Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Cough (28)

Fever (28)

Pneumonia (21)

Hypertension (15)

Fatigue (7)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
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    Outcome of Conservative Therapy in COVID-19 Patients Presenting with Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Authors: DM Shalimar; Manas Vaishnav; Anshuman Elhence; Ramesh Kumar; Srikant Mohta; Chandan Palle; Peeyush Kumar; Mukesh Ranjan; Tanmay Vajpai; Shubham Prasad; Jatin Yegurla; Anugrah Dhooria; Vikas Banyal; Samagra Agarwal; Rajat Bansal; Sulagna Bhattacharjee; Richa Aggarwal; Kapil D Soni; Swetha Rudravaram; Ashutosh K Singh; Irfan Altaf; Avinash Choudekar; Soumya J Mahapatra; Deepak Gunjan; Saurabh Kedia; Govind Makharia; Anjan Trikha; Pramod Garg; Anoop Saraya

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.06.20169813 Date: 2020-08-07 Source: medRxiv

    Background: There is a paucity of data on the management of gastrointestinal(GI) bleeding in patients with COVID-19 amid concerns about the risk of transmission TRANS during endoscopic procedures.We aimed to study the outcomes of conservative treatment for GI bleeding in patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective analysis, 24 of 1342(1.8%) patients with COVID-19, presenting with GI bleeding from 22ndApril to 22ndJuly 2020, were included. Results: The mean age TRANS of patients was 45.8+/-12.7 years; 17(70.8%) were males TRANS; upper GI(UGI) bleeding: lower GI(LGI) 23:1. Twenty-two(91.6%) patients had evidence of cirrhosis HP- 21 presented with UGI bleeding while one had bleeding from hemorrhoids MESHD hemorrhoids HP. Two patients without cirrhosis HP were presumed to have non-variceal bleeding. The medical therapy for UGI bleeding included vasoconstrictors- somatostatin in 17(73.9%) and terlipressin in 4(17.4%) patients. All patients with UGI bleeding received proton pump inhibitors and antibiotics. Packed red blood SERO cells(PRBCs), fresh frozen plasma SERO and platelets were transfused in 14(60.9%), 3(13.0%) and 3(13.0%), respectively. The median PRBCs transfused was 1(0-3) unit(s). The initial control of UGI bleeding was achieved in all 23 patients and none required an emergency MESHD endoscopy. At 5-day follow-up, none rebled or died. Two patients later rebled, one had intermittent bleed due to gastric antral vascular ectasia MESHD, while another had rebleed 19 days after discharge. Three(12.5%) cirrhosis HP patients succumbed to acute hypoxemic respiratory failure HP during hospital stay. Conclusion: Conservative management strategies including pharmacotherapy, restrictive transfusion strategy, and close hemodynamic monitoring can successfully manage GI bleeding in COVID-19 patients and reduce need for urgent endoscopy.

    Perceptions and Behavioral Adoptions of the Preventive Strategies from Person-to-Person Transmission TRANS of COVID-19 among the Public in China: An Online Cross-Sectional Survey

    Authors: Xian Zhu; Yong Gan; Bo Wu; Qinyong Gou; Daikun Zheng; Chenglu Liu; Chang Xu; Zhou Tao; Hong Xu; Qian Long

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-54686/v1 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The strategies adopted to prevent spreading of COVID-19 are quarantine, social distancing and isolation of infected cases. This study investigates perceptions and behavioral adoptions of COVID-19 prevention strategies among the Chinese public and identified factors predicting individual health behavior.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey between 22 February and 5 March, 2020. We approached to urban residents aged TRANS over 18 years through snowball sampling method using the Chinese social media. The Health Belief Model was adopted to guide the analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine impacts of modifying factors (including demographic and socio-economic characteristics) and individual beliefs on individual health behavior.Results: of 5675 valid questionnaires, 95.8% of the respondents well understood the preventive measures from COVID-19 transmission TRANS, while 79.9% of the respondents adopted the behavior advised. 45.7% of the respondents perceived severity of the disease MESHD, 75.6% of the respondents perceived benefits of social constraints measures and 62.7% reported anxiety HP during the epidemic. After adjusting for modifying factors and individual beliefs, those who were female TRANS, had better income and good knowledge on preventive measures, perceived benefits on social constraint measures and did not feel anxiety HP were more likely to adopt behaviors advised.Conclusions: The Chinese public highly accepted and adopted behaviors advised to slow down the COVID-19 epidemic. People with low income or feeling anxiety HP were less likely to adopt the behavior advised. The policy support should target on the social vulnerable groups. The psychological support should be disseminated through different means, and the consultation should be provided to those who are in need.

    Social Behaviors Associated with a Positive COVID-19 Test Result

    Authors: Sidra Speaker; Christine Marie Doherty; Elizabeth R Pfoh; Aaron Dunn; Bryan Hair; Victoria Shaker; Lynn Daboul; Michael B Rothberg

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168450 Date: 2020-08-06 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To compare behaviors of individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 relative to non-infected individuals. Methods: We sent COVID positive cases and age TRANS/ gender TRANS matched controls a survey regarding their social behaviors via MyChart (online patient portal). We called cases if they did not complete the electronic survey within two days. Data was collected from May-June 2020. Survey responses for cases without a close contact TRANS and controls were compared using Pearson chi-square or Fishers Exact tests as appropriate. Results: A total of 339 participants completed the survey (113 cases, 226 controls); 45 (40%) cases had known contact with COVID-19. Cases were more likely to have recently traveled TRANS (4% vs. 0%, p=0.01) or to work outside the home (40% vs. 25%, p=0.02). There was no difference in the rates of attending private or public gatherings, mask/glove use, hand-washing, cleaning surfaces and cleaning mail/groceries between cases and controls. Conclusions: Sixty percent of cases had no known contact with COVID-19, indicating ongoing community transmission TRANS and underlining the importance of contact tracing TRANS. The greater percentage of cases who work outside the home provides further evidence for social distancing.

    Seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State

    Authors: Hussaini Majiya; Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko; Vincent Tochukwu Balogu; Dickson Achimugu Musa; Ibrahim Maikudi Salihu; Abdullahi Abubakar Kawu; Ishaq Yakubu Bashir; Aishat Rabiu Sani; John Baba; Amina Tako Muhammad; Fatima Ladidi Jibril; Ezekiel Bala; Nuhu George Obaje; Yahaya Badeggi Aliyu; Ramatu Gogo Muhammad; Hadiza Mohammed; Usman Naji Gimba; Abduljaleel Uthman; Hadiza Muhammad Liman; Sule Alfa Alhaji; Joseph Kolo James; Muhammad Muhammad Makusidi; Mohammed Danasabe Isah; Ibrahim Abdullahi; Umar Ndagi; Bala Waziri; Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah; Naomi John Dadi-Mamud; Kolo Ibrahim; Abu Kasim Adamu

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.04.20168112 Date: 2020-08-05 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic is ongoing, and to know how far the virus has spread in Niger State, Nigeria, a pilot study was carried out to determine the COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO, patterns, dynamics, and risk factors in the state. A cross sectional study design and clustered-stratified-Random sampling strategy were used. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Rapid Test SERO Kits (Colloidal gold immunochromatography lateral flow system) were used to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in the blood SERO of sampled participants across Niger State as from 26th June 2020 to 30th June 2020. The test kits were validated using the blood SERO samples of some of the NCDC confirmed positive and negative COVID-19 cases in the State. COVID-19 IgG and IgM Test results were entered into the EPIINFO questionnaire administered simultaneously with each test. EPIINFO was then used for both the descriptive and inferential statistical analyses of the data generated. The seroprevalence SERO of COVID-19 in Niger State was found to be 25.41% and 2.16% for the positive IgG and IgM respectively. Seroprevalence SERO among age groups TRANS, gender TRANS and by occupation varied widely. A seroprevalence SERO of 37.21% was recorded among health care workers in Niger State. Among age groups TRANS, COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO was found to be in order of 30-41 years (33.33%) > 42-53 years (32.42%) > 54-65 years (30%) > 66 years and above (25%) > 6-17 years (19.20%) > 18-29 years (17.65%) > 5 years and below (6.66%). A seroprevalence SERO of 27.18% was recorded for males TRANS and 23.17% for females TRANS in the state. COVID-19 asymptomatic TRANS rate in the state was found to be 46.81%. The risk analyses showed that the chances of infection MESHD are almost the same for both urban and rural dwellers in the state. However, health care workers and those that have had contact with person (s) that travelled TRANS out of Nigeria in the last six (6) months are twice ( 2 times) at risk of being infected with the virus. More than half (54.59%) of the participants in this study did not practice social distancing at any time since the pandemic started. Discussions about knowledge, practice and attitude of the participants are included. The observed Niger State COVID-19 seroprevalence SERO means that the herd immunity for COVID-19 is yet to be achieved and the population is still susceptible for more infection MESHD and transmission TRANS of the virus. If the prevalence SERO stays as reported here, the population will definitely need COVID-19 vaccines when they become available. Niger State should fully enforce the use of face/nose masks and observation of social/physical distancing in gatherings including religious gatherings in order to stop or slow the spread of the virus.

    A Study on Survival Scenario of COVID-19 patients in India: An Application of Survival Analysis on patient demographics

    Authors: Sampurna Kundu; Kirti; Debarghya Mandal

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.20162115 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    The study of transmission TRANS dynamics of COVID-19, have depicted the rate, patterns and predictions of the pandemic cases. In order to combat the disease MESHD transmission TRANS in India, the Government had declared lockdown on the 25th of March. Even after a strict lockdown nationwide, the cases are increasing and have crossed 4.5 lakh positive cases. A positive point to be noted amongst all that the recovered cases are slowly exceeding the active cases. The survival of the patients, taking death MESHD as the event that varies over age groups TRANS and gender TRANS wise is noteworthy. This study aims in carrying out a survival analysis to establish the variability in survivorship among age groups TRANS and sex, at different levels, that is, national, state and district level. The open database of COVID-19 tracker (covid19india.org) of India has been utilized to fulfill the objectives of the study. The study period has been taken from the beginning of the first case which was on 30th Jan 2020 till 30th June. Due to the amount of under-reporting of data and dropping missing columns a total of 26,815 sample patients were considered. The entry point of each patient is different and event of interest is death MESHD in the study. Kaplan Meier survival estimation, Cox proportional hazard model and multilevel survival model has been used to perform survival analysis. Kaplan Meier survival function, shows that the probability of survival has been declining during the study period of five months. A significant variability has been observed in the age groups TRANS, as evident from all the survival estimates, with increasing age TRANS the risk of dying from COVID-19 increases. When Western and Central India show ever decreasing survival rate in the framed time period then Eastern , North Eastern and Southern India shows a slightly better picture in terms of survival. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Delhi, Rajasthan and West bengal showed alrmingly poor survival as well. This study has depicted a grave scenario of gradation of ever decreasing survival rates in various regions and shows the variability by age TRANS and gender TRANS.

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection MESHD Among Symptom-Free Healthcare Workers

    Authors: Ryan T. Demmer; Angela Ulrich; Talia Wiggen; Ali Strickland; Brianna Naumchik; Shalini Kulasingam; Steven D. Stovitz; Clarisse Marotz; Pedro Belda-Ferre; Greg Humphrey; Peter De Hoff; Louise Laurent; Susan Kline; Rob Knight

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.31.20166066 Date: 2020-08-04 Source: medRxiv

    Importance: Current evidence suggests that transmission TRANS of severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is possible among symptom-free individuals but limited data are available on this topic in healthcare workers (HCW). The quality and acceptability of self-collected nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) is unknown. Objective: To estimate the prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD and to assess the acceptability of self-collected NPS among HCW. Design: Cross-sectional convenience sample enrolled between April 20th and June 24th, 2020. We had >95% power to detect at least one positive test if the true underlying prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV2 was > 1%. Setting: The metropolitan area surrounding Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Participants: HCW free of self-reported upper respiratory symptoms were recruited. Exposures: Participants completed questionnaires regarding demographics, household characteristics, personal protective equipment (PPE) utilization and comorbidities. Outcomes: A participant self-collected nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) was obtained. SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was assessed via polymerase chain reaction. NPS discomfort was assessed on a scale of 1 (no discomfort) - 10 (extreme discomfort). NPS duration and depth into the nasopharynx, and willingness to perform future self-collections were assessed. Results: Among n=489 participants 80% were female TRANS and mean age TRANS+/-SD was 41+/-11. Participants reported being physicians (14%), nurse practitioners (8%), physicians assistants (4%), nurses (51%), medics (3%), or other which predominantly included laboratory technicians and administrative roles (22%). Exposure to a known/suspected COVID-19 case in the 14 days prior to enrollment was reported in 40% of participants. SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any participant. The mean+/-SD discomfort level of the NPS was 4.5+/-2.0. 95% of participants reported that their self-swab was longer than or equal to the duration of patient swabs they had previously performed, and 89% reported the depth to be deeper than or equal to the depth of previous patient swabs. Over 95% of participants reported a willingness to repeat a self-collected NP swab in the future. Conclusions and Relevance: The point prevalence SERO of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD was likely very low in symptom-free Minnesota healthcare workers from April 20th and June 24th, 2020. Self-collected NP swabs are well-tolerated and a viable alternative to provider-collected swabs to preserve PPE.

    COVID-19: Knowledge, Perceptions and Attitudes of Residents in the Northern Region of Ghana, West Africa

    Authors: Courage Kosi Setsoafia Saba; Joseph Nzeh; Francis Addy; Akosua Bonsu Karikari

    id:10.20944/preprints202008.0060.v1 Date: 2020-08-02 Source: preprints.org

    Africa is gradually becoming an epicentre for the COVID-19 pandemic. From the current trends of the disease MESHD, Africa might be the last hardest hit continent. While scientific investigations are ongoing to develop effective management through medications and vaccines, existing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes could be harnessed to develop an effective strategy to curb community transmission TRANS of the COVID-19. The present study assessed the awareness level, perceptions and attitudes of people living in rural, peri-urban and urban communities in Northern Ghana and their preparedness for the prevention and containment of COVID-19. We conducted a face-to-face interview and administered 553 semi-structured questionnaires in eighteen (18) rural and peri-urban/urban communities under Tolon District, Kumbungu Districts, Sagnarigu Municipality, Savelugu Municipality and Tamale Metropolis from 23rd of April to 8th of June 2020. The percentage of male TRANS to female TRANS among the respondents was 56.8% and 43.2%, respectively. Nearly half (41%) of the respondents had no formal education and 91.3% of them were Muslims. Most of the respondents (85%) held the view that COVID-19 is a punishment from God. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the time rural and peri-urban/urban communities first heard of COVID-19. Majority (63%) of the rural respondents depended on radio, while the peri-urban/urban respondents (51%) relied on television for information on COVID-19. All respondents were aware of COVID-19 and 91.7% could mention at least two symptoms of the disease MESHD but 18% believed there was no COVID-19 in Ghana. Most of the respondents (69.6%) believed they will not contract the virus. Our findings may provide useful data to government and other stakeholders in the COVID-19 fight.

    Regional now- and forecasting for data reported with delay: A case study in COVID-19 infections MESHD

    Authors: Giacomo De Nicola; Marc Schneble; Göran Kauermann; Ursula Berger

    id:2007.16058v1 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: arXiv

    Governments around the world continue to act to contain and mitigate the spread of COVID-19. The rapidly evolving situation compels officials and executives to continuously adapt policies and social distancing measures depending on the current state of the spread of the disease TRANS disease MESHD. In this context, it is crucial for policymakers to have a firm grasp on what the current state of the pandemic is as well as to have an idea of how the infective situation is going to unfold in the next days. However, as in many other situations of compulsorily-notifiable diseases MESHD and beyond, cases are reported with delay to a central register, with this delay deferring an up-to-date view of the state of things. We provide a stable tool for monitoring current infection MESHD levels as well as predicting infection MESHD numbers in the immediate future at the regional level. We accomplish this through nowcasting of cases that have not yet been reported as well as through forecasting of future infections MESHD. The two steps are also combined in forenowcasting. We apply our model to German data, for which our focus lies in explaining and predicting infectious behaviour by district, age group TRANS and gender TRANS.

    Phylogenomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes from western India reveals unique linked mutations

    Authors: Dhiraj Paul; Kunal Jani; Janesh Kumar; Radha Chauhan; Vasudevan Seshadri; Girdhari Lal; Rajesh Karyakarte; Suvarna Joshi; Murlidhar Tambe; Sourav Sen; Santosh Karade; Kavita Bala Anand; Shelinder Pal Singh Shergill; Rajiv Mohan Gupta; Manoj Kumar Bhat; Arvind Sahu; Yogesh S Shouche

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.30.228460 Date: 2020-07-31 Source: bioRxiv

    India has become the third worst-hit nation by the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, we investigated the molecular, phylogenomic, and evolutionary dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in western India, the most affected region of the country. A total of 90 genomes were sequenced. Four nucleotide variants, namely C241T, C3037T, C14408T (Pro4715Leu), and A23403G (Asp614Gly), located at 5UTR, Orf1a, Orf1b, and Spike protein regions of the genome, respectively, were predominant and ubiquitous (90%). Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes revealed four distinct clusters, formed owing to different variants. The major cluster (cluster 4) is distinguished by mutations C313T, C5700A, G28881A are unique patterns and observed in 45% of samples. We thus report a newly emerging pattern of linked mutations. The predominance of these linked mutations suggests that they are likely a part of the viral fitness landscape. A novel and distinct pattern of mutations in the viral strains of each of the districts was observed. The Satara district viral strains showed mutations primarily at the 3' end of the genome, while Nashik district viral strains displayed mutations at the 5' end of the genome. Characterization of Pune strains showed that a novel variant has overtaken the other strains. Examination of the frequency of three mutations i.e., C313T, C5700A, G28881A in symptomatic versus asymptomatic TRANS patients indicated an increased occurrence in symptomatic cases, which is more prominent in females TRANS. The age TRANS-wise specific pattern of mutation is observed. Mutations C18877T, G20326A, G24794T, G25563T, G26152T, and C26735T are found in more than 30% study samples in the age group TRANS of 10-25. Intriguingly, these mutations are not detected in the higher age TRANS range 61-80. These findings portray the prevalence SERO of unique linked mutations in SARS-CoV-2 in western India and their prevalence SERO in symptomatic patients. ImportanceElucidation of the SARS-CoV-2 mutational landscape within a specific geographical location, and its relationship with age TRANS and symptoms, is essential to understand its local transmission TRANS dynamics and control. Here we present the first comprehensive study on genome and mutation pattern analysis of SARS-CoV-2 from the western part of India, the worst affected region by the pandemic. Our analysis revealed three unique linked mutations, which are prevalent in most of the sequences studied. These may serve as a molecular marker to track the spread of this viral variant to different places.

    Serial population based serosurvey of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 SERO in a low and high transmission TRANS area of Karachi, Pakistan

    Authors: Muhammad Imran Nisar; Nadia Ansari; Mashal Amin; Farah Khalid; Aneeta Hotwani; Najeeb Rehman; Arjumand Rizvi; Arslan Memon; Zahoor Ahmed; Ashfaque Ahmed; Junaid Iqbal; Ali Faisal Saleem; Uzma Bashir Aamir; Daniel B Larremore; Bailey Fosdick; Fyezah Jehan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.28.20163451 Date: 2020-07-29 Source: medRxiv

    Background Pakistan is among the first low- and middle-income countries affected by COVID-19 pandemic. Monitoring progress through serial sero-surveys SERO, particularly at household level, in densely populated urban communities can provide insights in areas where testing is non-uniform. Methods Two serial cross-sectional household surveys were performed in April (phase 1) and June (phase 2) 2020 each in a low- (District Malir) and high- transmission TRANS (District East) area of Karachi, Pakistan. Household were selected using simple random sampling (Malir) and systematic random sampling (East). Individual participation rate from consented households was 82.3% (1000/1215 eligible) in phase 1 and 76.5% (1004/1312 eligible) in phase 2. All household members or their legal guardians answered questions related to symptoms of Covid-19 and provided blood SERO for testing with commercial Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay SERO targeting combined IgG and IgM. Seroprevalence SERO estimates were computed for each area and time point independently. Given correlation among household seropositivity values, a Bayesian regression model accounting for household membership, age TRANS and gender TRANS was used to estimate seroprevalence SERO. These estimates by age TRANS and gender TRANS were then post-stratified to adjust for the demographic makeup of the respective district. The household conditional risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD was estimated for each district and its confidence interval were obtained using a non-parametric bootstrap of households. Findings Post-stratified seroprevalence SERO was estimated to be 0.2% (95% CI 0-0.7) in low-and 0.4% (95% CI 0 - 1.3) in high- transmission TRANS areas in phase 1 and 8.7% (95% CI 5.1-13.1) in low- and 15.1% (95% CI 9.4 -21.7) in high- transmission TRANS areas in phase 2, with no consistent patterns between prevalence SERO rates for males TRANS and females TRANS. Conditional risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD estimates (possible only for phase 2) were 0.31 (95% CI 0.16-0.47) in low- and 0.41(95% CI 0.28-0.52) in high- transmission TRANS areas. Of the 166 participants who tested positive, only 9(5.4%) gave a history of any symptoms. Interpretation A large increase in seroprevalence SERO to SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD is seen, even in areas where transmission TRANS is reported to be low. Mostly the population is still seronegative. A large majority of seropositives do not report any symptoms. The probability that an individual in a household is infected, given that another household member is infected is high in both the areas. These results emphasise the need to enhance surveillance activities of COVID-19 especially in low- transmission TRANS sites and provide insights to risks of household transmission TRANS in tightly knit neighbourhoods in urban LMIC settings.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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