Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Cough (34)

Fever (34)

Pneumonia (25)

Hypertension (18)

Fatigue (9)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 11 - 20 records in total 184
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    Using simulation Technology to Analyze the COVID-19 Epidemic in Changsha, Hunan Province, China

    Authors: Nan Zhou; Guoqun LI; Tong LI; Weitong LI; Mengxiang CHEN; Siyu ZHANG; Heng ZHANG; Wenting ZHA; LV Yuan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-67564/v1 Date: 2020-08-28 Source: ResearchSquare

    This study mainly uses simulation technology to simulate the COVID-19 epidemic in Changsha, Hunan Province, China, and analyze the impact of different prevention and control measures on the epidemic. we Collect the information of all COVID-19 patients in Changsha from January 21, 2020 to March 14, 2020 and relevant policies during the COVID-19 epidemic in Changsha. Established the SEIAR infectious disease dynamics model under natural conditions, and added isolation measures on this basis. Using Anylogic8.5, the COVID-19 epidemic in Changsha City was simulated under various conditions based on the established model.In this study we find that There were 242 COVID-19 patients in Changsha. including 121 males TRANS (50%) and 121 females TRANS (50%).Most cases occurred between February 6 and February 16. Through the calculation of the Rt during the epidemic in Changsha, it is found that it is reasonable to resume work on February 8, because the Rt value of Changsha dropped below 1 at this time.The simulation results show that reducing the contact rate of residents and reducing the success rate of virus transmission TRANS (wearing masks, disinfection, etc.) can effectively prevent the spread of COVID-19 and significantly reduce the number of peak patients.We believe that the disease is mainly spread by the respiratory tract. Therefore, the simulation results show that whether in the early or mid-stage of the epidemic, quarantining the names of residents or reducing the contact rate of residents is very effective in controlling the COVID-19 epidemic.

    Willingness of the UK public to volunteer for testing in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic

    Authors: Tushna Vandrevala; Amy Montague; Philip Terry; Mark D. Fielder

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-65546/v1 Date: 2020-08-25 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The World Health Organization declared the rapid spread of COVID-19 around the world to be a global public health emergency. The spread of the disease TRANS is influenced by people’s willingness to adopt preventative public health behaviours, such as participation in testing programmes and risk perception can be an important determinant of engagement in such behaviours. Methods: In this study, we present the first assessment of how the UK public (N=778) perceive the usefulness of testing for coronavirus and the factors that influence a person’s willingness to test for coronavirus.Results: None of the key demographic characteristics ( age TRANS, gender TRANS, education, disability, vulnerability status, or professional expertise) were significantly related to the respondents’ willingness to be tested for coronavirus. However, closely following the news media was positively related to willingness to be tested. Knowledge and perceptions about Coronavirus significantly predicted willingness to test, with three significantly contributing factors: worry about the health and social impacts to self and family; personal susceptibility; and concerns about the impacts of coronavirus on specific demographic groups. Views on testing for coronavirus predicted willingness to test, with the most influential factors being importance of testing by need; negative views about widespread testing and mistrust in doctor’s advice about testing. Conclusions: Implications for effective risk communication and localised public health approach to encouraging public to put themselves forward for testing are discussed. We strongly advocate for effective communications and localised intervention by public health authorities, using media outlets to ensure that members of the public get tested for SARs-CoV2 when required.

    Perceptions and Behavioral Adoptions of the Preventive Strategies from Person-to-Person Transmission TRANS of COVID-19 Among the Public in China: An Online Cross-Sectional Survey

    Authors: Xian Zhu; Yong Gan; Bo Wu; Qinyong Gou; Daikun Zheng; Chenglu Liu; Chang Xu; Zhou Tao; Hong Xu; Qian Long

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-64462/v1 Date: 2020-08-23 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: The strategies adopted to prevent spreading of COVID-19 are quarantine, social distancing and isolation of infected cases. This study investigates perceptions and behavioral adoptions of COVID-19 prevention strategies among the Chinese public and identified factors predicting individual health behavior.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey between 22 February and 5 March, 2020. We approached to urban residents aged TRANS over 18 years through snowball sampling method using the Chinese social media. The Health Belief Model was adopted to guide the analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine impacts of modifying factors (including demographic and socio-economic characteristics) and individual beliefs on individual health behavior.Results: of 5675 valid questionnaires, 95.8% of the respondents well understood the preventive measures from COVID-19 transmission TRANS, while 79.9% of the respondents adopted the behavior advised. 45.7% of the respondents perceived severity of the disease, 75.6% of the respondents perceived benefits of social constraints measures and 62.7% reported anxiety HP anxiety MESHD during the epidemic. After adjusting for modifying factors and individual beliefs, those who were female TRANS, had better income and good knowledge on preventive measures, perceived benefits on social constraint measures and did not feel anxiety HP anxiety MESHD were more likely to adopt behaviors advised.Conclusions: The Chinese public highly accepted and adopted behaviors advised to slow down the COVID-19 epidemic. People with low income or feeling anxiety HP anxiety MESHD were less likely to adopt the behavior advised. The policy support should target on the social vulnerable groups. The psychological support should be disseminated through different means, and the consultation should be provided to those who are in need.

    Clinical features and inpatient trajectories of older inpatients with COVID-19: a retrospective observational study.

    Authors: Christopher N Osuafor; Catriona Davidson; Alistair J Mackett; Marie Goujon; Lelane Van Der Poel; Vince Taylor; Jacobus Preller; Robert J B Goudie; Victoria L Keevil

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-61056/v1 Date: 2020-08-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: A comprehensive description of the clinical characteristics, inpatient trajectory and relationship with frailty of older inpatients admitted with COVID-19 is essential in the management of older adults TRANS during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features and inpatient trajectory of older inpatients with confirmed COVID -19.Methods: This was a retrospective observational study of hospitalised older adults TRANS. Subjects include unscheduled medical admissions of older inpatients to a University Hospital with laboratory and clinically confirmed COVID-19. The primary outcome was death MESHD during the inpatient stay or within 14 days of discharge after a maximum follow up time of 45 days. The characteristics of the cohort were described in detail as a whole and by frailty status.Results: 214 patients were included in this study with a mean length of stay of 11 days (Range 6 to 18 days), of whom 140 (65.4%) patients were discharged and 74 (34.6%) patients died in hospital. 142 (66.4%) patients were frail with median Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) score of 6. Frail patients were more likely to present with atypical symptoms including new or worsening confusion HP confusion MESHD compared to non-frail patients (20.8% vs 45.1%, p<0.001) and were more likely to die in hospital or within 14 days of discharge (66% vs 16%, p=0.001). Older age TRANS, being male TRANS, presenting with high illness acuity and high frailty were all independently associated with higher risk of death MESHD and a dose response association between higher frailty and higher mortality was observed.Conclusions: Older adult TRANS inpatients with COVID-19 infection MESHD are likely to present with atypical symptoms, experience delirium HP delirium MESHD and have a high mortality, especially if they are also living with frailty. Clinicians should have a low threshold for testing for COVID-19 in older and frail patients presenting to hospital as an emergency during periods when there is community transmission TRANS of COVID-19 and, when diagnosed, this should prompt early advanced care planning with the patient and family. 

    Knowledge, Practice and associated factors towards the Prevention of COVID-19 among high-risk groups: A cross-sectional study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Authors: ATKURE DEFAR; Gebeyaw Molla; Saro Abdella; Masresha Tessema; Muhammed Ahmed; Ashenif Tadele; Fikresilassie Getachew; Bezawit Hailegiorgis; Eyasu Tigabu; Sabit Ababor Sr.; Ketema Bizuwork; Assefa Deressa; Geremew Tasew; Addisu kebede; Daniel Melese; Andargachew Gashu; Kirubel Eshetu; Adamu Tayachew; Mesfin Wossen; Abduilhafiz Hassen; Shambel Habebe; Zewdu Assefa; Aschalew Abayneh; Ebba Abate; Getachew Tollera

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.14.20172429 Date: 2020-08-16 Source: medRxiv

    Abstract Background Coronavirus disease-19 is a highly transmittable virus that continues to disrupt livelihoods, particularly those of low-income segments of society, around the world. In Ethiopia, more specifically in the capital city of Addis Ababa, a sudden increase in the number of confirmed positive cases in high risk groups of the community has been observed over the last few weeks of the first case. Therefore, this study aims to assess knowledge, practices and associated factors that can contribute to the prevention of COVID-19 among high-risk groups in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional in-person survey (n=6007) was conducted from 14-30 April 2020 following a prioritization within high-risk groups in Addis Ababa. The study area targeted bus stations, public transport drivers, air transport infrastructure, health facilities, public and private pharmacies, hotels, government-owned and private banks, telecom centers, trade centers, orphanages, elderly TRANS centers, prison, prisons and selected slum areas where the people live in a crowed. A questionnaire comprised of four sections (demographics, knowledge, practice and reported symptoms) was used for data collection. The outcomes (knowledge in the transmission TRANS and prevention of COVID-19 and practices) were measured using four items. Multivariable logistic regression was applied with adjustment for potential confounding. Results About half (48%, 95% CI: 46,49) of the study participants had poor knowledge on the transmission TRANS mode of COVID-19 whereas six out of ten (60%, 95% CI: 58,61) had good knowledge on prevention methods for COVID-19. The practice of preventive measures towards COVID-19 was found to be low (49%, 95% CI: 48,50). Factors that influence knowledge on COVID-19 transmission TRANS mechanisms were female TRANS gender TRANS, older age TRANS, occupation (health care and grocery worker), lower income and the use of the 8335 free call centre. Older age TRANS, occupation (being a health worker), middle income, experience of respiratory illness MESHD and religion were significantly associated with being knowledgeable about the prevention methods for COVID-19. The study found that occupation, religion, income, knowledge on the transmission TRANS and prevention of COVID-19 were associated with the practice of precautionary measures towards COVID-19. Conclusion The study highlighted that there was moderate knowledge about transmission TRANS modes and prevention mechanism. Similarly, there was moderate practice of measures that contribute towards the prevention of COVID-19 among these priority high-risk communities of Addis Ababa. There is an urgent need to fill the knowledge gap in terms of transmission TRANS mode and prevention methods of COVID-19 to improve preventions practices and control the spread of COVID-19. Use of female TRANS public figures and religious leaders could support the effort towards the increase in awareness.

    The Prevalence SERO and Clinical Significance of Presymptomatic COVID-19 Patients: How We Can be One Step Ahead in Mitigating a Deadly Pandemic

    Authors: Juen Kiem Tan; Dalleen Leong; Hemalatha Munusamy; Nor Hazwani Zenol Ariffin; Najma Kori; Rozita Hod; Petrick Periyasamy

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-60558/v1 Date: 2020-08-16 Source: ResearchSquare

    Presymptomatic COVID-19 patients have been identified as a major stumbling block in efforts to break the chain of transmission TRANS. Studies on temporal dynamics of its shedding suggests it peaks 1-2 days prior to any symptom onset TRANS. Therefore, a large proportion of patients are actively spreading the disease TRANS unknowingly whilst undetected. However, lengthy lockdowns and isolation leads to a host of socioeconomic issues and are impractical. Conversely, there exists no study describing this group and their clinical significance despite their key role in disease transmission TRANS. As a result, we devised a study to look at the prevalence SERO of presymptomatic patients with COVID-19 and subsequently, identify early indicators of infection MESHD through demographic information, biochemical and radiological abnormalities which would allow early diagnosis and isolation. In addition, we will look into the clinical significance of this group and their outcome; if it differs from asymptomatic TRANS or symptomatic patients. Our analysis shows a higher proportion of presymptomatic patients with atypical symptoms like chest pain HP chest pain MESHD while symptomatic patients commonly present with respiratory symptoms like cough HP cough MESHD and shortness of breath MESHD. Besides that, there were more females TRANS presenting as presymptomatic patients and receiving treatment compared to males TRANS and this was found to be statistically significant. Otherwise, we were not able to identify other statistically significant markers suggesting a patient is presymptomatic. As we have little means of identifying these silent spreaders, it highlights further the importance of general measures implemented to stop COVID-19 transmission TRANS like social distancing, face mask, and widespread testing.

    Knowledge, Socio-cognitive Perceptions and the Practice of Hand Hygiene and Social Distancing During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-sectional Study of UK University Students

    Authors: Christine Barrett; Kei Long Cheung

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-60033/v1 Date: 2020-08-15 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundDuring the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing and hand hygiene have been the primary means of reducing transmission TRANS in the absence of effective treatments or vaccines, but understanding of their determinants is limited. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and socio-cognitive perceptions, and their associations with such protective behaviours, in UK university students. MethodsA cross-sectional online survey of 293 students was undertaken on 13 May 2020. Survey questions addressed demographics, knowledge of the disease and effectiveness of the protective measures, risk perception, socio-cognitive perceptions (e.g. attitude, social support, and self-efficacy), habit, time factors and trust, as well as the hand hygiene and social distancing behaviours. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the strongest associations of potential determinants with behaviour.ResultsParticipants reported high levels of social distancing with 88.9 % answering “Mostly” or “Always” for every activity, but only 42.0% reporting the same for all hand hygiene activities. Knowledge of the effectiveness of each activity in preventing transmission TRANS was high, with 90.7% and 93.5% respectively identifying at least 7 of 8 hand hygiene or 9 of 10 social distancing activities correctly. Habit (β = 0.39, p <0.001) and time factors (β = 0.28, p <0.001) were the greatest contributors to unique variance in hand hygiene behaviour, followed by ethnicity (β = -0.13, p =0.014) and risk perception (β = 0.13, p = 0.016). For social distancing behaviour, the determinants were self-efficacy (β = 0.25, p <0.001), perceived advantages (β = 0.15, p = 0.022), trust in policy (β = 0.14, p = 0.026) and gender TRANS (β = -0.14, p = 0.016). Regression models explained 40% hand hygiene and 25% social distancing variance.ConclusionsThis study indicated that communications about effectiveness of hand hygiene and social distancing behaviours had been effective in terms of knowledge acquisition. However, in the light of likely second waves of COVID-19, attention to maintaining social distancing behaviour and improving hand hygiene behaviour may need to address more difficult areas of changing habits, overcoming time factors and building trust, as well as interventions to increase self-efficacy and address risk perception concerns.

    Social Network Analysis of COVID-19 Transmission TRANS in Karnataka, India

    Authors: Sakranaik Saraswathi; Amita Mukhopadhyay; Hemant Shah; T S Ranganath; Sabrina Di Stefano; Valeria Burgos; Jorge Federico Sinner; Marcelo Raul Risk; Eduardo San Roman; Marcos Jose Las Heras; Eduardo Marquez-Garcia; Edda Sciutto; Jose Moreno-Rodriguez; Jose Omar Barreto-Rodriguez; Hazel Vazquez-Rojas; Gustavo Ivan Centeno-Saenz; Nestor Alvarado-Pena; Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara; Carlos Sanchez-Garibay; Gabriela Hernandez-Molina; Criselda Mendoza-Milla; Andrea Dominguez; Julio Granados; Lula Mena-Hernandez; Luis Angel Perez-Buenfil; Guillermo Dominguez-Cheritt; Carlos Cabello-Gutierrez; Cesar Luna-Rivero; Jorge Salas-Hernandez; Patricio Santilla-Doherty; Justino Regalado; Angelica Hernandez-Martinez; Lorena Orozco; Ethel A. Garcia-Latorre; Carmen M. Hernandez-Cardenas; Shabaana A. Khader; Albert Zlotnik; Joaquin Zuniga

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.11.20172734 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: medRxiv

    We used social network analysis (SNA) to study the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in Karnataka, India, and assess the potential of SNA as a tool for outbreak monitoring and control. We analyzed contact tracing TRANS data of 1147 Covid-19 positive cases (mean age TRANS 34.91 years, 61.99% aged TRANS 11-40, 742 males TRANS), anonymized and made public by the government. We used software tools Cytoscape and Gephi to create SNA graphics and determine network attributes of nodes (cases) and edges (directed links, determined by contact tracing TRANS, from source to target patients). Outdegree was 1-47 for 199 (17.35%) nodes, and betweenness 0.5-87 for 89 (7.76%) nodes. Men had higher mean outdegree and women, higher betweenness. Delhi was the exogenous source of 17.44% cases. Bangalore city had the highest caseload in the state (229, 20%), but comparatively low cluster formation. Thirty-four (2.96%) super-spreaders (outdegree[≥]5) caused 60% of the transmissions TRANS. Real-time social network visualization can allow healthcare administrators to flag evolving hotspots and pinpoint key actors in transmission TRANS. Prioritizing these areas and individuals for rigorous containment could help minimize resource outlay and potentially achieve a significant reduction in COVID-19 transmission TRANS.

    knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards Covid-19 among Palestinians during the Covid-19 outbreak: a cross sectional survey

    Authors: Nouar Qutob; Faisal Awartani; James S. Hodges; Chang Xu; Haitao Chu; Valeria Burgos; Jorge Federico Sinner; Marcelo Raul Risk; Eduardo San Roman; Marcos Jose Las Heras; Eduardo Marquez-Garcia; Edda Sciutto; Jose Moreno-Rodriguez; Jose Omar Barreto-Rodriguez; Hazel Vazquez-Rojas; Gustavo Ivan Centeno-Saenz; Nestor Alvarado-Pena; Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara; Carlos Sanchez-Garibay; Gabriela Hernandez-Molina; Criselda Mendoza-Milla; Andrea Dominguez; Julio Granados; Lula Mena-Hernandez; Luis Angel Perez-Buenfil; Guillermo Dominguez-Cheritt; Carlos Cabello-Gutierrez; Cesar Luna-Rivero; Jorge Salas-Hernandez; Patricio Santilla-Doherty; Justino Regalado; Angelica Hernandez-Martinez; Lorena Orozco; Ethel A. Garcia-Latorre; Carmen M. Hernandez-Cardenas; Shabaana A. Khader; Albert Zlotnik; Joaquin Zuniga

    doi:10.1101/2020.08.12.20170852 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: medRxiv

    Coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID19) is a highly contagious illness that spreads rapidly through human to human transmission TRANS. On March 5, the government of Palestine declared a state of emergency in order to curb the spread of the virus, a declaration that it extended for a fifth time on July 5th. The degree to which a population complies with corresponding safety measures is surely affected by the people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards the disease. To explore this hypothesis, we gathered data from 1,731 Palestinians between April 19th and May 1st, 2020 through a KAP questionnaire. The participant pool represented a stratified sample of Palestinians living across a number of governorates in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, with 36.5% from Gaza and (63.5%) from the West Bank. Gender TRANS was almost equally distributed within the sample with (51%) male TRANS respondents and (49%) female TRANS respondent. The questionnaire included 17 questions about participants knowledge and awareness of COVID19, 17 questions regarding the safety measures they had taken in the wake of the outbreak and 3 questions asking them to assess the efficacy of the governments response to the pandemic. The overall correct mean of the knowledge was 79.26+-0.35. Most participants' expressed confidence that Covid19 would be successfully controlled and that Palestine could win the battle against Covid19, though 62% believed that stricter measurements must be applied. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that health education programs aimed at improving the public's understanding of COVID19 are important in helping the population maintain appropriate practices, and that findings such as those discussed in this report may provide valuable feedback to lawmakers working to stop the spread of the virus.

    A case report of moderate COVID-19 with an extremely long-term viral shedding period in China

    Authors: yonghong wang; chaoyuan liu; qinghui meng; shuang gui; yu wu; pengjiang cheng; peng wang; xiuyong liao

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-59700/v1 Date: 2020-08-14 Source: ResearchSquare

    BackgroundAn ongoing outbreak of novel coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) from Wuhan, China, is currently recognized as a global public health emergency, which has subsequently spread to the rest of China and other countries. The WHO raised the COVID-19 alert to the highest level. The virus is a new highly contagious via human-to-human transmission TRANS. The median duration of viral shedding is 20.0 days. We report that the longest duration of viral shedding was 32.0 days from illness onset in a patient with moderate COVID-19 admitted to QianJiang Central Hospital.Case presentationA 37-year-old male TRANS sought medical advice while suffering from fever HP fever MESHD, dry cough MESHD cough HP, fatigue HP fatigue MESHD, dizziness MESHD, runny nose and diarrhoea MESHD. Five days before the visit, he had a history of travel TRANS from affected geographic areas. The patient had a positive RT-PCR test, and chest CT images showed multiple nodules and mixed ground-glass opacification with consolidation in both lungs. Laboratory findings showed that his lymphocyte and CD4+ counts were below the normal range. The patient was given antiviral treatment, including arbidol, lopinavir, IFN-α, and traditional Chinese medicine, and other necessary support care. All clinical symptoms and CT imaging manifestation abnormalities resolved during the course of therapy.ConclusionAlthough the positive RT-PCR tests were verified in consecutive upper respiratory specimens, the clinical symptoms, CT imaging findings, CD4 + lymphocyte counts, and IgG antibody SERO levels had obviously improved. Positive tests may be detecting pieces of inactive viruses, which would not be transmissible in individual cases.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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