Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Cough (34)

Fever (34)

Pneumonia (25)

Hypertension (18)

Fatigue (9)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 151 - 160 records in total 184
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    Seeding COVID-19 across sub-Saharan Africa: an analysis of reported importation events across 40 countries

    Authors: Laura A Skrip; Prashanth Selvaraj; Brittany Hagedorn; Andre Lin Ouédraogo; Navideh Noori; Dina Mistry; Jamie Bedson; Laurent Hébert-Dufresne; Samuel V Scarpino; Benjamin Muir Althouse

    doi:10.1101/2020.04.01.20050203 Date: 2020-04-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background: The first case of COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was reported by Nigeria on February 27, 2020. While case counts in the entire region remain considerably less than those being reported by individual countries in Europe, Asia, and the Americas, SSA countries remain vulnerable to COVID morbidity and mortality due to systemic healthcare weaknesses, less financial resources and infrastructure to address the new crisis, and untreated comorbidities. Variation in preparedness and response capacity as well as in data availability has raised concerns about undetected transmission TRANS events. Methods: Confirmed cases TRANS reported by SSA countries were line-listed to capture epidemiological details related to early transmission TRANS events into and within countries. Data were retrieved from publicly available sources, including institutional websites, situation reports, press releases, and social media accounts, with supplementary details obtained from news articles. A data availability score was calculated for each imported case in terms of how many indicators (sex, age TRANS, travel TRANS history, date of arrival in country, reporting date of confirmation, and how detected) could be identified. We assessed the relationship between time to first importation and overall Global Health Security Index (GHSI) using Cox regression. K-means clustering grouped countries according to healthcare capacity and health and demographic risk factors. Results A total of 13,201 confirmed cases TRANS of COVID-19 were reported by 48 countries in SSA during the 54 days following the first known introduction to the region. Out of the 2516 cases for which travel TRANS history information was publicly available, 1129 (44.9%) were considered importation events. At the regional level, imported cases tended to be male TRANS (65.0%), were a median 41.0 years old (Range: 6 weeks - 88 years), and most frequently had recent travel history TRANS from Europe (53.1%). The median time to reporting an introduction was 19 days; a country's time to report its first importation was not related to GHSI, after controlling for air traffic. Countries that had, on average, the highest case fatality rates, lowest healthcare capacity, and highest probability of premature death MESHD due to non-communicable diseases were among the last to report any cases. Conclusions: Countries with systemic, demographic, and pre-existing health vulnerabilities to severe COVID-related morbidity and mortality are less likely to report any cases or may be reporting with limited public availability of information. Reporting on COVID detection and response efforts, as well as on trends in non-COVID illness and care-seeking behavior, is critical to assessing direct and indirect consequences and capacity needs in resource- constrained settings. Such assessments aid in the ability to make data-driven decisions about interventions, country priorities, and risk assessment.

    Ultra-High-Resolution CT Follow-Up in Patients with Imported Early-Stage Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) Related Pneumonia HP

    Authors: Yu Lin; Shaomao Lv; Jinan Wang; Jianghe Kang; Youbin Zhang; Zhipeng Feng

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.31.20048256 Date: 2020-04-06 Source: medRxiv

    Background: An ongoing outbreak of mystery pneumonia MESHD pneumonia HP in Wuhan was caused by coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19). The infectious disease MESHD disease has spread TRANS globally and become a major threat to public health. Purpose: We aim to investigate the ultra-high-resolution CT (UHR-CT) findings of imported COVID-19 related pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD from the initial diagnosis to early-phase follow-up. Methods: This retrospective study included confirmed cases TRANS with early-stage COVID-19 related pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD imported from the epicenter. Initial and early-phase follow-up UHR-CT scans (within 5 days) were reviewed for characterizing the radiological findings. The normalized total volumes of ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and consolidations were calculated and compared during the radiological follow-up by artificial-intelligence-based methods. Results: Eleven patients (3 males TRANS and 8 females TRANS, aged TRANS 32-74 years) with confirmed COVID-19 were evaluated. Subpleural GGOs with inter/intralobular septal thickening were typical imaging findings. Other diagnostic CT features included distinct margins (8/11, 73%), pleural retraction MESHD or thickening (7/11, 64%), intralesional vasodilatation (6/11, 55%). Normalized volumes of pulmonary GGOs (p=0.003) and consolidations (p=0.003) significantly increased during the CT follow-up. Conclusions: The abnormalities of GGOs with peripleural distribution, consolidated areas, septal thickening, pleural HP pleural involvement MESHD and intralesional vasodilatation on UHR-CT indicate the diagnosis of COVID-19. COVID-19 cases could manifest significantly progressed GGOs and consolidations with increased volume during the early-phase CT follow-up.

    Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus in semen and testicular biopsy specimen of COVID-19 patients

    Authors: Ci Song; Yan Wang; Weiqin Li; Bicheng Hu; Guohua Chen; Ping Xia; Wei Wang; Chaojun Li; zhibin hu; Xiaoyu Yang; Bing Yao; Yun Liu

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.31.20042333 Date: 2020-04-04 Source: medRxiv

    Background: As of March 11, 2020, the COVID-19 outbreak was declared as a pandemic. Expending our understanding of the transmission TRANS routes of the viral infection MESHD is crucial in controlling the outbreak. It is unclear whether the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) can directly infect the testes MESHD or male TRANS genital tract and be sexually transmitted from males TRANS. Methods: From January 31 to March 14, 2020, 12 patients in recovery and one patient died of COVID-19 were included in this descriptive study. The clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, chest CT scans and outcome data were recorded. To examine whether there is sexual transmission TRANS from male TRANS, we employed realtime polymerase chain reaction testing (RT-PCR) to detect 2019-nCov in semen or testicular biopsy specimen. Findings: The age TRANS range of the 12 patients in recovery was 22-38 years. None of the patients developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia HP pneumonia MESHD. As of March 14, 2020, ten patients discharged from the hospital while the rest 2 had developed into recovery stage. All of the patients in recovery tested negative for 2019-nCoV RNA in semen samples. Another died patient was 67 years old, who died in March 10, 2020 and tissue sample via testicular biopsy was tested negative for viral RNA. Conclusion: No positive RT-PCR result was found in the semen or testicular biopsy specimen. The results from this study show no evidence of sexual transmission TRANS of 2019-nCov from males TRANS.

    Descriptive study of the first 63 cases of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 outbreak at the transportation hub city Xuzhou in China

    Authors: Liang Wang; Jiawei Yan; Zhanzhong Liu; Jianye Yang; Yangguang Du; Michael J. Wise; Mingqiu Wu; Xiangyu Xi; Xiao Zhang; Bing Gu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-21379/v1 Date: 2020-04-04 Source: ResearchSquare

    A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak from Wuhan, China has, as of February 13, 2020, infected nearly 60,000 people in China with the death toll passing 1300. The virus is also spreading worldwide rapidly, with 490 confirmed cases TRANS in 24 countries and 1 death MESHD at current stage. Numerous studies have recently been published in terms of genome structure, transmission TRANS, infection mechanism, and drug development of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In this study, we performed a descriptive study by focusing on the first 63 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Xuzhou, a major city and a transportation hub with 10.44 million population (National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2019) on the east coast of China. Among the 63 patients with confirmed COVID-19, the median age TRANS is 45-year-old and 49.21% are male TRANS. 23 cases (36.51%) are imported. 23 cases (36.51%) were confirmed between from January 26 to 31 while 40 cases (63.49%) from February 1 to 10. The mean period from isolation to confirmation is 4.95 days. Among the ten administrative divisions of Xuzhou city, Suining county (n=17) and Pizhou City (n=15) have the most cases while Tongshan district has none. A representative familial cluster was analysed in detail in order to get a better understanding of the transmission TRANS routes of the virus. Clinical symptoms associated with COVID-19 in 41 confirmed cases TRANS were analysed, which could provide a meaningful understanding during the initial screening of the disease. In sum, this study provides an epidemiological overview of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Xuzhou, the economic hub of Huaihai Economic Zone (HEZ) and an important transportation center in China. Considering the ongoing situation of this newly emerged infection MESHD both domestically and internationally, more efforts should be required to reduce the transmission TRANS of the virus so as to avoid further casualties, economic losses, and global pandemic.Authors Liang Wang, Jiawei Yan, and Zhanzhong Liu contributed equally to this study.

    Use of Available Data To Inform The COVID-19 Outbreak in South Africa: A Case Study

    Authors: Vukosi Marivate; Herkulaas MvE Combrink

    id:2004.04813v2 Date: 2020-04-02 Source: arXiv

    The coronavirus disease MESHD (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2020. Currently, there are no vaccines or treatments that have been approved after clinical trials. Social distancing measures, including travel TRANS bans, school closure, and quarantine applied to countries or regions are being used to limit the spread of the disease TRANS and the demand on the healthcare infrastructure. The seclusion of groups and individuals has led to limited access to accurate information. To update the public, especially in South Africa, announcements are made by the minister of health daily. These announcements narrate the confirmed COVID-19 cases and include the age TRANS, gender TRANS, and travel TRANS history of people who have tested positive for the disease. Additionally, the South African National Institute for Communicable Diseases updates a daily infographic summarising the number of tests performed, confirmed cases TRANS, mortality rate, and the regions affected. However, the age TRANS of the patient and other nuanced data regarding the transmission TRANS is only shared in the daily announcements and not on the updated infographic. To disseminate this information, the Data Science for Social Impact research group at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, has worked on curating and applying publicly available data in a way that is computer-readable so that information can be shared to the public - using both a data repository and a dashboard. Through collaborative practices, a variety of challenges related to publicly available data in South Africa came to the fore. These include shortcomings in the accessibility, integrity, and data management practices between governmental departments and the South African public. In this paper, solutions to these problems will be shared by using a publicly available data repository and dashboard as a case study.

    COVID-19: Projecting the impact in Rohingya refugee camps and beyond

    Authors: Shaun A Truelove; Orit Abrahim; Chiara Altare; Stephen A Lauer; Andrew Azman; Paul B Spiegel

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.27.20045500 Date: 2020-03-30 Source: medRxiv

    Background: COVID-19 could have even more dire consequences in refugees camps than in general populations. Bangladesh has confirmed COVID-19 cases and hosts almost 1 million Rohingya refugees from Myanmar with 600,000 concentrated in Kutupalong-Balukhali Expansion Site ( age TRANS mean: 21 years, sd: 18 years, 52% female TRANS). Projections of the potential COVID-19 burden, epidemic speed, and healthcare needs in such settings are critical for preparedness planning. Methods and Findings: To explore the potential impact of the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 in Kutupalong-Balukhali Expansion Site, we used a stochastic SEIR transmission TRANS model with parameters derived from emerging literature and age TRANS as the primary determinant of infection MESHD severity. We considered three scenarios with different assumptions about the transmission TRANS potential of SARS-CoV-2. From the simulated infections, we estimated hospitalizations, deaths, and healthcare needs expected, age TRANS-adjusted for the Kutupalong-Balukhali Expansion Site age TRANS distribution. Our findings suggest that a large-scale outbreak is likely after a single introduction of the virus into the camp with 61-92% of simulations leading to at least 1,000 people infected across scenarios. On average, in the first 30 days of the outbreak, we expect 18 (95% prediction interval (PI), 2-65), 54 (95% PI, 3-223), and 370 (95% PI, 4-1,850) people infected in the low, moderate, and high transmission TRANS scenarios, respectively. These reach 421,500 (95% PI, 376,300-463,500), 546,800 (95% PI, 499,300-567,000) and 589,800 (95% PI, 578,800-595,600) people infected MESHD in 12 months, respectively. Hospitalization needs exceeded the existing hospitalization capacity of 340 beds after 55-136 days between the low and high transmission TRANS scenarios. We estimate 2,040 (95% PI, 1,660-2,500), 2,650 (95% PI, 2,030-3,380), and 2,880 (95% PI, 2,090-3,830) deaths in the low, moderate and high transmission TRANS scenarios, respectively. Due to limited data at the time of analyses, we assumed that age TRANS was the primary determinant of infection MESHD severity and hospitalization. We expect that comorbidities and limited hospitalization and intensive care capacity may increase this risk, thus we may be underestimating the potential burden. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a COVID-19 epidemic in a refugee settlement may have profound consequences, requiring large increases in healthcare capacity and infrastructure that may exceed what is currently feasible in these settings. Detailed and realistic planning for the worst-case in Kutupalong-Balukhali and all refugee camps worldwide must begin now. Plans should consider novel and radical strategies to reduce infectious contacts and fill health worker gaps while recognizing that refugees may not have access to national health systems.

    In-flight Transmission TRANS Cluster of COVID-19: A Retrospective Case Series

    Authors: Naibin Yang; Yuefei Shen; Chunwei Shi; Ada Hoi Yan Ma; Xie Zhang; Xiaomin Jian; Liping Wang; Jiejun Shi; Chunyang Wu; Guoxiang Li; Yuan Fu; Keyin Wang; Mingqin Lu; Guoqing Qian

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.28.20040097 Date: 2020-03-30 Source: medRxiv

    Objectives: No data were available about in-flight transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report an in-flight transmission TRANS cluster of COVID-19 and describe the clinical characteristics of these patients. Methods: After a flight, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 was reported in 12 patients. Ten patients were admitted to the designated hospital. Data were collected from 25th January to 28th February 2020. Clinical information was retrospectively collected. Results: All patients are passengers without flight attendants. The median age TRANS was 33 years, and 70% were females TRANS. None was admitted to intensive care unit, and no patients succumbed through 28th February. The median incubation period TRANS was 3.0 days and from illness onset to hospital admission was 2 days. The most common symptom was fever HP fever MESHD. Two patients were asymptomatic TRANS and negative for chest CT scan throughout the disease course. On admission, initial RT-PCR were positive in 9 patients, however initial chest CT were positive in only half patients. The median lung total severity score of chest CT was 6. Notably, Crazy-Paving pattern, pleural effusion HP pleural effusion MESHD, and ground-glass nodules were also seen. Conclusion: It is potential for COVID-19 transmission TRANS by airplane, but the symptoms are mild. Passengers and attendants must be protected during the flight.

    Early Epidemiological analysis of CoVID-19:  First report from South of Iran

    Authors: Ali Akbari; Amir Emami; Fatemeh Javanmardi; Neda Pirbonyeh; Nima Fadakar

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-19915/v1 Date: 2020-03-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Despite the whole world’s effort for controlling, an ongoing global outbreak of lower respiratory tract disease MESHD, caused by new corona virus; led to a major public health issue. Current study aims to evaluate the characteristics of infected case in Fars, IranMethods: According to the referral of suspicious patients during one month, 2538 samples were evaluated and extracted for Viral RNA nucleic acids by using the Invitrogen ChargeSwitch® Total RNA Cell Kit (Invitrogen Co.). Data were recorded based on the standardized data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection MESHD Consortium. Results: By 19 March 2020, 440 admitted patients had been identified with CoVID-19 confirmation. More than 50% of cases were men. Mean age TRANS were estimated 48.15 ±18.07. Of all the patients, 30 (6.81%) had a history of travel TRANS to Qom city, which was the first infected zone in Iran, also 92(20.90%) had close contact TRANS with contaminated or suspected individuals. The mortality rate was estimated 2. 95% (13 cases). Cardiovascular disease MESHD (25, 5.68%), diabetes MESHD (33, 7.5%), and hypertension HP hypertension MESHD (35, 7.95%) were the most common co-existing disorders. Patients with underlying disease are more in danger of death [OR: 11.64, (95%CI 3.14 – 43.18), p= 0.0002]. Conclusion: Human to human transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-II MESHD causes Fars province in southwest of Iran become infected and 440 cases identified during one month. The SARS-Cov-2 is more likely to affect male TRANS sex and individuals with old age TRANS and underlying disorders. 

    Modes of contact and risk of transmission TRANS in COVID-19 among close contacts TRANS

    Authors: Lei Luo; Dan Liu; Xin-long Liao; Xian-bo Wu; Qin-long Jing; Jia-zhen Zheng; Fang-hua Liu; Shi-gui Yang; Bi Bi; Zhi-hao Li; Jian-ping Liu; Wei-qi Song; Wei Zhu; Zheng-he Wang; Xi-ru Zhang; Pei-liang Chen; Hua-min Liu; Xin Cheng; Miao-chun Cai; Qing-mei Huang; Pei Yang; Xin-fen Yang; Zhi-gang Huang; Jin-ling Tang; Yu Ma; Chen Mao

    doi:10.1101/2020.03.24.20042606 Date: 2020-03-26 Source: medRxiv

    Background Rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan prompted heightened surveillance in Guangzhou and elsewhere in China. Modes of contact and risk of transmission TRANS among close contacts TRANS have not been well estimated. Methods We included 4950 closes contacts TRANS from Guangzhou, and extracted data including modes of contact, laboratory testing, clinical characteristics of confirmed cases TRANS and source cases. We used logistic regression analysis to explore the risk factors associated with infection MESHD of close contacts TRANS. Results Among 4950 closes contacts TRANS, the median age TRANS was 38.0 years, and males TRANS accounted for 50.2% (2484). During quarantine period, 129 cases (2.6%) were diagnosed, with 8 asymptomatic TRANS (6.2%), 49 mild (38.0%), and 5 (3.9%) severe to critical cases. The sensitivity SERO of throat swab was 71.32% and 92.19% at first to second PCR test. Among different modes of contact, household TRANS contacts were the most dangerous in catching with infection of COVID-19, with an incidence of 10.2%. As the increase of age TRANS for close contacts TRANS and severity of source cases, the incidence of COVID-19 presented an increasing trend from 1.8% (0-17 years) to 4.2% (60 or over years), and from 0.33% for asymptomatic TRANS, 3.3% for mild, to 6.2% for severe and critical source cases, respectively. Manifestation of expectoration in source cases was also highly associated with an increased risk of infection TRANS risk of infection TRANS infection MESHD in their close contacts TRANS (13.6%). Secondary cases TRANS were in general clinically milder and were less likely to have common symptoms than those of source cases. Conclusions In conclusion, the proportion of asymptomatic TRANS and mild infections account for almost half of the confirmed cases TRANS among close contacts TRANS. The household contacts TRANS were the main transmission TRANS mode, and clinically more severe cases were more likely to pass the infection MESHD to their close contacts TRANS. Generally, the secondary cases TRANS were clinically milder than those of source cases.

    Epidemiological Characteristics of 417 patients infected with COVID-19 and 368 discharged cases among them in Shenzhen City, China

    Authors: Bo Yuan; Ya-Wen An; Yong-Xin Chen; Jing Yang; Jian-Chun Wang; Wei-Xin Li; Cheng Wang; Shuo Song; Han-Qing Liu

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-19554/v1 Date: 2020-03-26 Source: ResearchSquare

    The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) is getting worse every day all over the world. The present study aimed to review the epidemiological characteristics of patients infected with COVID-19 in Shenzhen city, a super megacity of China, to provide some references for fighting to the coronavirus. We collected data of 417 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 of Shenzhen through March 7th, 2020. The epidemiological characteristics of the patients were analyzed. Besides, we collected the governmental measures of Shenzhen city, and the the dynamic changes of the epidemic outbreak. Governmental strategies such as early detection, early hospitalization and popular science etc. are effective for the prevention and control of the epidemic. Nearly 80% confirmed patients with COVID-19 in Shenzhen were in normal or mild conditions, and the mortality was less than 1%. Age TRANS, gender TRANS, exposure to source of transmission TRANS within 14 days and basic diseases are major risk factors for severe patients. Patients in characters of elder, male TRANS, with exposure of Wuhan and carried basic diseases had higher risk to be in severe condition (P<0.01; P<0.001). There were 368 patients discharged from hospital by the end of March 7th, 2020. Patients in severe conditions took more time from onset to discharge (P<0.001), so as those elder one (P<0.001) or who carried basic diseases (P<0.01). The differences of epidemiological characteristics between children TRANS and the elderly TRANS are still not clear. The nucleic acid test of some discharged patients returned to positive again, and the potential mechanisms need to be further explored. In conclusion, timely administrative intervention is necessary for prevention and control of the COVID-19 outbreak. Patients in characters of elder, male TRANS and carried basic diseases worthy more attention. The management of discharged patients, especially the investigation of the recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA will be the focus on for the next step. Authors Bo Yuan and Ya-Wen An contributed equally to this work.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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