab and Chandigarh compromised the privacy of individuals under quarantine by releasing their personally identifiable information on the official websites. Across the states, the CDRS is positively associated with the state's sustainable development index for good health and well-being (Pearson correlation: r=0.630, p=0.0003). Interpretation. The disparity in CDRS across states highlights three important findings at the national, state, and individual level. At the national level, it shows the lack of a unified framework for reporting COVID-19 data in India, and highlights the need for a central agency to monitor or audit the quality of data reporting done by the states. Without a unified framework, it is difficult to aggregate the data from different states, gain insights from them, and coordinate an effective nationwide response to the pandemic. Moreover, it reflects the inadequacy in coordination or sharing of resources among the states in India. Coordination among states is particularly important as more people start moving across states in the coming months. The disparate reporting score also reflects inequality in individual access to public health information and privacy protection based on the state of residence. Funding. J.Z. is supported by NSF CCF 1763191, NIH R21 MD012867-01, NIH P30AG059307, NIH U01MH098953 and grants from the Silicon Valley Foundation and the Chan-Zuckerberg Initiative.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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