Corpus overview


Overview

MeSH Disease

Human Phenotype

Cough (34)

Fever (34)

Pneumonia (25)

Hypertension (18)

Fatigue (9)


Transmission

Seroprevalence
    displaying 41 - 50 records in total 184
    records per page




    SARS-CoV-2 Transmission TRANS in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, Canada, January 1-July 6, 2020

    Authors: Isaac Chun-Hai Fung; Yuen Wai Hung; Sylvia K. Ofori; Kamalich Muniz-Rodriguez; Po-Ying Lai; Gerardo Chowell

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.18.20156992 Date: 2020-07-21 Source: medRxiv

    Objective: To investigate COVID-19 epidemiology in Alberta, British Columbia and Ontario, Canada. Methods: We calculated the incidence rate ratio (January 1-July 6, 2020) between the 3 provinces, and estimated time-varying reproduction number TRANS, Rt, starting from March 1, using EpiEstim package in R. Results: Using British Columbia as a reference, the incidence rate ratios in Alberta and Ontario are 3.1 and 4.3 among females TRANS, and 3.4 and 4.0 among males TRANS. In Ontario, Rt fluctuated ~1 in March, reached values >1 in early and mid-April, then dropped <1 in late April and early May. Rt rose to ~1 in mid-May and then remained <1 from late May through early July. In British Columbia, Rt dropped <1 in early April, but it increased towards the end of April. Rt <1 in May while it fluctuated around 1.0 in June and early July. In Alberta, Rt > 1 in March; Rt dropped in early April and rose again in late April. In much of May, Rt <1, but Rt increases in early June and fluctuates ~1 since mid-June. Conclusions: Rt wavering around 1.0 indicated that three provinces of Canada have managed to achieve limited onward transmission TRANS of SARS-CoV-2 as of early July 2020.

    Epidemiological Profile and Transmission TRANS Dynamics of COVID-19 in the Philippines

    Authors: Nel Jason Ladiao Haw; Jhanna Uy; Karla Therese L. Sy

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.15.20154336 Date: 2020-07-20 Source: medRxiv

    The Philippines confirmed local transmission TRANS of COVID-19 on 7 March 2020. We described the characteristics and epidemiological time-to-event distributions for laboratory- confirmed cases TRANS in the Philippines. The median age TRANS of 8,212 cases was 46 years (IQR: 32-61), with 46.2% being female TRANS and 68.8% living in the National Capital Region. Health care workers represented 24.7% of all detected infections. Mean length of hospitalization for those who were discharged or died were 16.00 days (95% CI: 15.48, 16.54) and 7.27 days (95% CI: 6.59, 8.24). Mean duration of illness was 26.66 days (95% CI: 26.06, 27.28) and 12.61 days (95% CI: 11.88, 13.37) for those who recovered or died. Mean serial interval TRANS was 6.90 days (95% CI: 5.81, 8.41). Epidemic doubling time pre-quarantine (11 February and 19 March) was 4.86 days (95% CI: 4.67, 5.07) and the reproductive number TRANS was 2.41 (95% CI: 2.33, 2.48). During quarantine (March 20 to April 9), doubling time was 12.97 days (95% CI: 12.57, 13.39) and the reproductive number TRANS was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.02).

    Modeling the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in patients with COVID-19 risk factors through predictive analysis

    Authors: Juan Alonso Leon-Abarca

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20154021 Date: 2020-07-19 Source: medRxiv

    With almost a third of adults TRANS being obese MESHD, another third hypertense MESHD and almost a tenth affected by diabetes MESHD, Latin American countries could see an elevated number of severe COVID-19 outcomes. We used the Open Dataset of Mexican patients with COVID-19 suspicion who had a definite RT-PCR result to develop a statistical model that evaluated the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in the population. We included patients of all ages TRANS with every risk factor provided by the dataset: asthma HP, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD, smoking, diabetes MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, immunodeficiencies HP immunodeficiencies MESHD, chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, cardiovascular diseases MESHD, and pregnancy. The dataset also included an unspecified category for other risk factors that were not specified as a single variable. To avoid excluding potential patients at risk, that category was included in our analysis. Due to the nature of the dataset, the calculation of a standardized comorbidity index was not possible. Therefore, we treated risk factors as a categorical variable with two categories: absence of risk factors and the presence of at least one risk factor in accordance with previous epidemiological reports. Multiple logistic regressions were carried out to associate sex, risk factors, and age TRANS as a continuous variable (and the interaction that accounted for increasing diseases with older ages TRANS); and SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD as the dependent zero-one binomial variable. Post estimation predictive marginal analysis was performed to generate probability trends along 95% confidence bands. This analysis was repeated several times through the course of the pandemic since the first record provided in their repository (April 12, 2020) to one month after the end of the state of sanitary emergency (the last date analyzed: June 27, 2020). After processing, the last measurement included 464,389 patients. The baseline analysis on April 12 revealed that people 35 years and older with at least one risk factor had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in comparison to patients without risk factors (Figure 1). One month before the end of the nationwide state of emergency this age TRANS threshold was found at 50 years (May 2, 2020) and it shifted to 65 years on May 30. Two weeks after the end of the public emergency (June 13, 2020) the trends converged at 80 years and one week later (June 27, 2020) every male TRANS and female TRANS patient with at least one risk factor had a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD compared to people without risk factors. Through the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, all four probability curves shifted upwards as a result of progressive disease spread TRANS. In conclusion, we found our model could monitor accurately the probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection MESHD in relation to age TRANS, sex, and the presence of at least one risk factor. Also, because the model can be applied to any particular political region within Mexico, it could help evaluate the contagion spread in specific vulnerable populations. Further studies are needed to determine the underlying nature of the mechanisms behind such observations.

    Face Masks Use in the Public Domain and its Determinants During the SARS-Cov-2 Epidemic in Poland; a Non-Participatory Covert Observational Study

    Authors: Maria Ganczak; Oskar Pasek; Łukasz Duda-Duma; Dawid Świstara; Marcin Korzeń

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-45405/v1 Date: 2020-07-18 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: Face masks play an important role in protection from acquiring SARS-Cov-2, however, if used incorrectly they may increase transmission risk TRANS. Many countries, including Poland, currently recommend the use of masks in their pandemic control plans. The study objective was to assess the practices of the public in the case of face masks/N95 respirators utilization during the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic in Poland and to evaluate factors influencing their use.Methods: This non-participatory covert observational study was conducted on 3 separate occasions, (10.05/18.05/25.05.2020). At each point, 82 medical students observed 10 consecutive individuals (2460 total) appearing in the public space in 13 Polish regions which differed regarding SARS-Cov-2 pandemic risk. A structured observation checklist served as a survey tool.Results: A total of 2353 observations were included; the female TRANS/ male TRANS ratio was similar (1.02-1.13-1.03 respectively) at the 3 occasions, as well as the age TRANS distribution, with those aged TRANS 21-60 years predominant (70.8%-71.9%-70.2% respectively). Most of participants (73.6%; 552/750) were using facial masks at the first time point, which decreased in the 2nd and 3rd week (544/818; 66.5% and 516/785; 65.7% respectively). A predominance of cloth masks was observed at all time points (64.7%-62.3%-62.6% respectively) followed by medical masks (23.4%-28.5%-26.9% respectively). Female TRANS gender TRANS (OR=1.75-1.47-1.53 respectively), age TRANS >40 years (OR=1.46-1.48 respectively), a closed space (OR=2.56-2.63-2.36 respectively) were each associated with higher mask usage. Those playing sports were about two times less likely to use facial masks (OR=0.64-0.54-0.54 respectively) than when compared to other activities. The percentage of those using masks correctly decreased gradually over time (364/552; 65.9%; 339/544; 62.3% and 304/516; 58.9% respectively); more females TRANS wore masks correctly (p<0.05). Breaches in nose covering (47.3%-52.7%) and hanging masks around the neck (39.2%-42.6%) were the most common incorrect practices while wearing a mask. Conclusions: Cloth masks were predominantly used in the public space. Practices regarding the facial masks usage were found to be inadequate, especially among young males TRANS, and tended to decrease over time. Awareness campaigns regarding the need of the proper use of face masks by utilizing all communication channels available would be helpful during this pandemic to increase compliance.

    Clinical Characteristics of 107 Patients with COVID-19 in Ningbo, China: Single Center Experience Outside Hubei

    Authors: Boming Wu; Junjie Li; Hongping Xuan; Nanhong Zheng; Honghua Ye; Yaoren Hu; Tong’en Chen; Hao Ying; Lingyan Fan; Qing Xie; Zike Sheng; Yin Ying

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-44830/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background Since December 2019, there has be an outbreak of coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 MESHD (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China. Nowadays, it rapidly spread across the country and then the worldwide. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19.Methods The patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted between January 25 and February 10, 2020, were enrolled. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological data, and antivirus therapies, were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The 90-day follow-up of these patients was also performed.Results A total of 107 patients were included. The median age TRANS was 55.0 years (range from 18.0 to 85.0 years), and 72 (67.3%) were female TRANS. Ninety-three (86.9%) of the patients had a history of contacting with residents from Wuhan (n=31), or contacting with confirmed COVID-19 patients (n=62) within 2 weeks. Fifty-eight (54.2%) had a family cluster onset. Fever HP Fever MESHD and cough HP cough MESHD were the most common symptoms. Only two patients had diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD. The most common underlying disease was hypertension HP hypertension MESHD. Lymphopenia HP Lymphopenia MESHD was observed in 26 patients. Fifty-two patients with an elevated level of IL-6. On admission, bilateral patchy shadowing and ground-glass opacity were the typical radiological findings on chest computed tomography. Six patients had an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Antivirus therapy was performed to all patients. 105 patients discharged with an improved condition, and no death MESHD was occurred during our 90-day follow-up for these patients.Conclusions Patients with COVID-19 in our hospital had relatively mild symptoms, and good prognosis. This study also highlights the importance of human-to-human transmission TRANS in COVID-19.

    Joint CBC-ICT Interpretation for the pre-surgical screening of COVID 19 asymptomatic TRANS cases: A cross-sectional study

    Authors: Tanzeel Imran; Humera Altaf Naz; Hamza Khan; Ali Haider Bangash; Laraib Bakhtiar Khan; Haroon Khan

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.16.20138354 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: medRxiv

    Background On 26th, February 2020, first cases of COVID 19 were confirmed in Pakistan. Since then, surgeries were halted in a bid to prevent transmission TRANS. However, since such a long halt is infeasible, a general protocol of screening the carriers TRANS, especially asymptomatic TRANS carries, is a dire need of time. The objective of our study is to propose an economically feasible protocol of COVID 19 screening. Simple but effective screening strategies can help to restore the workings of hospital surgical departments. Methods We analyzed the clinical data of patients turning up for elective surgeries at the Rawal General Hospital (RGH), Islamabad from the 24th of March to the 15th of May, 2020. Asymptomatic TRANS patients with negative COVID 19 contact and travel TRANS histories were screened with COVID 19 Immunochromatography (ICT) IgM / IgG Ab Test. Complete blood SERO count (CBC) was done and interpreted in conjunction with the ICT results. Results 39 patients with a mean age TRANS of 49 years were studied. The result of ICT for COVID-19 was positive in 9 cases (23%). The entire positive ICT patients population expressed significantly lower lymphocyte count (p<0.01); 8 patients had high monocyte count (p<0.05) whereas only 4 patients had a combined high neutrophil and monocyte count (P<0.05). All of these four patients with high neutrophil count were females TRANS. The combined interpretation of CBC and ICT IgM / IgG Ab Test had a high accuracy in diagnosing asymptomatic TRANS COVID-19 carriers TRANS that were later confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Conclusion We propose that joint CBC-ICT interpretation should be adopted on a large scale to help in the diagnoses of asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS as both tests are simple and inexpensive and thus suit the developing countries limited health budget. Future research projects should be adopted in order to assess the accuracy of the proposed protocol on a large scale. Keywords: COVID-19, Surgery, Asymptomatic TRANS carriers TRANS, ICT, CBC.

    A severe coronavirus disease MESHD 2019 patient with high-risk predisposing factors died from massive gastrointestinal bleeding MESHD: a case report

    Authors: Taojiang Chen; Qin Yang; Hongyu Duan

    doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-45116/v1 Date: 2020-07-17 Source: ResearchSquare

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious and has been a significant public health threat. Despite typical manifestations of illness are dominated by respiratory symptom, some patients have concurrent gastrointestinal manifestations, including   nausea MESHD, diarrhea HP diarrhea MESHD, and vomiting HP vomiting MESHD. Massive gastrointestinal bleeding MESHD, however, has rarely been reported. Case presentation: We herein describe a case of severe SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patient with several risk factors for poor prognosis, including male TRANS, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, old age TRANS, mixed bacterial infection MESHD and multilobular infiltration on radiological imaging. After improvement of respiratory status, the onset of gastrointestinal bleeding MESHD occurred, probably resulting from direct viral invasion as evidenced by the positive findings for SARS-CoV-2 in the repeat stool specimens. Although aggressive resuscitation was administered, hematochezia HP hematochezia MESHD was uncontrolled. The patient rapidly deteriorated, suffered cardiac arrest HP cardiac arrest MESHD, and expired. Conclusions: Digestive symptoms could be severe in SARS-CoV-2 infected MESHD patients, especially for the high-risk individuals with predisposing conditions. A more thorough protocol for preventing cross-infection MESHD through faecal-oral transmission TRANS should be implemented in the process of patient care and infection MESHD control.

    Characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in the State of Qatar, February 28-April 18, 2020

    Authors: Hanan M Al Kuwari; Hanan F Abdul Rahim; Laith J Abu Raddad; Abdul-Badi Abou-Samra; Zaina Al Kanaani; Abdullatif Al Khal; Einas Al Kuwari; Salih Al Marri; Muna Al Masalmani; Hamad Eid Al Romaihi; Sheikh M Al Thani; Peter Coyle; Ali N Latif; Robert Owen; Roberto Bertollini; Adeel A Butt

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.15.20154211 Date: 2020-07-16 Source: medRxiv

    Objective To define the epidemiologic curve of COVID-19 in Qatar, determine factors associated with severe or critical illness MESHD, and study the temporal relation between public health measures and case finding Design Epidemiologic investigation Setting and Participants All confirmed COVID-19 cases in the State of Qatar between February 28 and April 18, 2020 Main Outcome Measures Number of total and daily new COVID-19 infections; demographic characteristics and comorbidity burden and severity of infection MESHD; factors associated with severe or critical illness MESHD Results Between February 28 and April 18, 2020 (11:00AM local time), 5,685 cases of COVID-19 were identified. Mean age TRANS (SD) was 35.8(12.0) years, 88.9% were male TRANS and 8.7% were Qatari nationals. Overall, 83.6% had no concomitant comorbidity, and 3.0% had 3 or more comorbidities. The overwhelming majority (90.9%) were asymptomatic TRANS or with minimal symptoms, with 2.0% having severe or critical illness MESHD. Presence of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD or diabetes MESHD were associated with a higher risk of severe or critical illness MESHD. Seven deaths were observed during the time interval studied. The epidemiologic curve indicated two distinct patterns of infection MESHD, a larger cluster among expatriate craft and manual workers, and a smaller one among Qatari nationals returning from abroad during the epidemic. Conclusion COVID-19 infections MESHD in Qatar started in two distinct clusters, but then became more widespread in the population through community transmission TRANS. Infections were mostly asymptomatic TRANS or with minimal symptoms and associated with very low mortality. Severe/ critical illness MESHD was associated with presence of hypertension HP hypertension MESHD or diabetes MESHD.

    Level of Knowledge, Attitude and Perception About COVID-19 Pandemic and Infection Control: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Veterinarians in Nigeria MESHD

    Authors: Olubukola Adenubi; Oluwawemimo Adebowale; Abimbola Oloye; Noah Bankole; Hezekiah Adesokan; Oladotun Fadipe; Patience Ayo-Ajayi; Adebayo Akinloye

    id:10.20944/preprints202007.0337.v1 Date: 2020-07-15 Source: Preprints.org

    Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused mankind serious confusion HP confusion MESHD, economic havoc and psychological distress. This study evaluated the level of knowledge, attitude and perception about COVID-19 pandemic, infection control and impact among veterinarians in Nigeria. A cross-sectional online survey was used to collect data from consenting respondents during implementation of lockdown in the country (April 23 - May 31, 2020). Purposive and chain referral sampling techniques were used to recruit 368 respondents from various sectors of the profession. The proportion of respondents surveyed 197/368 (53.5 %) were from the public sector, 35.3 % from private sector, 1.1 % were unemployed and 0.8 % retired. Majority of the respondents were males TRANS (72.8 %), within 30 – 39 years (39.7 %) and had 1 – 10 years work experience. Respondents displayed good level of knowledge about COVID-19 (72.4 % ± 9.9 %, range 44.1-91.2 %), with information mostly derived from TV/Radio (81.5%) and social media (81.0 %). The overall attitude level was poor and various determinants for good attitude among respondents were if they were above 60 years (p = 0.013), possessed postgraduate qualification ( p = 0.031), worked over 30 years post DVM (p = 0.001), had household members between 5 and 10 (p = 0.012), and were resident in states on total lockdown (p = 0.024). There was no correlation between the knowledge level score and respondents’ attitude towards the pandemic (p = 0.12). With increasing rate of COVID-19 transmission TRANS, research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies, policies and effective risk mitigations to reduce the pandemic’s adverse impacts.

    The natural history of symptomatic COVID-19 in Catalonia, Spain: a multi-state model including 109,367 outpatient diagnoses, 18,019 hospitalisations, and 5,585 COVID-19 deaths among 5,627,520 people

    Authors: Edward Burn; Cristian Tebe; Sergio Fernandez-Bertolin; Maria Aragon; Martina Recalde; Elena Roel; Albert Prats-Uribe; Daniel Prieto-Alhambra; Talita Duarte-Salles

    doi:10.1101/2020.07.13.20152454 Date: 2020-07-14 Source: medRxiv

    Background The natural history of Coronavirus Disease MESHD 2019 (COVID-19) has yet to be fully described, with most previous reports focusing on hospitalised patients. Using linked patient-level data, we set out to describe the associations between age TRANS, gender TRANS, and comorbidities and the risk of outpatient COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalisation, and/or related mortality. Methods A population-based cohort study including all individuals registered in Information System for Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP). SIDIAP includes primary care records covering > 80% of the population of Catalonia, Spain, and was linked to region-wide testing, hospital and mortality records. Outpatient diagnoses of COVID-19, hospitalisations with COVID-19, and deaths with COVID-19 were identified between 1st March and 6th May 2020. A multi-state model was used, with cause-specific Cox survival models estimated for each transition. Findings A total of 5,664,652 individuals were included. Of these, 109,367 had an outpatient diagnosis of COVID-19, 18,019 were hospitalised with COVID-19, and 5,585 died after either being diagnosed or hospitalised with COVID-19. Half of those who died were not admitted to hospital prior to their death. Risk of a diagnosis with COVID-19 peaked first in middle- age TRANS and then again for oldest ages TRANS, risk for hospitalisation after diagnosis peaked around 70 years old, with all other risks highest at oldest ages TRANS. Male TRANS gender TRANS was associated with an increased risk for all outcomes other than outpatient diagnosis. The comorbidities studied (autoimmune condition, chronic kidney disease HP chronic kidney disease MESHD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease HP chronic obstructive pulmonary disease MESHD, dementia HP dementia MESHD, heart disease MESHD, hyperlipidemia HP hyperlipidemia MESHD, hypertension HP hypertension MESHD, malignant neoplasm HP neoplasm MESHD, obesity HP obesity MESHD, and type 2 diabetes MESHD) were all associated with worse outcomes. Interpretation There is a continued need to protect those at high risk of poor outcomes, particularly the elderly TRANS, from COVID-19 and provide appropriate care for those who develop symptomatic disease. While risks of hospitalisation and death MESHD are lower for younger populations, there is a need to limit their role in community transmission TRANS. These findings should inform public health strategies, including future vaccination campaigns.

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MeSH Disease
Human Phenotype
Transmission
Seroprevalence


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