Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Fever (37)

Cough (36)

Pneumonia (26)

Hypertension (20)

Fatigue (9)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 141 - 150 records in total 192
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    Integrated analyses of single-cell atlases reveal age TRANS, gender TRANS, and smoking status associations with cell type-specific expression of mediators of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry and highlights inflammatory programs in putative target cells

    Authors: Christoph Muus; Malte D Luecken; Gokcen Eraslan; Avinash Waghray; Graham Heimberg; Lisa Sikkema; Yoshihiko Kobayashi; Eeshit Dhaval Vaishnav; Ayshwarya Subramanian; Christopher Smillie; Karthik Jagadeesh; Elizabeth Thu Duong; Evgenij Fiskin; Elena Torlai Triglia; Christophe Becavin; Meshal Ansari; Peiwen Cai; Brian Lin; Justin Buchanan; Jian Shu; Adam L Haber; Hattie Chung; Daniel T Montoro; Taylor Adams; Hananeh Aliee; Samuel J Allon; Zaneta Andrusivova; Ilias Angelidis; Orr Ashenberg; Kevin Bassler; Inbal Benhar; Joseph Bergenstrahle; Ludvig Bergenstrahle; Liam Bolt; Emelie Braun; Linh T Bui; Mark Chaffin; Evgeny Chichelnitskiy; Joshua Chiou; Thomas M Conlon; Michael S Cuoco; Marie Deprez; David S Fischer; Astrid Gillich; Joshua Gould; Austin J Gutierrez; Arun C Habermann; Tyler Harvey; Peng He; Xiaomeng Hou; Lijuan Hu; Alok Jaiswal; Peiyong Jiang; Theodoros Kapellos; Christin S Kuo; Ludvig Larsson; Michael A Leney-Greene; Kyungtae Lim; Monika Litvinukova; Ji Lu; Leif S Ludwig; Wendy Luo; Henrike Maatz; Elo Maddissoon; Lira Mamanova; Kasidet Manakongtreecheep; Ian Mbano; Alexi M McAdams; Ross J Metzger; Ahmad N Nabhan; Sarah K Nyquist; Jose Ordovas-Montanes; Lolita Penland; Olivier B Poirion; Segio Poli; CanCan Qi; Daniel Reichart; Ivan Rosas; Jonas Schupp; Rahul Sinha; Rene V Sit; Kamil Slowikowski; Michal Slyper; Neal Smith; Alex Sountoulidis; Maximilian Strunz; Dawei Sun; Carlos Talavera-Lopez; Peng Tan; Jessica Tantivit; Kyle J Travaglini; Nathan R Tucker; Katherine Vernon; Marc H Wadsworth III; Julia Waldman; Xiuting Wang; Wenjun Yan; Ali Onder Yildirim; William Zhao; Carly G K Ziegler; Aviv Regev; - The NHLBI LungMAP Consortium; - The Human Cell Atlas Lung Biological Network

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.19.049254 Date: 2020-04-20 Source: bioRxiv

    The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, creates an urgent need for identifying molecular mechanisms that mediate viral entry, propagation, and tissue pathology. Cell membrane bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and associated proteases, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and Cathepsin L (CTSL), were previously identified as mediators of SARS-CoV2 cellular entry. Here, we assess the cell type-specific RNA expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and CTSL through an integrated analysis of 107 single-cell and single-nucleus RNA-Seq studies, including 22 lung and airways datasets (16 unpublished), and 85 datasets from other diverse organs. Joint expression of ACE2 and the accessory proteases identifies specific subsets of respiratory epithelial cells as putative targets of viral infection MESHD in the nasal passages, airways, and alveoli. Cells that co-express ACE2 and proteases are also identified in cells from other organs, some of which have been associated with COVID-19 transmission TRANS or pathology, including gut enterocytes, corneal epithelial cells, cardiomyocytes, heart pericytes, olfactory sustentacular cells, and renal epithelial cells. Performing the first meta-analyses of scRNA-seq studies, we analyzed 1,176,683 cells from 282 nasal, airway, and lung parenchyma samples from 164 donors spanning fetal, childhood, adult TRANS, and elderly TRANS age groups TRANS, associate increased levels of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and CTSL in specific cell types with increasing age TRANS, male TRANS gender TRANS, and smoking, all of which are epidemiologically linked to COVID-19 susceptibility and outcomes. Notably, there was a particularly low expression of ACE2 in the few young pediatric samples in the analysis. Further analysis reveals a gene expression program shared by ACE2+TMPRSS2+ cells in nasal, lung and gut tissues, including genes that may mediate viral entry, subtend key immune functions, and mediate epithelial-macrophage cross-talk. Amongst these are IL6, its receptor and co-receptor, IL1R, TNF response pathways, and complement genes. Cell type specificity in the lung and airways and smoking effects were conserved in mice. Our analyses suggest that differences in the cell type-specific expression of mediators of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry may be responsible for aspects of COVID-19 epidemiology and clinical course, and point to putative molecular pathways involved in disease susceptibility and pathogenesis.

    Knowledge and practices towards COVID-19 during its outbreak: a multinational cross-sectional study

    Authors: Abdallah Y Naser; Eman Zmaily Dahmash; Hassan Alwafi; Zahra Khalil Alsairafi; Ahmed M. Al Rajeh; Yosra J Alhartani; Fawaz Mohammad Turkistani; Hamad S. Alyami

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.13.20063560 Date: 2020-04-17 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The emergence of COVID-19 globally coupled with its unknown aetiology and its high transmission TRANS rate has created an unprecedented state of emergency worldwide. Public knowledge and awareness about COVID-19 are essential in suppressing its pandemic status. Method: A cross-sectional study using an online survey was conducted between 19th of March and 6th of April 2020 in three Middle Eastern countries (Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait) to explore the knowledge and practices of Middle Eastern population towards COVID-19. A previously developed questionnaire was used. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors of COVID-19 knowledge. Results: A total of 1,208 participants were involved in this study from the three countries (Jordan = 389, Saudi Arabia = 433, and Kuwait = 386). The majority of participants (n = 810, 67.2%) were females TRANS and aged TRANS 30 to 49 years (n = 501, 41.5%). Participants had moderate overall COVID-19 knowledge with a mean score of 7.93 (SD = 1.72) out of 12, 66.1%. Participants had better knowledge about disease prevention and control with 83.0%, whereas the lowest sub-scale scores were for questions about disease transmission TRANS routes (43.3%). High education level was an important predictor of greater COVID-19 knowledge scores (p<0.01). Conclusion: Middle Eastern participants are of a relatively low level of knowledge about COVID-19, particularly regarding its transmission TRANS routes. Policymakers are recommended to develop informative COVID-19 related campaigns targeted specifically towards university students, unemployed individuals and those with lower levels of education.

    A Cross-Sectional Study on Oyo State Health Care Workers Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Corona Virus Disease MESHD 2019(COVID-19)

    Authors: Olubunmi Ayinde; Aishat Bukola Usman; Posi Aduroja; Abass Gbolahan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-23501/v1 Date: 2020-04-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Health workers are at the front line of the COVID-19 outbreak response and as such are exposed to hazards that put them at risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD. Poor knowledge among HCWs and inadequate infection control practices may lead to the increased risk of COVID-19 nosocomial transmission TRANS. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of Oyo state health care workers on COVID-19 as part of emergency preparedness.Methods A hospital based cross-sectional survey was conducted in selected health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. A total of 350 HCWs were assessed for the knowledge, attitudes and practices on COVID-19 using a semi-structured questionnaire. Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify predictors of good knowledge at 95% confidence interval. with Epi-info software.Results The level of good knowledge on COVID-19 was 78.6% and positive attitude was 64% among the respondents. Majority of respondents practice safe measures in the prevention of COVID-19 including washing of hands (95.3%), routine cleaning (82.7%) and high-level disinfection (83.9%). However, use of personal protective equipment (PPE) was low (56.8%). Predictors of good knowledge on COVID-19 were being a female TRANS HCW [Adjusted Odd’s Ratio(AOR) = 6.5 95% CI 1.0-17.2], ≥ 10 years length in service[AOR = 5.2 95%CI 2.7–18.9] and being a secondary or tertiary facility[ AOR = 3.6 95%CI 1.7–32.2].Conclusions Overall knowledge and attitude were satisfactory however the practices of HCWs on the use of personal protective equipment was not satisfactory. Effective infection control measures including regular skill-based training and/or orientation for all categories of HCWs can improve infection control practices in health facilities.

    Examining the Beliefs and Perceptions Associated to the COVID-19 Virus in the Wouri Division, Littoral Region of Cameroon

    Authors: Exodus Akwa Teh; Rene Ning Teh

    id:10.20944/preprints202004.0287.v1 Date: 2020-04-16 Source: Preprints.org

    COVID-19 virus has become a global threat to the human population and society. The virus which originated from China in December, 2019 has swept across continents in the world. Cameroon has been one of the countries with a high infectious rate in the recent period having a majority of the infectious cases in the Littoral region. Lack of awareness play a major role in the rise of COVID-19 cases. This paper examined the perceptions of the existence and spread of the COVID-19 virus in Wouri Division, Littoral Region of Cameroon. The study involved a qualitative survey designed by online questionnaires which were forwarded to the inhabitants of Wouri Division through e-mails and ‘WhatsApp’. The survey included the perception of the origin and existence of the COVID-19 virus, its mode of disease transmission TRANS, preventive and control measures. A total of 573 respondents were obtained (317 females TRANS and 256 males TRANS). From the results, although a greater proportion of the respondents showed knowledge towards the COVID- 19 virus existence, transmission TRANS and prevention that could lead to a reduction in the spread of the disease TRANS, our findings suggested that there’s more need for public sensitisation of the virus especially its method of transmission TRANS, control and prevention.

    Epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 in the Philippines

    Authors: Mark Marcos Alipio; Joseph Dave Mendoza Pregoner

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.12.20053926 Date: 2020-04-16 Source: medRxiv

    The outbreak of Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (Covid-2019) is a source of great concern in the Philippines. In this paper, we described the epidemiological characteristics of the laboratory-confirmed patients with Covid-2019 in the Philippines as of April 3, 2020 and provided recommendations on how to limit the spread of the disease TRANS. Data from the DOH NCOV tracker and University of the Philippines Covid-2019 tracker were extracted, from its initiation (January 30, 2020) until the most recent situation report (April 3, 2020). The total number of cases and deaths MESHD were stratified by sex, age TRANS, and region of the Philippines. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the demographic profile of the confirmed cases TRANS. Case fatality rate, in percent, was calculated by dividing the total number of deaths to the total number of confirmed cases TRANS. Results revealed that a total of 3,018 cases of Covid-2019 spread were confirmed across 17 regions in the Philippines. These cases occurred over the course of 73 days through person-to-person transmission TRANS, highlighting an extremely high infectivity rate. The 144 deaths accounted for, equate to 4.51 case fatality rate, seemingly lower compared to its predecessors, severe acute respiratory syndrome MESHD (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome MESHD ( MERS MESHD), but higher compared to that of United States of America, Germany, mainland China, and neighboring Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, and Thailand. Of the 3,018 confirmed cases TRANS, majority were male TRANS, elderly TRANS, and diagnosed in Metro Manila region. Case fatality rates were higher in male TRANS and highest among elderly TRANS and Filipinos in the Ilocos region. With the surge on the number of cases, precautionary measures should remain a responsibility, and protocols for prevention need to be set. Adherence to infection control guidelines such as but not limited to frequently handwashing for at least 20 seconds, observing coughing HP etiquette, wearing of masks, and social distancing should be maintained in order to contain the disease.

    Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Health Care Workers in the Prevention of COVID-19

    Authors: Shokofeh Maleki; Farid Najafi; Khosro Farhadi; Mahmoud Fakhri; Fatemeh Hosseini; Mehdi Naderi

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-23113/v1 Date: 2020-04-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Preserving the health of health care workers (HCWs) has now become one of the main concerns of all countries affected by the coronavirus. Maintaining the health of the hospital workers, especially the medical staff, requires knowledge and awareness, followed by proper behavior for disease prevention and transmission TRANS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and behavior of HCWs to ward patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19.Methods A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of 191 HCWs of Taleghani Hospital in Kermanshah toward patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Responses to the checklists of demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward patients with COVID-19 were analyzed by SPSS 22.Results 191 subjects (118 females TRANS and 73 males TRANS) with a mean age TRANS of 34.7 ± 8.6 years participated in this study. The level of knowledge of HCWs in this study was excellent regarding the ways of transmitting the disease such as close contact TRANS with the patient with suspected Coronavirus (99%). According to their positions, participants had a significant difference in their knowledge of asymptomatic TRANS patients (P < 0.001). The study found that 14% of the HCWs did not have the necessary knowledge about the symptoms of COVID-19, indicating poor knowledge of the HCWs at the beginning of the disease epidemic. The results obtained from the evaluation of HCWs attitudes showed that some workers believed that protective and preventive measures should only be applied when managing people with severe symptoms (P < 0.001). Finally, there was a significant difference in behavior and adherence to protective and preventive measures between the participants when facing patients with severe symptoms and without symptoms of COVID-19 (P = 0.05).Conclusion Knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward COVID-19 infection MESHD and facing patients with severe and overt symptoms among health care workers in the hospital were Excellent, but these were insufficient MESHD for patients without obvious symptoms. These results suggest that additional training regarding subclinical cases of Coronavirus is needed for HCWs to protect them from contamination and prevent disease transmission TRANS to their colleagues and other patients as well.

    Household Secondary Attack Rate TRANS of COVID-19 and Associated Determinants

    Authors: Qin-Long Jing; Ming-Jin Liu; Jun Yuan; Zhou-Bin Zhang; An-Ran Zhang; Natalie E Dean; Lei Luo; Meng-Meng Ma; Ira Longini; Eben Kenah; Ying Lu; Yu Ma; Neda Jalali; Li-Qun Fang; Zhi-Cong Yang; Yang Yang

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.11.20056010 Date: 2020-04-15 Source: medRxiv

    Background: As of April 2, 2020, the global reported number of COVID-19 cases has crossed over 1 million with more than 55,000 deaths. The household transmissibility TRANS of SARS-CoV-2, the causative pathogen, remains elusive. Methods: Based on a comprehensive contact-tracing TRANS dataset from Guangzhou, we estimated both the population-level effective reproductive number TRANS and individual-level secondary attack rate TRANS ( SAR) in the household TRANS setting. We assessed age TRANS effects on transmissibility TRANS and the infectivity of COVID-19 cases during their incubation period TRANS. Results: A total of 195 unrelated clusters with 212 primary cases TRANS, 137 nonprimary (secondary or tertiary) cases and 1938 uninfected close contacts TRANS were traced TRANS. We estimated the household SAR TRANS to be 13.8% (95% CI: 11.1-17.0%) if household contacts TRANS are defined as all close relatives TRANS and 19.3% (95% CI: 15.5-23.9%) if household contacts TRANS only include those at the same residential address TRANS as the cases, assuming a mean incubation period TRANS of 4 days and a maximum infectious period TRANS of 13 days. The odds of infection among children TRANS (<20 years old) was only 0.26 (95% CI: 0.13-0.54) times of that among the elderly TRANS ([≥]60 years old). There was no gender TRANS difference in the risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS. COVID-19 cases were at least as infectious during their incubation period TRANS as during their illness. On average, a COVID-19 case infected 0.48 (95% CI: 0.39-0.58) close contacts TRANS. Had isolation not been implemented, this number increases to 0.62 (95% CI: 0.51-0.75). The effective reproductive number TRANS in Guangzhou dropped from above 1 to below 0.5 in about 1 week. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 is more transmissible in households than SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and the elderly TRANS [≥]60 years old are the most vulnerable to household transmission TRANS. Case finding and isolation alone may be inadequate to contain the pandemic and need to be used in conjunction with heightened restriction of human movement as implemented in Guangzhou.

    COVID-19 outbreak at a large homeless shelter in Boston: Implications for universal testing

    Authors: Travis P. Baggett; Harrison Keyes; Nora Sporn; Jessie M. Gaeta

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.12.20059618 Date: 2020-04-15 Source: medRxiv

    The circumstances of homelessness create the potential for rapid transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 in this vulnerable population. Upon observing a cluster of COVID-19 cases from a single large homeless shelter in Boston, Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program conducted symptom assessments and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 among all guests residing at the shelter over a 2-day period. Of 408 participants, 147 (36.0%) were PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2. COVID-positive individuals were more likely to be male TRANS (p<0.001) but did not differ significantly from COVID-negative individuals with respect to other demographic and clinical characteristics. Cough HP (7.5%), shortness of breath MESHD (1.4%), and fever HP fever MESHD (0.7%) were all uncommon among COVID-positive individuals. Our findings illustrate the rapidity with which COVID-19 can be widely transmitted in a homeless shelter setting and suggest that universal PCR testing, rather than a symptom triggered approach, may be a better strategy for identifying and mitigating COVID-19 among people experiencing homelessness.

    A Preliminary Assessment of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Knowledge and Perceptions in Nigeria

    Authors: Peter O OLAPEGBA; Olusola AYANDELE; Samson Olowo KOLAWOLE; Rotimi OGUNTAYO; Joshua Chiroma GANDI; Abdullahi Lawal DANGIWA; Iboro Friday Akpan OTTU; Steven Kator IORFA

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.11.20061408 Date: 2020-04-15 Source: medRxiv

    This study assessed knowledge and perceptions about COVID-19 among the general public in Nigeria during the initial week of the pandemic lockdown in the country. From March 28 to April 4, 2020, this cross-sectional survey used an anonymous online questionnaire to collect data from respondents within Nigeria. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 1357 respondents, aged TRANS 15-70 years, from 180 cities and towns within Nigeria. Study data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Approximately more than half (57.02%) of the respondents were male TRANS with a high level of education (48.86% bachelor degree or higher). Approximately half of the respondents (46.94%) opined that COVID-19 was a biological weapon designed by the Chinese government. About 94% of the respondents identified contact with airborne droplets via breathing, sneezing HP, or coughing HP as the most common mode of transmission TRANS; most respondents associated COVID-19 with coughing HP (81.13%), shortness of breath MESHD (73.47%) and fever HP fever MESHD (62.79%). Regular hand washing and social distancing were selected by most respondents (94.25%) as a way of preventing infection MESHD whereas 11.86% reported consuming gins, garlic, ginger, herbal mixtures and African foods/soups as preventive measures against COVID-19. The majority of the respondents (91.73%) thought COVID-19 is deadly, and most respondents (84.3%) got 4 or more answers correctly. It was also observed that the traditional media (TV/Radio) is the most common source of health information about COVID-19 (93.5%). Findings revealed that Nigerians have relatively high knowledge, mostly derived from traditional media, about COVID-19. Their perceptions of COVID-19 bear implications across public health initiatives, compliance with precautionary behavior as well as bilateral relations with foreign nations. Evidence-based campaign should be intensified to remove misconceptions and promote precautionary measures.

    The epidemic situation of COVID-19 in Gansu Province, China — a Big Data analysis of the National Health Information Platform

    Authors: Xuanchen Yan; Jianjian Wang; Jingwen Yao; Janne Estill; Shouyuan Wu; Jie Lu; Baoping Liang; Hongmin Li; Shengxin Tao; Huanli Bai; Hongliang Liu; Yaolong Chen

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-23005/v1 Date: 2020-04-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    Objective This study is to explore the patient characteristics and transmission chains TRANS of COVID-19 in the population of Gansu province, and support decision-making. Methods We collected data from Gansu National Health Information Platform. We conducted a case-control study, including patients with COVID-19 confirmed between January 23 and February 6, 2020 as cases, and all inpatients, outpatients and emergency patients except those with COVID-19 during the same period as the control group. We compared the gender TRANS and age TRANS between two groups. We also described the incubation period TRANS, consultation time and sources of infection MESHD in the cases, and calculated the secondary cases TRANS that occurred within Gansu for each imported case. Results We found no differences in gender TRANS (P=0.107). COVID-19 cases were more likely to occur among the middle- aged TRANS people (P=0.038). Twenty-eight (41.8%) of the 67 cases had a history of direct exposure in Wuhan. Twenty-five (52.2%) cases came from ten families, and we found no clear reports of modes of transmission TRANS other than family clusters. The largest number of secondary cases TRANS linked to a single source was nine. Conclusion There is no difference in gender TRANS between the cases and controls. However, COVID-19 patients were slightly younger than those attending for other reasons. The most common suspected mode of transmission TRANS was through family cluster. Gansu and other settings worldwide should continue to strengthen the utilization of big data in epidemic control.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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